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Topic: Opticks


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In the News (Wed 19 Jun 19)

  
  COLOUR MUSIC : MUSIC FOR MEASURE 1.
At its publication, "Opticks" was the most definitive study of light and colour yet produced, and was to remain so for the rest of the 18th century.
Wilder speculations (on the part aether played in heat, fire, chemical reactions, and the composition of planets) were related to a broader theory of matter, and to the mutual attraction of bodies evident in magnetism, electricity, and gravitation.
For the bulk of "Opticks", the spectrum ran up the scale from the red D in the middle, jumping between hexachords, to the topmost violet.
home.vicnet.net.au /~colmusic/opticks1.htm   (5077 words)

  
  Opticks
Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704.
The Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them, covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics.
Rather, the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and color and the various phenomena of diffraction, which Newton called the "inflexion" of light.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/o/op/opticks.html   (715 words)

  
 Opticks
Even if he had not made his better-known discoveries concerning gravity and the invention of the calculus, Opticks would have given him the reputation as one of the greatest scientists of his time.
That is, this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics, the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium, such as air, into another, such as water or glass.
Rather, the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction, which Newton called the "inflexion" of light.
www.1bx.com /en/Opticks.htm   (641 words)

  
 COLOUR MUSIC : MUSIC FOR MEASURE 2.
For "Opticks", Newton found colours of thin plates mostly ran in the reverse order to those found with a prism - except when the thin plate was denser than the surrounding medium, as is the case with bubbles.
He seemed to think his own arrangement, for both "Opticks" and the "Hypothesis", to be the standard for the first mode, with a minor third and a major sixth.
Still, the formal idea persevered in the colour music of "Opticks" (perhaps against the wishes of Newton, or was he simply hedging his bets?), "for the analogy of nature is to be observed".
home.vicnet.net.au /~colmusic/opticks2.htm   (5168 words)

  
 Newton exhibit
This tribute, attributed to the eighteenth-century French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange, captures the singular position that the author of the Principia and the Opticks came to occupy as the acme of human possibility.
Newton’s spectacular contributions to mathematics and natural philosophy – the discovery of the calculus, the articulation of a radical new theory of light and colors, the unification of terrestrial and celestial mechanics under a single law – brought the era of the Scientific Revolution to a spectacular close.
Newton’s English disciples, for their part, began rendering the Opticks and, especially, the Principia into the more accessible format of commentaries, aimed at those with only a modicum of mathematical background.
www.huntington.org /LibraryDiv/Newton/Newtonexhibit.htm   (2148 words)

  
 Sir Isaac Newton. Opticks. L'Optique en édition originale. Librairie Camille Sourget, livres anciens.
Opticks : or, a Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light.
The " Opticks " and the " Principia " are the 2 major works by Newton.
In the " Opticks " the author presents the results of his research on the structure of light and matter.
www.liberlibri.com /camille_sourget_Newton.htm   (608 words)

  
 Natural Philosophy: Including Mathematics, Optics, And Alchemy Criticism and Essays
In Opticks, Newton presents the results of his experiments with prisms, in which he had broken down white light into a spectrum of primary colors.
Bernard Cohen, in his examination of the content, textual history, and contemporary reception of Newton's Opticks, demonstrates that while the work was an exposition of the corpuscular theory of light, it also contained many basic principles of "undulation," or wave theory.
Additionally, Cohen observes, Opticks was published in English and written in an intimate style, whereas Principia was written in Latin, which was characteristic of its emphasis on mathematical principles.
www.enotes.com /literary-criticism/natural-philosophy-including-mathematics-optics   (1293 words)

  
 NEWTON, Isaac, Opticks: or, a Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light. Also two ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
NEWTON, Isaac, Opticks: or, a Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light.
The Opticks is NewtonÕs mature statement of the nature of light, based on his original discovery that white light is a compound of pure elementary colours.
In the Principia Newton had shown himself the consummate master of theoretical physics: the Opticks shows him no less the master of experimental method.
www.polybiblio.com /watbooks/2314.html   (408 words)

  
 Isaac Newton at the University of Florida
Opticks: or, A treatise of the reflexions, refractions, inflections and colours of light.
Wherein the principles and laws of physicks, mechanicks, hydrostaticks, and opticks, are demonstrated and explained at large, by a great number of curious experiments...
To which is added, Sir Isaac Newton's colours: The description of the condensing engine, with its apparatus: and Rowley's Horary; a machine representing the motion of the moon about the earth; Venus and Mercury about the sun, according to the Copernican system.
web.uflib.ufl.edu /spec/rarebook/hatch/newton.htm   (656 words)

  
 17﷓ ISAAC NEWTON
The Opticks, most of the experimental work for which had been done around 1666, was finally published only in 1704.
According to Lohne (see Further Reading), Newton must have tidied up his description of this image somewhat, since the greater intensity of the yellow component in the sun's light would have made the image rather broader at that point in the spectrum.
However, in the Opticks Newton added another and very ingenious recombination experiment to refute this kind of objection.
iweb.tntech.edu /chem281-tf/newton_harre.htm   (2460 words)

  
 Isaac Newton's Life
The publication of Opticks, largely written by 1692, was delayed by Newton until the critics were dead.
Newton's work on pure mathematics was virtually hidden from all but his correspondents until 1704, when he published, with Opticks, a tract on the quadrature of curves (integration) and another on the classification of the cubic curves.
Most importantly in the "Queries" appended to "Opticks" and in the essay "On the Nature of Acids" (1710), Newton published an incomplete theory of chemical force, concealing his exploration of the alchemists, which became known a century after his death.
www.newton.cam.ac.uk /newtlife.html   (2143 words)

  
 Physics Today July 2002
Newton ascribed to his experiments extraordinary demonstrative power: His theory, he said in his letter, "is not an Hypothesis but most rigid consequence, not conjectured by barely inferring 'tis thus because not otherwise or because it satisfies all phaenomena.
Among the few propositions in Opticks that deal with color per se is one (book one, part 2, proposition 6) proposing a geometrical procedure for determining the compound color that results from mixing simple spectral colors.
Particularly important are Goethe's experiments on colored shadows, such as one in which the shadow of a pencil cast by a lighted candle and illuminated by the setting sun is observed to be bright blue.
www.physicstoday.org /vol-55/iss-7/p43.html   (3824 words)

  
 The Third Book of Opticks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Which vibrations, being propagated along the solid fibres of the optick Nerves into the Brain, cause the sense of seeing.
For that motion which can continue long in one and the same part of a Body, can be propagated a long way from one part to another, supposing the Body homogeneal, so that the motion may not be reflected, refracted, interrupted or disordered by any unevenness of the Body.
May not the harmony and discord of Colours arise from the proportions of the vibrations propagated through the fibres of the optick Nerves into the Brain, as the harmony and discord of sounds arise from the proportions of the vibrations of the Air?
www.newtonproject.ic.ac.uk /texts/viewtext.php?id=NATP00039&mode=normalized   (3192 words)

  
 The Third Book of Opticks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Which beams are of the same Colour with the incident beam of Light, and seem equal to one another in the quantity of their Light, or very nearly equal.
One of these Refractions is perform'd by the usual Rule of Opticks, the Sine of Incidence out of Air into this Crystal being to the Sine of Refraction, as five to three.
Draw it the same way from V in which L lieth from K; and joining TX, this line TX shall be the other refracted beam carried from T to X, by the unusual Refraction.
www.newtonproject.ic.ac.uk /texts/viewtext.php?id=NATP00051&mode=normalized   (8855 words)

  
 Opticks by Sir Isaac Newton (Used, New, Out-of-Print) - Alibris
Opticks: Or a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours...
Opticks: Or a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light-Based on the Fourth Edition London, 1730
Opticks: Or a Treatise of the Reflections Inflections and Colours of Light
www.alibris.com /search/books/qwork/4874427/used/Opticks   (410 words)

  
 Rhetoric of Science
But later in the Opticks he seems to abandon any wave theory, writing “...it seems probable to me, that God in the beginning, form’d Matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, moveable Particles...” (400).
Yet, in the Opticks he softened the impact of his innovative methodology by incorporating many of the Classical argumentation strategies, which would have the effect of showing attention to detail and method, but without alienating readers of the reasoned scientific tradition.
To be sure, the speculation of the Opticks were not hypotheses, at least to the extent that they were framed in questions.
www.faculty.english.ttu.edu /baake/Newton.htm   (1728 words)

  
 Octavo Editions: Newton Opticks
As Thomas Kuhn has pointed out in his Structure of Scientific Revolutions, the mythologizing tendency in “normal” science is to represent its own history as a linear journey down the highway of progress without detours into roadside rest areas, let alone wrong exits.
Indeed, anecdotes from Newton’s Cambridge days include the story than an earlier draft of this work was destroyed in 1692 by a fire in his room, caused by a candle left burning while the scientist went to supper.
The 1704 edition of Opticks includes two mathematical treatises in Latin, the “Tractatus de Quadratura Curvarum” and the “Enumeratio Linearum Tertii Ordinis” (the main text is in English).
www.octavo.com /editions/nwtopt   (638 words)

  
 The Third Book of Opticks (Normalized Version)
Which beams are of the same Colour with the incident beam of Light, and seem equal to one another in the quantity of their Light, or very nearly equal.
One of these Refractions is perform'd by the usual Rule of Opticks, the Sine of Incidence out of Air into this Crystal being to the Sine of Refraction, as five to three.
Draw it the same way from V in which L lieth from K; and joining TX, this line TX shall be the other refracted beam carried from T to X, by the unusual Refraction.
www.newtonproject.sussex.ac.uk /texts/viewtext.php?id=NATP00051&mode=normalized   (8799 words)

  
 Newton, Opticks and the Properties of Light.
About 1679, Newton abandoned the ether and its invisible mechanisms and began to ascribe the puzzling phenomena--chemical affinities, the generation of heat in chemical reactions, surface tension in fluids, capillary action, the cohesion of bodies, and the like--to attractions and repulsions between particles of matter.
More than 35 years later, in the second English edition of the Opticks, Newton accepted an ether again, although it was an ether that embodied the concept of action at a distance by positing a repulsion between its particles.
The attractions and repulsions of Newton's speculations were direct transpositions of the occult sympathies and antipathies of Hermetic philosophy--as mechanical philosophers never ceased to protest.
freespace.virgin.net /p.crowley2/newton_4.html   (662 words)

  
 Newton Isaac Sir 1642 1727 Opticks, or, A treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light by ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Newton Isaac Sir 1642 1727 Opticks, or, A treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light by Sir Isaac Newton, Knt.
Opticks, or, A treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light / by Sir Isaac Newton, Knt.
A reprint of the 2nd edition, with a few minor changes.
www.aip.org /history/catalog/books/17139.html   (108 words)

  
 Isaac Newton Biography - Newton's Life, Career, Work - Dr Robert A. Hatch
In Newton's words, the purpose of the Opticks was 'not to explain the Properties of Light by Hypotheses, but to propose and prove them by Reason and Experiments.' Divided into three books, the Opticks moves from definitions, axioms, propositions, and theorems to proof by experiment.
During the 17th century it was widely held that light, like sound, consisted of a wave or undulatory motion, and Newton's major critics in the field of optics--Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens--were articulate spokesmen for this theory.
Perhaps the most provocative part of the Opticks is the section known as the 'Queries,' which Newton placed at the end of the book.
web.clas.ufl.edu /users/rhatch/pages/01-Courses/current-courses/08sr-newton.htm   (4208 words)

  
 Isaac Newton
Newton, Opticks, London 1704 (numerous subsequent editions); K. Halbertsma, A History of the Theory of Colour, Amsterdam 1949; R. Westfall, "The development of Newton's theory of color", Isis 53, pp 339-358 (1962); John Gage, Colour and Culture, Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction, Thames and Hudson, 1993, pp.
Newton attempted to clarify these questions in his second definitive work, his Opticks, which first appeared in 1704 and contained the colour-circle which we reproduce.
The colours are marked here by circular figures, at their largest for red and becoming progressively smaller towards violet.
www.colorsystem.com /projekte/engl/08newe.htm   (1415 words)

  
 The Third Book of Opticks (Normalized Version)
Which vibrations, being propagated along the solid fibres of the optick Nerves into the Brain, cause the sense of seeing.
For that motion which can continue long in one and the same part of a Body, can be propagated a long way from one part to another, supposing the Body homogeneal, so that the motion may not be reflected, refracted, interrupted or disordered by any unevenness of the Body.
May not the harmony and discord of Colours arise from the proportions of the vibrations propagated through the fibres of the optick Nerves into the Brain, as the harmony and discord of sounds arise from the proportions of the vibrations of the Air?
www.newtonproject.sussex.ac.uk /texts/viewtext.php?id=NATP00039&mode=normalized   (3169 words)

  
 [No title]
The sections on telescope design and fabrication were the most important English language manual for 18th century telescope makers; and the book remains the best document of its era for use by current historians.
The telescope in the library, which is described in Smith's work on 'Opticks,' and is shown to strangers as Sir Isaac Newton's telescope, was made for him.
Smith was literary executor to Cotes, and communicated notes for the memoir of him in the 'General Biographical Dictionary'of Lockman and others (1736, iv.
home.europa.com /~telscope/smith-r.txt   (3271 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Opticks: Books: Isaac, Sir Newton,Nicholas Humez   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
This review is from: Opticks: Or a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light-Based on the Fourth Edition London, 1730 (Paperback)
Having done a Ph.D. in optics, I have read quite some books on optics and out of curiocity I bought this book, but I am not very pleased with it.
It is obvious neither of the previous reviewers understand, this book was written by Issac Newton in the 1600's.
www.amazon.com /Opticks-Isaac-Sir-Newton/dp/1891788043   (666 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Newton: Sir Isaac Newton was an advocate of the theory that light consisted of massless particles.
Opticks: Proposed white light consisted of many colors that could be separated and then recombined with a prism through refraction.
Newton’s theory is based upon the assumption that light speeds up as it enters a medium, and that the angle of refraction follows Snell’s Law.
www.tc.umn.edu /~allch001/1815/teachers/light.doc   (1747 words)

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