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# Topic: Order theory

 Order theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Orders appear everywhere - at least as far as mathematics and related areas, such as computer science, are concerned. The first order that one typically meets in primary school mathematical education is the order ≤ of natural numbers. Order theory captures the intuition of orders that arises from such examples in a general setting. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Order_theory   (3937 words)

 First-order Model Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) From another point of view, first-order model theory is the paradigm for the rest of model theory; it is the area in which many of the broader ideas of model theory were first worked out. The elements of C are the ordered pairs (a,b) where a is an element of A and b is an element of B. These theories have the remarkable property that every infinite indiscernible sequence in any of their models is indiscernible under any linear ordering whatever; so these sequences are a kind of generalisation of bases of vector spaces. plato.stanford.edu /entries/modeltheory-fo   (6168 words)

 Course 422 - Order theory and its applications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14) Order theory is a fascinating and very natural subject which affords a unified perspective on many areas in mathematics. The basic concept in order theory is that of a partial order; it formalises the notion of a hierarchy and it appears everywhere in mathematics. The canonical example of a partial order is the subset relation in a collection of subset of a given set, such as the collection of open sets in a topological space. www.maths.tcd.ie /pub/official/Courses/422in9899.html   (491 words)

 Peter Suber, "Glossary of First-Order Logic" This glossary is limited to basic set theory, basic recursive function theory, two branches of logic (truth-functional propositional logic and first-order predicate logic) and their metatheory. Set theory in which either the generalized continuum hypothesis or the axiom of choice is an axiom. Set theory in which either the negation of the generalized continuum hypothesis (GCH) or the negation of the axiom of choice (AC) is an axiom. www.earlham.edu /~peters/courses/logsys/glossary.htm   (9715 words)

 New Set Theory Despite vast advances in set theory and mathematics in general, the language of set theory, which is also the language of mathematics, has remained the same since the beginning of modern set theory and first order logic. The (first order) language of set theory consists of first order logic and the binary relation of membership (equality is definable using extensionality). The extension is meaningful whenever the base theory includes basic set theory and the notion of being well-founded, and in particular is meaningful for second order arithmetic. web.mit.edu /dmytro/www/NewSetTheory.htm   (4932 words)

 Consciousness, Higher-Order Theories of [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] Defenders of higher-order theories of consciousness argue that consciousness is explained by the relation between two levels of mental states in which a higher-order mental state takes another mental state, such as a thought or sensation, as its object. In order to account for the nature of conscious states, the question a higher-order theorist must answer is: why is there something it is like to be in conscious states when there is nothing it is like to be in unconscious states, such as a coma state or a state of dreamless sleep? One concern about the higher-order perception theory involves the nature of the ‘inner sense.’ Although an ‘inner sense’ or ‘internal scanners’ are central to the higher-order perception theory, the theory does not depend on the existence of a dedicated organ. www.iep.utm.edu /c/consc-hi.htm   (4747 words)

 Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural) and global (macrostructural) responses. The theoretical framework is based on volumetric averaging of the various field quantities, together with the imposition of boundary and interfacial conditions in an average sense between the subvolumes used to characterize the composite's functionally graded microstructure. Specialization of the generalized theoretical framework to previously published versions of the higher order theory for materials functionally graded in one and two directions was demonstrated. www.grc.nasa.gov /WWW/RT2000/5000/5920arnold3.html   (556 words)

 Order Color Theory CDs and T-Shirts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14) To order by mail, send a check in US dollars payable to "11th Records" to: 11th Records, P.O. Box 241, Huntington Beach, CA 92648, USA. United States orders are shipped First Class or Priority Mail (depending on weight), and will arrive in 2-5 days. Orders to all other countries are shipped airmail, and usually arrive in 4-7 days. www.colortheory.com /order.html   (268 words)

 Model Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Mainstream model theory is now a sophisticated branch of mathematics (see the entry on first-order model theory). But in a broader sense, model theory is the study of the interpretation of any language, formal or natural, by means of set-theoretic structures, with Alfred Tarski's truth definition as a paradigm. The theory of these games establishes that if some first-order sentence φ is true in exactly one of A and B, then there is a number n, calculable from φ, with the property that Spoiler has a strategy for G that will guarantee that he wins in at most n steps. plato.stanford.edu /entries/model-theory   (6214 words)

 Atomic Theory The objective of this lesson is for students to become familiar with the historic and scientific development of atomic theory. Students will be informed that in their studies of atomic theory, they will discover that scientific theory also requires previous levels of theorization. The report should contain a general summary of atomic theory, it should name the individual they have selected as the most significant, and should clearly state reason(s) that defend their selection. www.gsu.edu /~mstjrh/atomictheory.html   (551 words)

 The KLI Theory Lab - keywords - order Order from rhythmic entrainment and the origin of levels through dissipation. Keywords: dissipation • metaphysics • order • origin of levels • philosophy of science • rhythmic entrainment. Keywords: complexity • ecological economics • order • philosophy of science. www.kli.ac.at /theorylab/Keyword/O/Order.html   (178 words)

 Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis - The Region - Hayek's Legacy of Spontaneous Order (June 1992)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14) Hayek argued that those who misunderstood or disregarded the notion of spontaneous order did so because they incorrectly divided the world into two categories: "planned" (which implicitly means order and purpose) and "unplanned" (which connotes disorder, randomness and chaos). Each member of this third group would be bounded by rules, have its own order and increase in complexity in a way that would not be fully understood. The political implications of spontaneous order theory are strikingly evident with the recent fall of the Soviet Union. minneapolisfed.org /pubs/region/92-06/reg926b.cfm   (833 words)

 The New World Order in Theory and Practice - GHWB Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14) While the concept of the new world order was made possible by the end of the cold war, it was not made inevitable by it. Furthermore, while the end of the cold war created the conditions for a new world order in theory, the crisis allowed it to be put in motion. It was simultaneously an idealistic construct in theory, a genuine vision for action, and, at times, a political strategy bereft of real philosophical meaning that helped Washington execute its national interests by offering political cover, legal justification, and the basis for collective action in war. unitedelite.net /bush.html   (6120 words)

 SSRN-Testing the Pecking Order Theory of Capital Structure by Murray Frank, Vidhan Goyal The pecking order theory of corporate leverage is tested against the static tradeoff theory of corporate leverage, using a broad cross-section of US firms over the period 1980-1998. None of the predictions of the pecking order theory hold in the data. As predicted by the static tradeoff theory, robust evidence of mean reversion in leverage is found. papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=243138   (330 words)

 The Insider | New World Order - conspiracy theory or demonstrable fact? What better way for the New Secular Order to proclaim the begginning of its reign than to secularise the way in which dates are recorded, replacing the Christian dating system of the old Order with a new, secular system for the for the Aquarian age? The official translation of this motto is "A New Order of the Ages". The NWO conspiracy theory that "everyone is talking about as we draw closer to the year 2000", BBC Radio 5, Conspiracy programme, October 1998. theinsider.org /reports/new-world-order   (1503 words)

 Zhang+Sipma+Manna: The Decidability of the First-order Theory of Knuth-Bendix Order   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14) Two kinds of orderings are widely used in term rewriting and theorem proving, namely recursive path ordering (RPO) and Knuth-Bendix ordering (KBO). Solving ordering constraints is therefore essential to the successful application of ordered rewriting and ordered resolution. Besides the needs for decision procedures for quantifier-free theories, situations arise in constrained deduction where the truth value of quantified formulae must be decided. theory.stanford.edu /~sipma/papers/cade05.html   (184 words)

 First-order Model Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Summer 2002 Edition)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14) There are other current programmes besides these; see for example the handbook edited by Yuri Ershov in the bibliography, which is about model theory when the structures are built recursively. Essentially the only example that Los could find was the complete theory of an algebraically closed field; this is uncountably categorical by a well-known theorem of Steinitz. This question of Los was a tremendous stimulus to research, and it led to a classic paper of Michael Morley in 1965 which showed that Los’s three possibilities are in fact the only ones. www.science.uva.nl /~seop/archives/sum2002/entries/modeltheory-fo   (6119 words)

 Dow Theory Forecast - Order The article you requested is part of the award-winning Dow Theory Forecasts newsletter. We start with the Dow Theory, which has proven its mettle for over a century. What really sets Dow Theory Forecasts apart from the hundreds of single-person newsletters is the depth of our research team. info.horizonpublishing.com /arts/dowlandBOI.asp?PC=ROI04274   (727 words)

 NEW WORLD ORDER THEORY: THE NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14) This latin phrase translates as "New Secular Order." President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a 32nd degree Knight Templar and member of the Mystic Shrine and Scottish Rite, approved placement of the Craft's pyramid in the Great Seal of the United States on the dollar bill. Havelock Ellis, a student of Freud, who possessed a "contrary sexual feeling" and married a lesbian, took issue with Freud on the cause of homosexuality, claiming that homosexuality was inherited and could well be a sign of greatness. No scientific evidence has ever been found to support Ellis' theory, and it obviously must not have occurred to him that the "great" homosexuals who are prominent in history might have been much "greater" if they had not been homosexual. www.wealth4freedom.com /truth/6/NWOtheory.htm   (3179 words)

 | Ahimsa Theory Official Store |   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14) In order to do so, be sure to include all information and payment as decribed below. 1) A phone number and e-mail address to contact you if something is wrong with your order. You can do this by folding it within a dark piece of paper. www.ahimsatheory.com /html/store.htm   (186 words)

 DIMACS Workshop on Applications of Order Theory to Homeland Defense and Computer Security DIMACS Workshop on Applications of Order Theory to Homeland Defense and Computer Security DIMACS Working Group on Applications of Order Theory to Homeland Defense and Computer Security participation by invitation only. If you're coming from abroad, check the latest visa requirements (they are changing all the time) and get an early start on obtaining a visa. dimacs.rutgers.edu /Workshops/Defense   (380 words)

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