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# Topic: Orders of magnitude data

###### In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

 orders of magnitude   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16) Thus the order of magnitude of 400 is 2. The order of magnitude of a number may also be defined as the exponent of the power of 10 when the number is represented using scientific notation. For example, an accurate order of magnitude estimate for the human population of the Earth in the year 2000 is 10 billion. www.yourencyclopedia.net /Orders_of_magnitude.html   (541 words)

 Orders of magnitude - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia More precisely, the order of magnitude of a number can be defined in terms of the decimal logarithm, usually as the integer part of the logarithm. Thus, an order of magnitude is an approximate position on a logarithmic scale. For example, an order of magnitude estimate for a variable between about 3 billion and 30 billion (such as the human population of the Earth) is 10 billion. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Order_of_magnitude   (652 words)

 [No title] Data collection was initiated in 1951 at four ridge top climate stations located in each of four major ecosystems: A-1 (2195 m) in lower montane forest, B-1 (2591 m) in upper montane forest, C-1 (3018 m) in subalpine forest, and D-1 (3743 m) in alpine tundra. Nonetheless, considerably more detail regarding data sources, other qualifications, etc. are contained within the documentation sections of the individual files and it is the responsibility of the user of these data to be familiar with the information contained therein. Data from any of the data loggers listed above was deliberately excluded during data entry, regardless of whether it was included in the report. culter.colorado.edu /Niwot/NiwotRidgeData/README.TXT   (631 words)

 Orders of magnitude (data) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is a list of orders of magnitude for data (or information), measured in bits. Accordingly, 8192 bits of data are a kibioctet and 8000 bits are a kilooctet. bits (515 gibioctets) – As of 2002, data of pi to the largest number of digits ever calculated (1.24 trillion). en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Orders_of_magnitude_%28data%29   (884 words)

 Extremely low frequency (ELF) fields (EHC 35, 1984) Data on the biological effects of exposure to sinusoidally varying fields are mainly concerned with effects in the range of 5 - 20 Hz or at 50 and 60 Hz, while limited data are available on effects scattered throughout the ELF spectrum. Data presented in the literature show that, as a general rule, in the presence of each perturbing influence, the measured values are somewhat less than the unperturbed ones. Data (Zaffanella & Deno, 1978) concerning human beings exposed to spark discharges of various intensities showed that 50% of the population perceived spark discharges in a field of 2.7 kV/m and that 50% of the population found the spark discharges annoying at 7 kV/m. www.inchem.org /documents/ehc/ehc/ehc35.htm   (16436 words)

 A Function-Based Data Model for Visualization Relational data management systems are also deficient because the relational model does not accommodate multidimensional, irregular or hierarchical structures often found in scientific data sets nor the type of access that associated computations require. These requirements demand the utilization of a generalized data model as a mechanism to classify and access data as well as efficiently map data to operations, which provide a self-describing representation of the physical storage structure (e.g., format), structural representation of the data (e.g., data base schema), and a higher-level logical structure (e.g., operations). Hence, access to the categorical data is packaged as a new function to provide the equivalent of traditional field as well as calculation of a derived one for sample points where the material is not homogenous. www.research.ibm.com /people/l/lloydt/dm/function/dm_fn.htm   (4765 words)

 Holographic-DVDs.com -- Holographic DVDs Holographic development is built on the illumination order assembled by interference between two crossing illumination rays: a “signal” (or “object”) ray that retrieves material that was recorded within optical retention media; and a “reference” ray. In order to record and retrieve a meaningful holographic picture, the crossing beam shafts must be “coherent.” Coherent shafts are ones in which the illumination ripples are ordered and synchronized. Data retention capacity for three-dimensional holographic systems is orders of magnitude greater than that of two-dimensional systems. www.holographic-dvds.com   (1915 words)

 Niwot Ridge LTER Data File Structure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16) Data contained in the data sections for the great majority of these files is comma-delimited and it is anticipated that all will be comma-delimited in the near future. Commas have been chosen as field delimiters, as opposed to other delimiters or fields based on precise character-columns, because (1)data sections are of much lower maintenance than for the latter, (2)data are easily imported into other applications and programs, and (3)storage space requirements are reduced because nothing is required for missing value indicators. These data are being collected at several different meteorological stations and using a number of different instrumentation sources. culter.colorado.edu:1030 /Niwot/Niwot_Ridge_LTER_datafiles.html   (471 words)

 Support for Data-intensive applications in large-scale systems As large amounts of valuable data appear in on-line repositories distributed across large-scale networks, a key operating systems challenge is to provide basic services to enable programs to manipulate this data easily, safely, and with high performance. Second, moving data near where it will be used shortens the control loop between the data consumer and data storage, thereby reducing latency or making it easier to provide real time guarantees. In the case of data services for large-scale systems, the benefit of resolving this dilemma will be to enable a new set of data-intensive applications that exploit the vast quantities of information becoming available on line. www.cs.utexas.edu /users/dahlin/papers/nsf-position.97.html   (2102 words)

 Scientific Data Models Obviously, data management is critical for appropriate and effective utilization of large volumes of data. It is the fundamental characteristic of the data. Hence, such data bases are difficult to design for scientific data and the users of existing database systems require an indepth understanding of the database architecture, data content, location, and query language in order to use the data effectively. www.research.ibm.com /people/l/lloydt/dm/DM.htm   (8787 words)

 Volume 3, Chapter 7c The models underestimated these ratios by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude as compared to the literature when vegetations in the literature were grown in soils with concentrations in the ppt range, a range typical of background settings. Still, inhalation exposures to contaminants sorbed to air-borne particulates were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than exposures to contaminants in the vapor phase, and along with water ingestion exposures, were the lowest exposures estimated for the on-site and off-site soil source categories. Data indicates that range of values for BCF for 2,3,7,8-TCDD is 1 to 10, with a concurrent order of magnitude difference between the upper and lower values. www.cqs.com /epa/exposure/v3chap7c.htm   (12314 words)

 Romankiw speaks on pioneering work at Ukrainian Engineers' Society (10/17/04) This represents eight orders of magnitude increase in areal density in 47 years. Four orders of magnitude of this jump were achieved since commercial introduction by IBM, of the inductive, multi-turn, batch fabricated thin film heads in 1979. Data stored half way around the world are found and analyzed, and the results delivered through high speed interconnections in fractions of seconds. www.ukrweekly.com /Archive/2004/420433.shtml   (796 words)

 Report on Holographic CDs Holographic innovation is constructed on the light order produced by interference between two intersecting light shafts: a “signal” (or “object”) beam that retrieves information that was recorded within optical memory media; and a “reference” shaft. In order to record and retrieve a meaningful holographic photo, the intersecting light beams must be “coherent.” Coherent beams are ones in which the illumination ripples are ordered and synchronized. Data storage density for three-dimensional holographic systems may be orders of magnitude heightened than that of two-dimensional optical or electromagnetic systems. www.holocd.com   (2125 words)

 HoloCard.us -- Holographic Cards Holcards can contain orders of magnitude more data than conventional identification or financial cards and are much more difficult to forge. Data storage density for three-dimensional holographic systems might be orders of magnitude greater than that of two-dimensional optical or EM systems. Holographic data can be more continuous and less binary than its electromagnetic counterpart, so that errors are not 0-or-1 events but differences in degree. www.holocard.us   (1282 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16) Data storage uses hyperspace nodes, each of which may represent any amount of data; for example, any number of characters in text or any-sized portion of the image in television. Linear vs. hyperspace data storage and communications Data storage in a conventional computer database is linear and determined by the bits and bytes in the data record. The input data word is applied to driver circuits, which each apply a true and a false signal to a column. www.autosophy.com /sbiridb2.doc   (7841 words)

 Orders Of Magnitude (data) Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16) Looking For orders of magnitude data - Find orders of magnitude data and more at Lycos Search. Find orders of magnitude data - Your relevant result is a click away! Look for orders of magnitude data - Find orders of magnitude data at one of the best sites the Internet has to offer! www.artquilt.com /encyclopedia/Orders_of_magnitude_%28data%29   (777 words)

 Orders Of Magnitude   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16) In both cases measurements showed a reduction in viscosity by approximately 2 orders of magnitude from 40,000cP to 200cP. And it surpasses by several orders of magnitude the attention given to other diseases, such as diarrhoea, which claim at least three million lives a year in... This reflects an increase amounting to 12 orders of magnitude in about 50 years. orders-of-magnitude.wikiverse.org   (579 words)

 The Occurrence of Selected Chemical Pollutants (Simazine, Lindane and Permethrin) in River Fish   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16) Since there are many causes of variability in such measurements a study programme was devised to measure the concentrations of three pesticides in a range of common cyprinid fishes (dace, gudgeon, roach and chub) which covered the main feeding niches within the family. Data in the literature were so variable that no acceptable concentration in either water or fish could be proposed. Data for Permethrins and Simazine in freshwater fish were much less numerous. www.fwr.org /wastedis/frd0014.htm   (484 words)

 SBIR/STTR Interactive Topic Information System (SITIS) The monitoring of gas turbine component life and usage is becoming increasingly complex and is generating greater orders of magnitude of data that require processing, storage, and almost certainly retrieval and re-processing. The later ones are complex, processor intensive, and lead to significant data management problems (particularly when data must be maintained against individual components, through several overhauls, throughout the component's life). PHASE I: Develop a novel conceptual methodology for the management of gas turbine life and usage data that is data efficient, manageable, effective, safe, and flexible. www.dodsbir.net /Sitis/archives_display_topic.asp?Bookmark=20054   (596 words)

 Lloyd Allison, Research Interests, Introduction.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16) The problems are made trickier by the inevitable presence of noise and experimental error in the data. Business is likely to be good for some time, because as soon as a problem is "solved", the molecular biologists find a way to generate orders of magnitude more data. Inductive inference is the task of forming hypotheses to explain or fit real-world data. www.csse.monash.edu.au /~lloyd/Res.Int.html   (259 words)

 [No title] Data from existing broadband arrays and empirical relations provide the likely detection threshold of events for USArray (mb > 4.5-5.0) and thus the numbers, and azimuth and distance distributions of regional and teleseismic events for any transportable array footprint, as well as the entire 10 year experiment. For most common analysis methods, USArray will provide several orders of magnitude more data than the community is accustomed to analyzing. We have estimated the likely numbers of P and S wave travel times for body wave to m ography, events suitable for surface wave tomography, and events suitable for receiver functions for structural imaging. mahi.ucsd.edu /shearer/IGPP/keen.00.01.26   (779 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, 1993 Review of the World Center-A for Meteorology and the National Climatic Data Center (1994) It is also an era in which new meteorological observing systems promise to deliver orders of magnitude more data than past systems, posing novel and immediate challenges concerning how these data are to be archived so that climate-related information can be readily and sensibly retrieved. In light of the considerable value of lengthy, homogeneous data records to global change research, the NCDC should place high priority on recalibrating retrospective datasets in its care that are especially critical to such research. 1993 Review of the World Data Center-A for Meteorology and the National Climatic Data Center Given the national trend toward distributed computer architectures, the NCDC should assume greater responsibility in assuring that all climate-related datasets are properly stored, documented, and easily accessible to users, regardless of where the data physically reside. www.nap.edu /openbook/NX002810/html/1.html   (1182 words)

 A Comparative Evaluation of Voting and Meta-learning on Partitioned Data - Chan, Stolfo (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16) With the coming age of very large network computing, it is likely that orders of magnitude more data in databases will be available for various learning problems of real world importance. Some learning algorithms assume that the entire data set fits into main memory, which is not feasible for massive amounts of data. One approach to handling a large data set is to partition the data set... citeseer.ist.psu.edu /chan95comparative.html   (602 words)

 Definition of Case Study This is in distinct contrast with the controlled experiment, where there are typically several orders of magnitude more data points than variables. Because there are more variables than data points, the research case study uses multiple converging sources of evidence to prove a point. Without a theory to guide them, researchers will not know what specific data to collect out of the myriad data available.Also, they will not know what analyses would be meaningful to perform. www.cs.fit.edu /~jpmcgee/classes/CSE5800/CaseStudyDefn.html   (223 words)

 Mars Network- Marsats As discussed earlier, the MARSats would be in areostationary orbits that would keep them continuously in view of and in contact with the same hemisphere of Mars (except when interrupted by infrequent eclipses). To the extent that the exploration elements are also equipped with X-band transmitters or transceivers, the first MARSat's equipment would enable data rates of up to 1 megabits per second, or fast enough to allow streaming video from the exploration elements. Combined with the continuous contact time associated with the areostationary orbit, these data rates would enable orders of magnitude more data return than with the Microsats alone. marsnet.jpl.nasa.gov /elements/marsats.html   (459 words)

 Petascale Virtual-Data Grids for Data Intensive Science To summarize, the Data Grid we are proposing leverages the computing systems that will be in place when SDSS, LIGO and LHC begin taking data into a coherent resource that can be accessed from a desktop located anywhere in the world. A Data Grid combines computing, data storage, and networking in a highly transparent infrastructure that can be mined efficiently by the university research community to extract scientific results. But the most profound result, discussed earlier, is the flow of data outward from the laboratories to their intellectual communities, strengthening the university infrastructure and broadening access to researchers, students and the public. www.phys.ufl.edu /~avery/mre/white_paper.html   (2383 words)

 Determination of Cellular Strains by Combined Atomic Force Microscopy and Finite Element Modeling -- Charras and Horton ... The magnitude of strains elicited by micropipette poking was not very sensitive to changes in Poisson ratio (Fig. the magnitude of cellular strains was greatly reduced. The strains to which osteocytes were subjected reached 1% and were an order of magnitude larger than the strain imposed on www.biophysj.org /cgi/content/full/83/2/858   (7596 words)

 ANSS Catalog Caveats Note that the seismicity among the regions may vary by orders of magnitude. For example, here are year-by-year histograms for the 1980s and 1990s, showing the variations in numbers of events of magnitude 4 and higher. While the number of magnitude 4.0-4.9 events gradually evolves, the number of magnitude 5 and higher events has remained relatively stable on the year to year basis. quake.geo.berkeley.edu /anss/cnss-caveats.html   (670 words)

 ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE Orders of magnitude in distance (chart at a glance) Chemical - Physical Change Inquiry Note: this is not really an order of magnitude activity, but it goes nicely with Ph, acids, and bases. ....probes the infinite magnitude of the universe and its reverse... mimp.mems.cmu.edu /~ordofmag/orders_of_magnitude.htm   (940 words)

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