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Topic: Organophosphate

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  Organophosphate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds.
The term organophosphate should strictly be reserved for an ester of phosphoric acid or one of its higher compounds (such as pyrophosphoric acid.
The effects of organophosphate poisoning are recalled using the mnemonic "SLUDGE", for salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, gastrointestinal upset, and emesis.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Organophosphate   (543 words)

 The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Organophosphate compounds cause acute toxicity and cholinergic crisis by acetylcholinesterase inhibiton.
Organophosphates cause acute symptoms by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase[9].
Studies have shown that years after acute intoxication with organophosphates, memory and cognitive functions might be defective and vibrotactile sensitivity might be decreased, indicating the presence of peripheral neuropathy, although neurologic examination and electroencephalography (EEG) findings were normal[17-20].
tjp.dergisi.org /text.php3?id=39   (1459 words)

 Organophosphate Toxicity
Organophosphate toxicity is due to the ability of these compounds to inhibit acetylcholinesterase at cholinergic junctions of the nervous system.
Organophosphate compounds vary greatly in their toxic capabilities and have the advantage over other types of insecticides in that they produce little or no tissue residues.
Susceptibility to organophosphate toxicity varies greatly among individuals of any species and can be increased by frequent repeated mild exposure which results in greater susceptibility due to exhaustion of the body's store of cholinesterase.
www.michigan.gov /dnr/1,1607,7-153-10370_12150_12220-27249--,00.html   (856 words)

 Organophosphate pesticides
Organophosphates as a class have become the most frequently used pesticides because of their rapid breakdown into environmentally safe products.
The majority of organophosphate poisoning occurs by accidental or occupational exposure, but poisoning may also be due to suicide attempts, homicide attempts, or chemical warfare.
Organophosphates reversibly bind to and inactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine and leading to an excess of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses.
www.krpc.com /proffed/op\op.cfm   (2700 words)

 Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticide Poisoning
Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are commonly used for small animals as flea and tick powders, sprays, foggers, shampoos and dips, flea collars, and formerly, as systemic insecticides.
Since all organophosphate and carbamate insecticides have the same mechanism of action and can be long-lasting, the effects of multiple exposures (for example: flea dip, flea powder, flea collar, and home and lawn flea treatment) are additive.
Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning is relatively common in pets and livestock.
www.addl.purdue.edu /newsletters/1998/summer/organos.html   (607 words)

 Toxicity, Organophosphate and Carbamate by Debra Slapper, M.D.
There are reported approximately 20,000 organophosphate exposures per year, although it is estimated that as few as 1% of field worker illness from pesticide exposure is reported.
Patients with non-life-threatening symptoms due to carbamate poisoning or with questionable exposure to organophosphates and no symptoms may be considered for discharge after adequate decontamination and observation for six hours.
Pregnancy: Patients have been successfully treated after organophosphate poisoning in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with atropine and palidoxime with delivery of healthy newborns.
members.aol.com /DonationDrive/OrganphosToxemedicine.html   (2278 words)

 Organophosphate Pesticides National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Centers for Disease Control ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Organophosphate pesticides are active against a broad spectrum of insects and are used on food crops as well as in residential and commercial buildings and on ornamental plants and lawns.
The mechanism of toxicity of the organophosphate pesticides is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which catalyzes the deacetylation of acetylcholine.
Urine levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides were measured in a subsample of NHANES participants 6 through 59 years of age who were selected to be representative of the U.S. population.
www.mindfully.org /Pesticide/Organophosphate-Pesticides-CDCMar01.htm   (770 words)

 ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Hydraulic Fluid
Organophosphate ester hydraulic fluids are mostly made without oil and will not burn unless there is a flame directly on them; once the flame is removed, these fluids will stop burning.
This effect was probably caused by one of the organophosphate ester additives of the mineral oil hydraulic fluid.
The organophosphate ester part of the hydraulic fluid rapidly inhibits the activity of important enzymes in the nervous system causing multiple symptoms including tremors, sweating, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /toxprofiles/phs99.html   (2241 words)

 Organophosphate Poisoning
The day before she fell ill she had sponged her dogs and cat with an organophosphate insecticide and then gone inside to spray her carpets and covers, all on a hot still day when the OP would have been more volatile than usual.
When organophosphates block cholinesterase the condition is reversible because in a short time the body makes more of the enzyme.
Organophosphate insecticides replaced the organo-chlorines which accumulate in body fat because it was believed OPs were rapidly detoxified.
www.whale.to /a/fullerton.html   (3263 words)

 Organophosphate Exam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Then, if need to go back to the material to answer some of the questions, you will have a copy of the questions and answers to help guide you.
Tachycardia is a contraindication to atropine use in organophosphate poisoning.
It should be given prophylactically to workers exposed to organophosphates.
www.krpc.com /proffed/op/op_test.cfm   (359 words)

 Chemical Exposure Collaborative Pain Research Unit Organophosphates Clinical Information Document: 1 Dustin, RH, and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The organophosphate pesticides comprising the neutral esters or amides are biologically active by their capacity to interfere with metabolism and they are usually lipid soluble and highly reactive.
The organophosphate pesticides are usually not considered as recalcitrant chemicals due to their high reactivity.
The organophosphate compounds under question are hydrophobic and require the use of solvents for dissolving and dispersal.
www.mindfully.org /Health/Organophosphates-Exposure-Pain.htm   (3262 words)

 Organophosphate poisoning in urban Zimbabwe
Organophosphates are the most commonly used pesticides in Zimbabwe, yet there are no current studies investigating its trends.
The objectives of this study were to examine patterns of organophosphate poisoning in Zimbabwe.
Organophosphate poisoning is increasing uncontrollably, and a multi-sectoral approach is needed to curb this escalation.
apha.confex.com /apha/129am/techprogram/paper_27490.htm   (308 words)

 Organophosphates Implicated In Mad Cow Disease
His greater concern is that some lotions for scabies and head lice are now priming children and adults for CJD and Alzheimers in later life, and that manganese in unleaded petrol may prove as deadly as the lead it replaced.
If organophosphates are indeed the causal factor in BSE and nvCJD, the agrochemical giants such as Monsanto, Syngenta, and Aventis have more to fear than litigation.
As the toxic effects and persistence of organochlorine pesticides became known, the agrochemical industry shifted to organophosphates, which represent the majority of insecticides and herbicides in use today.
www.laleva.cc /environment/insecticide_bse.html   (1733 words)

 ARS | Publication request: Enhanced-Rate Biodegradation of Organophosphate Neurotoxins by Immobilized Non-Growing ...
Interpretive Summary: Recent progress in the biodegradation of organophosphate insecticides suggests that biological treatment may prove to be the most environmentally and economically feasible strategy for detoxifying these compounds and for cleaning up contaminated soils and water.
In this research, scientists compared the biodegradation rates of the insecticide coumaphos by bacterial cells trapped (immobilized) in a synthetic gel to rates by the same cells that were suspended in buffer.
A recombinant strain of Escherichia coli containing the opd gene for organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) which is capable of active hydrolysis of OP neurotoxins was cultivated in a rich medium containing all essential nutrients.
www.ars.usda.gov /research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=135357   (458 words)

Organophosphate pesticides account for about half of the insecticides used in the United States.
Organophosphate pesticides act by interfering with the transmission of signals in the nervous systems of both insects and humans, if humans are exposed in high enough amounts.
Organophosphate pesticides injure and even kill large numbers of people around the world every year, and have been associated with chronic nervous system damage in people who survive poisoning.
www.scorecard.org /about/txt/dpm.html   (173 words)

 Organophosphate Sheep Dips - Gulf War Syndrome
The main symptoms of organophosphate long term damage are excessive fatigue, sensory disturbance, dizziness, disturbance of higher cerebral function, problems with memory, with cognitive functions, being able to carry out tasks such as mathematics and how to deal with life generally.
Regarding BSE, organophosphates are of course used extensively on sheep, and it is in sheep that this type of illness first started in the form of scrapie.
Organophosphates could be reducing the natural bacteria in the cattle which neutralises bacteria on green offal.
www.safe2use.com /ca-ipm/01-03-23.htm   (7851 words)

 Chemical Fact Sheet: Organophosphate Pesticides - The Breast Cancer Fund   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Organophosphate Pesticides are all called "nonpersistent pesticides" because they break down fairly rapidly in the environment (within days or weeks), reducing their potential to accumulate in the tissues of plants, animals or humans.
One study of the effects of choronic low-level exposure of children to pesticides found that they had reduced stamina, poor coordination and impaired memory when compared to children who were not exposed.
There is also evidence that fetal exposure to organophosphates may lead to increased risk of childhood brain tumors, leukemia, and other cancers.
www.breastcancerfund.org /site/pp.asp?c=kwKXLdPaE&b=84568   (475 words)

 "Organophosphate Assessment Likely To Result in Restrictions, Consultant Says"
A cumulative assessment of organophosphate insecticides is likely to show that current uses of the chemicals result in exposures that are at least 20 to 30 times higher than acceptable levels, a private consultant told BNA July 25.
The major organophosphate pesticides that have accounted for most of the organophosphate risk on apples are methyl parathion, azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and diazinon, Benbrook said.
Within the next five years, most organophosphate fruit tolerances are predicted to be between 0.01 parts per million and 0.1 ppm, Benbrook said, with the possible exception of malathion and other less toxic organophosphates.
www.ecologic-ipm.com /BNA_72700.html   (1226 words)

 VetMedCenter - Consumer - Article Details   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Organophosphate or carbamate toxicity is poisoning from the exposure of an animal to products containing organophosphate or carbamate.
Organophosphate or carbamate toxicity is a common poisoning of small animals.
Organophosphate and carbamate toxicity is diagnosed by physical examination and a history of exposure.
consumer.vetmedcenter.com /Consumer/display.asp?id=8837&dt=p   (608 words)

 Toxicity of the Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for Public Protection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents were designed specifically to cause incapacitation or death in military use and are particularly effective because of their extremely high acute toxicity.
Organophosphate insecticides are sequestered in body fat and gradually mobilized from these depots to a greater extent than the OP nerve agents as evidenced by their longer time course of recovery and need for repeated treatment with atropine (160,161).
Organophosphate nerve agents are highly toxic by all routes of exposure.
www.ehponline.org /members/1994/102-1/munro-full.html   (16202 words)

 Exposures of Children to Organophosphate Pesticides and Their Potential Adverse Health Effects   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
In spite of the paucity of information concerning the potential health effects in children of chronic low-level exposure to organophosphates, there is substantial evidence in developing rodents and limited evidence in adult humans who have been chronically exposed to OPs that low-level chronic exposure to organophosphates may affect neurologic functioning, neurodevelopment, and growth.
Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in infants and children Pediatrics 81:121-126 (1988).
Teratological, neurochemical, and postnatal neurobehavioral assessment of METASYSTOX-R, an organophosphate pesticide in the rat.
www.ehponline.org /members/1999/suppl-3/409-419eskenazi/eskenazi-full.html   (7293 words)

 U.S. EPA - EPA Reassesses 42 Organophosphate Tolerances   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
In these actions, which are part of the review of existing organophosphate tolerances under the Food Quality Protection Act, EPA has determined that three tolerances for chlorpyrifos and 39 diazinon tolerances meet the safety standard in section 408(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and can be reassessed.
The Agency examined the monitoring data used in the organophosphate cumulative risk assessment and found that pesticide residue was detected only in an insignificant number of the samples that were analyzed for these food commodity/organophosphate combinations, including the parent chemical and the degradates that were tested.
In addition, the revised organophosphate cumulative risk assessment indicates that relatively few pesticide/crop combinations account for the vast majority of exposure.
www.epa.gov /oppfead1/cb/csb_page/updates/42ops.htm   (292 words)

 Organophosphate insecticides fact sheet
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used group of insecticides in the world.
Dementi, B., Ocular effects of organophosphates: a historical perspective of Saku disease, Journal of Applied Toxicology, 1994, 14:119-129.
Steenland, K, Chronic neurological effects of organophosphate pesticides: subclinical damage does occur, but longer follow studies are needed, British Medical Journal, 25 May 1995.
www.pan-uk.org /pestnews/actives/organoph.htm   (2367 words)

 Organophosphate Information - Online Lawyer Source
Organophosphate pesticides are the byproduct of nerve agents used during World War II.
In January 2004, the EPA was sued on behalf of farm workers in Washington and other states on the claims that the EPA has allowed the use of organophosphate pesticides despite the date indicating the serious dangers of exposure to it.
When farmers are exposed to the pesticides they pose a danger to their families because the organophosphates can be brought into the home on skin and clothing and vehicles.
www.onlinelawyersource.com /pesticides/organophosphate.html   (389 words)

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