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Topic: Oprichnina


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In the News (Fri 15 Dec 17)

  
  EefyWiki - Oprichnina
The Oprichnina was a parallel state-within-a-state set up by Ivan IV Grozny in 1565 that lasted until he was forced to disband it in 1573.  The word oprichnina is derived from the obsolete Russian word oprich, meaning except of. 
There are many reasons given for the formation of the Oprichnina, with the simplest being that Ivan wanted complete freedom to rule as an autocrat without the interference of the [boyars].
Because the numbers of Oprichniki were dwindling (due to several implications of treason) and because the Oprichnina obviously failed to defend the country during the attacks of the Crimean Tatars, Ivan formally disbanded the Oprichnina in 1572 or 1573 (which then lasted until 1575), but the effects were still felt long after.
eefy.editme.com /Oprichnina   (364 words)

  
  Pure Film――Ivan Grozny I
An ancient term, oprichnina signifies an entailed domain and was used to describe the estate settled on the widow of a sovereign prince.
Oprichnina presumably had two main objectives: the first, of a passing nature, was the extermination of treason; and the second, of lasting significance, was the elimination of the political influence of the landed aristocracy.
The system that the oprichnina created was a two-storied house of service, or in fact slavery, with the pomestchiks occupying the upper story and the peasants, rapidly becoming serfs, occupying the lower.
www.menggang.com /movie/russia/eisenstein/ivan1/e-ivan1-a.html   (2560 words)

  
  Oprichnina - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина;) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible.
The Oprichnina was administered by the Oprichniks, who used extreme violence against any opposition to Ivan's rule.
The Oprichnina was a total failure and Ivan was forced to disband it in 1573, going so far as to claim that it had never existed at all, and executing several of its leaders.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Oprichnina   (282 words)

  
 Ivan IV Vasilyevich - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
His perceived enemies were to be punished, and the state was to be split in two: the oprichnina, which was to be Ivan’s personal domain and subject to his absolute control, and the zemshchina, which would be ruled by a council of boyars.
The oprichnina (1565-1572) was one of the most bizarre episodes in all of Russian history.
The second stage of the oprichnina wreaked so much havoc that the Crimean Tatars were able to sack Moscow in 1571, and much of the land around Moscow was depopulated.
encarta.msn.com /text_761561311___4/Ivan_IV_Vasilyevich.html   (617 words)

  
 Oprichnina
The Oprichnina formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible.
The Oprichnina was administered by the terroristic Oprichniks, who used extreme violence against any opposition to Ivan's rule.
The Oprichnina was a total failure and Ivan was forced to disband it in 1573.
www.starrepublic.org /encyclopedia/wikipedia/o/op/oprichnina.html   (248 words)

  
 The Dispatch - Serving the Lexington, NC - News
That same year, Ivan formed the Oprichnina which gave him a section of territory in which he could be free from noble interference and rule as a completely unlimited autocrat.
The Oprichnina was treated very similarly to the church at the time, enjoying the same freedom from taxes and monastic organization (with the tsar himself as abbot).
The Oprichnina was a total failure and Ivan was forced to disband it in autumn of 1572.
www.the-dispatch.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Oprichnina   (630 words)

  
 The Oprichnina (1565-1572)   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The oprichnina developed its own centralized machinery of government that was parallel to the bodies of the zemshina: the Duma and Departments.
The first victims of Oprichnina were clergymen: Archimandrite German (1568) and the deposed Metropolitan Phillip, he openly refused to bless the Tsar and was strangled by Skuratov in Tver in 1569.
Oprichnina, in fact, was the forced centralization without necessary social and economic preconditions; the regime masked its weakness with a "subsystem" of total terror.
russia.rin.ru /guides_e/6913.html   (1280 words)

  
 Ivan IV. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
With the help of this corps, he diminished the political influence of the boyars and forcibly confiscated their lands in a reign of terror.
Ivan formally abolished the oprichnina in 1572, although in effect it continued until 1575.
Fits of rage alternated with periods of repentance and prayer; in one of his rages he killed (1581) his son and heir, Ivan.
www.bartleby.com /65/iv/Ivan4.html   (514 words)

  
 News | TimesDaily.com | TimesDaily | Florence, Alabama (AL)
That same year, Ivan formed the Oprichnina which gave him a section of territory in which he could be free from noble interference and rule as a completely unlimited autocrat.
The Oprichnina was treated very similarly to the church at the time, enjoying the same freedom from taxes and monastic organization (with the tsar himself as abbot).
The Oprichnina was a total failure and Ivan was forced to disband it in autumn of 1572.
www.timesdaily.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=oprichnina   (641 words)

  
 Ivan IV of Russia
Other less positive aspects of this period include the introduction of the first laws restricting the mobility of the peasants, which would eventually lead to serfdom.
The Oprichnina was the section of Russia directly ruled by Ivan and policed by his personal servicemen, the Oprichniks.
This whole system of Oprichnina was intended as a tool against the omnipotent hereditary nobility of Russia (boyars) who opposed the absolutist drive of the tsar.
www.wapipedia.org /wikipedia/mobiletopic.aspx?cur_title=Ivan_the_Terrible   (572 words)

  
 Ancestors and Family of Ivan IV the Terrible of Russia
A bodyguard of 1,000-6,000 men, known as the oprichniki, was raised; and specified towns and districts all over Russia were included in the oprichnina, their revenues being assigned to the maintenance of the tsar's new court and household, which consisted of a number of carefully selected boyars and service gentry.
The oprichnina lasted only seven years, from 1565 to 1572, when it was abolished as a result of the failure of the oprichnina regiments to defend Moscow from attack by the Crimean Tatars.
The oprichnina army was reintegrated with that of the zemschina, and some of the estates confiscated by Ivan's followers were returned to their owners.
nygaard.howards.net /files/4/3638.htm   (1760 words)

  
 [No title]
No longer does the oprichnina seem like “the senseless venture of a madman,” but instead, according to Platanov, it was the systematic removal of the old landed aristocracy out of the government and replacing it with a new aristocracy completely loyal to the prince of Moscow.
The author describes the effect of the oprichnina and how it led to the migration of peasants from the areas around Moscow to the outer regions to escape the state of civil war that existed during land redistribution.
While the author does write that the economic crisis and loss to Lithuania was directly caused by Ivan’s oprichnina, the loss was not due to the cowardice and worthlessness of the rule of Ivan IV that was described by Ivan’s enemies after his death.
www.mysocialstudiesclass.com /Russia3.doc   (746 words)

  
 Oprichnina - Definition, explanation
The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина;) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible.
It was formed in 1565 to give Ivan a section of territory in which he could be free from noble interference and rule as a completely unlimited autocrat.
The Oprichnina was a total failure and Ivan was forced to disband it in 1573, going so far as to claim that it had never existed at all, and executing several of its leaders.
www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/o/op/oprichnina.php   (292 words)

  
 Crummey. Ivan IV. Reformer or Tyrant?
In the oprichnina lands in central Muscovy, Ivan undertook a re view of the nobility.
Moreover, "counterreform" implies that the reforms were reversed or that the oprichnina was directed against the middle classes of Muscovite society who presumably benefited from the earlier changes.
Most recent historians would accept the general proposition that, in the oprichnina, the tsar and his inner circle of advisers were aiming at the same goal they had pursued earlier—more effective control over the population and lands of the realm.
www.stetson.edu /~psteeves/classes/crummey.html   (2878 words)

  
 Soviet Union - Ivan IV   (Site not responding. Last check: )
As a result of the oprichnina (see Glossary), Ivan broke the economic and political power of the leading boyar families, thereby destroying precisely those persons who had built up Muscovy and were the most capable of running it.
Some historians believe that the oprichnina was initiated to mobilize resources for the war and to counter opposition to it.
In any case, Ivan's domestic and foreign policies were devastating for Muscovy, and they led to a period of social struggle and civil war, the so-called Time of Troubles (1598-1613).
www.country-data.com /cgi-bin/query/r-12415.html   (527 words)

  
 Ivan the Terrible, Ivan-the-Terrible.com   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The oprichnina was the main focus for the terror which came to be inflicted by Ivan’s devoted servants, known as oprichniki.
Pavlov and Perrie conclude that the Oprichnina was an ideologically motivated attack on the forming social estates, which Ivan thought threatened his absolute authority as God’s envoy on earth.
The Oprichnina itself, then, was consistent with Ivan’s political theology and deliberately drew on the fearsome, punitive imagery of the Last Judgment.
www.ivan-the-terrible.com   (7376 words)

  
 Ivan the Terrible: Profiles in Power Canadian Journal of History - Find Articles   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Pavlov and Perrie conclude that the Oprichnina was an ideologically motivated attack on the forming social estates, which Ivan thought threatened his absolute authority as God's envoy on earth.
The Oprichnina itself, then, was consistent with Ivan's political theology and deliberately drew on the fearsome, punitive imagery of the Last Judgment.
First, in its assertion that prior to 1565 Muscovy was developing on a course parallel to its western contemporaries, the argument relies heavily on the assumption that pre-Oprichnina Muscovy observed legal niceties and encouraged estate representation to a somewhat implausible degree.
www.looksmartcollectibles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3686/is_200408/ai_n9444824   (937 words)

  
 Streetwise Professor » новый Опричнина? (The New Oprichnina?)
The Oprichnina was Ivan’s personal domain, a state within a state that seized control of the most valuable properties in Russia.
As yet there have been no pogroms (as in Novgorod in 1569–although residents of Grozny may disagree), but the neo-oprichniki have pillaged the properties of those deemed to be enemies of the state, using taxes, extortion, and abrogation of contracts rather than fire and sword.
After a mere 7 years, the Oprichnina was dissolved, and consigned to the 16th century equivalent of the memory hole.
streetwiseprofessor.com /?p=57   (810 words)

  
 Ivan the Terrible: The Oprichnina   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The zemshchina was administered by the traditional institutions, from the boyar duma down, but the oprichnina was the personal domain of the czar and had its own administrative agencies that were separate from the zemshchina.
The two main objectives to the Oprichnina were to end the threat of treason and to eliminate the political influence of the landed aristocracy.
The territories that belonged to the oprichnina, including the streets in Moscow and other urban centers, were cleared of property owners and were settled with the oprichnikie.
www.marymount.k12.ny.us:16080 /marynet/StudentResources/humanities/europeanhistory/SaraKim/theoprichnina.html   (560 words)

  
 Staden. Description of Oprichnina
The oprichnina was [composed of] his people; the zemshchina, of the ordinary people.
Those in the oprichnina also had to wear fl clothes and hats; and in their quivers, where they put their arrows, they carried some kind of brushes or brooms tied on the ends of sticks.
All the chief men of the oprichnina and zemshchina and all those who were to be killed were first publicly whipped in the marketplace until they signed over all their money and property, if they had any, to the Treasury of the Grand Prince.
www.stetson.edu /~psteeves/classes/staden.html   (1728 words)

  
 State and Power in Russia
Which included two basic groups: The first group was made up by former appanage princes who lost their political privileges, though retained (as long as the introduction of Oprichnina) former economic value; then, they merged into the rest bulk of nobility.
Later, especial after the introduction of oprichnina terror, the conflict between the Tsar and boyars arose.
The years of the collapse caused by oprichnina and wars trigged the mass flight of peasants.
state.rin.ru /cgi-bin/main_e.pl?id=103&r=55   (840 words)

  
 nokituppo
Here is the sign of the KGB presenting the heritage of its ancestor, Cheka, with a shield to protect the bolshevik revolution and a sword to destroy its enemies.
Russia's first political police, the distant ancestor of KGB, was the Oprichnina founded in 1565 by Ivan the Terrible, the first Grand Duke of Muscovy to be crowned Tsar.
Later, Stalin praised the role of Oprichnina in centralising state power and reducing the power of the boyar aristocracy.
www.valt.helsinki.fi /kvtok/stud/jatuomin/noki.htm   (395 words)

  
 KavkazCenter - Kill empire!
Although, in Soviet time division into "zemshchina" and "oprichnina" had not so territorial character, as at Ivan the Terribl.
The formal government of the USSR which has been written down in its constitution, - the Soviet authority - was as a matter of fact zemshchina.
Stalinizm of Ivan Terribl referred to as, as it is known, oprichnina.
www.kavkazcenter.com /eng/content/2005/09/29/4105_print.html   (1277 words)

  
 Russia - Muscovy   (Site not responding. Last check: )
As a result of this policy, called the oprichnina, Ivan broke the economic and political power of the leading boyar families, thereby destroying precisely those persons who had built up Muscovy and were the most capable of administering it.
Some historians believe that Ivan initiated the oprichnina to mobilize resources for the war and to quell opposition to it.
Regardless of the reason, Ivan's domestic and foreign policies had a devastating effect on Muscovy, and they led to a period of social struggle and civil war, the so-called Time of Troubles (Smutnoye vremya, 1598-1613).
countrystudies.us /russia/3.htm   (2935 words)

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