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# Topic: Orbital speed

###### In the News (Thu 21 Mar 19)

 Orbital speed - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. The orbital speed at any position in the orbit can be computed from the distance to the central body at that position, and the specific orbital energy, which is independent of position: the kinetic energy is the total energy minus the potential energy. The transverse orbital speed is inversely proportional to the distance to the central body because of the law of conservation of angular momentum, or equivalently, Kepler's second law. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Orbital_speed   (578 words)

 Orbital spaceflight - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The expression "orbital spaceflight" is mostly used to distinguish from sub-orbital spaceflights, which are flights where the spacecraft reaches space but does not have a high enough angular velocity to enter into orbit. The problem of deceleration from orbital speeds is solved through using atmospheric drag (aerobraking) to lose nearly all of the speed. On an orbital space flight initial deceleration is provided by the retrofiring of the craft's rocket engines, perturbing the orbit (by lowering perigee down into the atmosphere) onto a suborbital trajectory. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Orbital_spaceflight   (697 words)

 Analysis of the common motion in gravitational field The equation (264) defines the orbital escaping speed for the case, when the extent of the gravitational field is not restricted by another (superior) gravitational field. The example of the calculation of the Mercury's orbital trajectory in Tab13b-1 shows that accordind to space-flow theory the whole observed value of the perihelion advance of Mercury might be explained by the relativistic phenomena and the related deformation of the gravitational field. Orbital speeds of the stars in galaxies are approaching their critical values according to equation (218), since the trajectories of the stars are approximately circular. spaceflow.szm.com /grav14.html   (1530 words)

 CSA - Orbital Assuming no speed change, only a velocity change, the required "delta vee" is approximately 7.5 km/s at 116 degrees away from the current orbital direction. Assuming no speed change, only a velocity change, the required "delta vee" is approximately 2.25 km/s at 116 degrees away from the current orbital direction. The required change in the orbital inclination of a space probe (which is co-moving at 35 km/s with the Earth and in the same plane) by nearly 90o requires a gigantic ”delta vee“. www.space.gc.ca /asc/eng/educators/resources/orbital/activity_orbital_planes_key.asp   (510 words)

 Orbital Speed The speed (v) of a satellite in circular orbit is: The period (P) of a satellite in circular orbit is the orbit's circumference divided by the satellite's speed: Changes in the inclination of a satellite's orbital plane are most efficient at apogee.  Large inclination changes require very large expenditures of fuel, so are rarely done.  A common plane change moves geosynchronous satellites to orbit directly over the equator. www.freemars.org /jeff/speed   (655 words)

 Chapter 5 -- Orbital Mechanics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Orbital mechanics is the study of the motion of human made objects as they travel around a principal body, in the majority of flights the Earth. The spacecraft's velocity is a vector tangent to the satellite's path with a magnitude equal to the spacecraft's speed. Since the speed of the spacecraft has not changed and the size of the orbit's major axis has not changed because it is equal to the diameter of the old circular orbit, the orbit's period remains the same. www.space.edu /projects/book/chapter5.html   (5633 words)

 Orbital shaker - Patent 4673297 Embodied in the microprocessor is a closed loop speed control which measures the actual speed of the cyclic movement with an interrupt routine which calculates the duration between the pulses of an optoelectric speed sensor. The control of these orbital shakers has generally been dependent upon analog circuitry and, accordingly, variations in the number of cycles and control of the time are very difficult to predict because of the variation in the precision of the control circuitry. The orbital shaker 10 imparts an exact orbital motion to specimens placed on a tray 14 which is moved in a prescribed cyclic motion at a particular speed and for a predetermined amount of time. www.freepatentsonline.com /4673297.html   (7966 words)

 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Avg. Orbital Speed   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) The mean orbital speed can be derived either from observations of the orbital period and the semimajor axis of its orbit, or from knowledge of the masses of the two bodies and the semimajor axis. where $v_o$ is the orbital velocity, r is the length of the semimajor axis, T is the orbital period, m is the mass of the other body, and G is the gravitational constant. Note that this is only an approximation that holds true when the orbiting body is of considerably lesser mass than the central one. www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/av/Avg._Orbital_Speed   (294 words)

 The Speed of Gravity - What the Experiments Say The expected aether-drift speed did not put in an appearance in the test results, and the speed of light did indeed seem to be the same in all directions, as SR postulated, even though the observer was obviously moving at high speed in some direction through space. That the speed of light is independent of the speed of its source is unremarkable, since that is a property of all wave motion. Using a clock whose rate is not affected by its translational speed, for example pulses in the strength of the gravitational field from a compact, massive binary star, would apparently allow the speed of the observer relative to the local mean gravity field to be detected. www.metaresearch.org /cosmology/speed_of_gravity.asp   (8709 words)

 New Theory in Physics This mean the Hydrogen atom has the electron revolving at the speed 1 (one) the atom of Helium will have the revolving electron at the speed 2 and so on to the Lawrencium with the speed 103 which is 103 times greater than Hydrogen. Stability of orbital speed is stability of the matter of elements. Transitional elements are the result of transitional speed and their life is correlated of characteristic orbital speed stability. www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?t=1521   (821 words)

 Simplest Orbital System The speeds v and c that occur in this formula are the absolute speed of the orbital system and the absolute speed of light, the speeds with which these objects move through a motionless space, not the relative speed of the orbital system or of the light with respect to other moving objects. Similarly, m is the mass of the orbital system when the orbital system moves at speed v, not its mass relative to observers with respect to whom the relative speed of the orbital system is v. The contention that the mass of an object varies with the relative speed of the object with respect to observer who is measuring this mass is either a proposition that is false or else it is a meaningless string of words. home.att.net /~zei/TMKelso/orbital_system.htm   (1830 words)

 The Physics Classroom Paths A and B in the diagram at the right illustrate the path of a projectile with insufficient launch speed for orbital motion. For this reason, a projectile launched horizontally with a speed of 8000 m/s will be capable of orbiting the earth in a circular path; this assumes that it is launched above the surface of the earth and encounters negligible atmospheric drag. Were it not for this force, the satellite in motion would continue in motion at the same speed and in the same direction. www.physicsclassroom.com /Class/circles/U6L4b.html   (1274 words)

 Gravity due to Space Flow The maximum acceleration of the object in pure free fall (without orbital speed) is reached at the zero speed (in the culminating point). With the increasing speed the acceleration is decreased, reaches zero when the escaping speed is reached, and becomes positive (acting in direction out of the gravitational field) in case if the object due to outer force overcomes the escaping free fall speed. For many reasons (like it is the comparison of kinetic and potential energy) it is important to express the speed of the object in time units of the chosen reference frame, and the length units of the reference frame which is the object just passing through (frame intrinsic length units). spaceflow.szm.com   (1431 words)

 NASA Orbital Debris FAQs Orbital debris is any man-made object in orbit about the Earth which no longer serves a useful purpose. Our ability to detect orbital debris at such heights is limited, but studies indicate that the orbital debris population is probably less severe there than in low Earth orbit. An excellent primer on the many aspects of orbital debris is the Interagency Report on Orbital Debris (Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, 1995). www.orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov /faqs.html   (1616 words)

 Aerospaceweb.org | Ask Us - Launch Speeds and Earth Rotation The first concept we must clarify before answering this question is that orbital speed is orbital speed, no matter how you get there. No matter which direction the vehicle was headed in its orbit, that speed would be the same for a given circular orbit at a given altitude. The only difference in speeds that comes into play is related to the direction in which a rocket is launched. www.aerospaceweb.org /question/spacecraft/q0115b.shtml   (458 words)

 Orbital Mechanics Inclination is the angular distance between a satellite's orbital plane and the equator of its primary (or the ecliptic plane in the case of heliocentric, or sun centered, orbits). The orbital elements discussed at the beginning of this section provide an excellent reference for describing orbits, however there are other forces acting on a satellite that perturb it away from the nominal orbit. Orbital transfer becomes more complicated when the object is to rendezvous with or intercept another object in space: both the interceptor and the target must arrive at the rendezvous point at the same time. www.braeunig.us /space/orbmech.htm   (6414 words)

 The Orbital Velocities of the Plantets and Kepler's Law The orbital velocity is 2πR/T where R is the average radius of the orbit and T is the length of the year. The orbital velocity of a planet relative to that of Earth's is then the relative radius divided by the relative length of the year. Thus Mercury's orbital speed is 1.607(67,000)=107.7 thousand miles per hour, as befits a planet named for the god of speed. www2.sjsu.edu /faculty/watkins/orbital.htm   (432 words)

 MIRA :: Field Trips to the Stars :: The Solar System :: Mercury That's why we never see it at midnight and why it is hard to detect with the naked eye, in addition to the fact that it is very small and reflects little sunlight. Orbital data are the quantities that tell us how Mercury moves in its orbit around the Sun. Mercury's orbital plane is the second most tilted, after Pluto's, with respect to the ecliptic (the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun). www.mira.org /fts0/planets/092/text/txt001x.htm   (709 words)

 Problems The orbital speed of the planets decreases with distance from the sun [magnify]. The orbital speed of the stars remains roughly constant with distance from the center of the Milky Way [magnify]. Dwarf galaxies, star clusters, and gas clouds beyond the edge of the visible galaxy have nearly the same orbital speed as the stars within visible galaxy.There is evidence that rotational speeds remain roughly constant at 220 km/s out to distances of 300,000 light years or six times the radius of the Milky Way. hypertextbook.com /physics/mechanics/orbital-mechanics-1/problems.shtml   (780 words)

 Paradoxes Resolved, Origins Illuminated - Orbital speed of Earth Thus, knowledge of the instanteneous radial speed dr/dt does not suffice to determine the magnitude of v (v dot v). I doubt there is any pure empirical evidence based on measurements that confirms the elliptical orbit of the earth around the sun and I suspect the available data is a 'model', that is extrapolations via the use of ad-hoc hypothesis about the shape of the orbits in the planetary system. Looking at the in-plane longitudinal effect only, Earth's average orbital speed is about 30,000 m/s, increasing by about 500 m/s in January and decreasing by 500 m/s in July because the orbit is an ellipse, not a circle. www.metaresearch.org /msgboard/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=605   (3250 words)

 Stanford SOLAR Center -- Ask A Solar Physicist FAQs - Answer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) This speed is in a frame of rest if the other stars were all standing still. The Sun is moving upwards, out of the plane of the Milky Way, at a speed of 7 kilometers per second. Using speed measurements of the gas at different distances from the Galactic center, the Sun appears to be cruising along at 200 kilometers per second and it takes 240 million years to complete the grand circuit around the Galaxy. solar-center.stanford.edu /FAQ/Qsolsysspeed.html   (421 words)

 Earth's mean orbital speed - a definition from Whatis.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Earth's mean orbital speed is the average speed at which the Earth revolves around the sun. The Earth's mean orbital speed, in meters per second (m/s), is obtained by dividing this number by the length of the year in seconds. A rough, general figure for the Earth's mean orbital speed is 30 kilometers per second (km/s), or 18½ miles per second (mi/s). whatis.techtarget.com /definition/0,,sid9_gci849653,00.html   (285 words)

 Gravity Applications The distance is given in meters to match the units of the speed. This relation tells you what you need to know in order to measure a planet's or star's mass: the orbital speed of a satellite and the distance it is from the center of the planet or star. Sometimes the orbital period P is measured instead of the orbital velocity. www.astronomynotes.com /gravappl/s8.htm   (1720 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) The orbital periods are shorter for the inner planets, but is it also true that the orbital speeds are larger for the inner planets? The orbital speed decreases for the larger planets. For the Earth, the orbital speed is 29.8 kilometers per second zebu.uoregon.edu /~imamura/121/lecture-3/orbital_sp.html   (51 words)

 Orbital Mechanics I Replace the speed with the circumference divided by the period. If the observed speed of stars in the Milky way is more or less uniform, then the mass contained within the orbit of any one star must be proportional to the radius of its orbit, but it's really density that we're after — or rather, a density function. Beyond this distance one would expect an inverse square root drop in orbital speed as is seen with the planets. hypertextbook.com /physics/mechanics/orbital-mechanics-1   (3126 words)

 Sun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.isi.jhu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) The orbital speed is 217 km/s, equivalent to one light-year every 1,400 years, and one AU every 8 days. The Sun is a third generation star, whose formation may have been triggered by shockwaves from a nearby supernova. Its inner boundary is defined as the layer in which the flow of the solar wind becomes superalfvénic—that is, where the flow becomes faster than the speed of Alfvén waves. en.wikipedia.org.cob-web.org:8888 /wiki/Sun   (6977 words)

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