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Topic: Organotin

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In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

  Tin and organotin compounds (EHC 15, 1980)
Organotin compounds may enter water, for example, from antifouling paints on the bottoms of ships or from molluscicides, which, to be effective, should be present at concentrations of about 1 mg/litre.
Organotin compounds may be introduced into foods through the use of such compounds as pesticides and, to some extent, through migration of tin from poly(vinyl chloride) materials.
In the organotin compounds of practical importance, R is usually a butyl, octyl, or phenyl group and X is commonly chloride, fluoride, oxide, hydroxide, carboxylate, or thiolate.
www.inchem.org /documents/ehc/ehc/ehc015.htm   (9923 words)

 Organotin polymers method of making them and paints containing them - Patent 4380599
Organotin polymers for use in marine anti-fouling paints contain pendent groups having the general formula --O.CO.R.sup.1 CO.OSnR.sub.3 where R is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, aryl, aralkyl or alkaryl, and R.sup.1 is a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic or aromatic C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 group.
Organotin groups in polymers are not significantly toxic to the organisms which it is desired to kill.
Organotin groups have been incorporated in polymers by means of ether and ester linkages.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4380599.html   (2575 words)

 Organotin in PVC and CPVC Water Piping Organotin Environmental Programme 29may01
Organotin compounds are added to CPVC as stabilizers, and there are established standards for organotin leachates from CPVC.
Tri-substituted organotin compounds are not used as stabilizers, but some are used primarily as biocide in antifouling paints for ocean going vessels as fungicides for industrial wood protection or as miticides in the agricultural area.
Because organotin compounds vary considerably with the nature and number of organic groups bonded to the tin atom, the most appropriate methods of organotin analysis are those that are species-specific.
www.mindfully.org /Plastic/Organotin-EP.htm   (953 words)

 [No title]
Based on available data, it is concluded, therefore, that non-pesticidal organotin compounds are not entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that may constitute a danger to human life or health.
Organotin compounds, mainly monomethyltin and monobutyltin, were detected at concentrations ranging up to 22 ng Sn/L and 43.6 ngSn/L, respectively, in distributed water samples from six municipalities in Canada (Sadiki and Williams, 1996).
Organotins were detected in samples of water from distribution systems supplied through PVC pipes in both the winter/spring (25/94; 27%) and autumn (28/70; 40%) surveys.
www.ec.gc.ca /substances/ese/eng/psap/assessment/PSL1_organotin_followup.txt   (4853 words)

 Environmental & Workplace Health
Due to the low toxicity of the non-pesticidal organotin compounds to aquatic invertebrates and fish, adverse effects on aquatic-based wildlife due to decreased availability of prey are considered unlikely.
The non-pesticidal organotin compounds discussed in this assessment are not appreciably volatile and are not expected to contribute to phenomena such as ozone depletion, global warming, or the formation of ground-level ozone.
A potential source of non-pesticidal organotin compounds in drinking water, however, is migration of stabilizers from PVC pipe, which is used fairly extensively in distribution systems in Canada.
www.hc-sc.gc.ca /ewh-semt/pubs/contaminants/psl1-lsp1/non_pest_org_comp/non_pest_org_comp_3_e.html   (1198 words)

 Organotin Compounds in the Environment
After the environmental problems caused by organotin compounds and their use as antifoulants it is, in spite of the different degradation mechanisms, clear that these chemicals are capable to accumulate in the environment.
This is because organotins easily form a five- or six-coordination state in which the tin element is coordinated by electronegative atoms (such as nitrogen, oxigen and sulfur).
It was found [21] that bioavailability of organotins is lower in the presence of humic substances.
openchemist.net /chemistry/show.php?id=analytical&story=env001   (8747 words)

The speciation of organotins was used to study their behaviour in two vegetables cultivated on a sandy soil spiked with solutions of either triphenyltin (TPhT) or tributyltin (TBT), and on a sludged soil.
Therefore the main purpose of this work is to study organotin speciation in plants, in order to assess OTC taken from the soil by vegetable roots, their possible phytoaccumulation and biotransformation into plants.
The organotin concentrations measured in the different parts of French beans and in potato tubers cultivated on contaminated soils are summarised in Tables 4, 5 and 6.
ejeafche.uvigo.es /2(3)2003/004232003F.htm   (4393 words)

 Organotin Compounds in the Environment -- an Overview   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
While tin in its inorganic form is considered to be non-toxic, the toxicological pattern of the organotin compounds is complex.
Not only in water and sediments high amounts of the toxic tributyltin and some other organotin derivatives can be found, but also various aquatic organisms and tissues of mammals and birds are contaminated by these compounds.
In spite of legislative regulations of usage for organotins in numerous countries, these pollutants represent a risk for aquatic and terrestric ecosystems.
www.angewandte-geologie.geol.uni-erlangen.de /marion5.htm   (216 words)

 [No title]
Prohibition on application of organotin antifouling paints on certain vessels -STATUTE- (a) Prohibition Subject to section 12(d), and except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, no person in any State may apply to a vessel that is less than 25 meters in length an antifouling paint containing organotin.
L. 100-333, regarding release of organotin into the aquatic environment by antifouling paints, is issued and takes effect, see section 12(a) to (c) of Pub.
Monitoring and research of ecological effects -STATUTE- (a) Estuarine monitoring The Administrator, in consultation with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, shall monitor the concentrations of organotin in the water column, sediments, and aquatic organisms of representative estuaries and near-coastal waters in the United States.
uscode.house.gov /download/pls/33C37.txt   (2133 words)

 Organotin Antifouling Paint Control   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Five years after enactment of this law, the agency is to report to Congress concerning the effectiveness of this law, compliance with water quality criteria, and recommendations for additional protective measures.
Over a 10 year period and in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, EPA is to monitor organotin concentrations in aquatic organisms and water column sediments of representative U.S. estuaries.
The Navy and EPA are directed to cooperatively conduct research on chemical and non-chemical alternatives to organotin antifouling paints, and to provide their findings to Congress 4 years after enactment of this law.
www.fws.gov /laws/lawsdigest/organon.html   (316 words)

 A Practical Method for the Disposal of Organotin Residues from Reaction Mixtures
Organotin compounds are used as versatile reagents for organic synthesis,
is based on the very high solubility of organotin halides and unreacted organotin hydride in hexane and the preferential partitioning of other organic compounds into acetonitrile in the acetonitrile-hexane two-phase system.
To limit the residual tin contamination, organotin hydrides have been anchored to an insoluble polymer so that the byproducts can be separated by simple filtration.
pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/sample.cgi/joceah/0000/65/i26/html/jo000525+.html   (1848 words)

 EPA | Chemical control orders (CCOs)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Organotin waste is primarily generated by the shipping industry during the application or removal of antifouling paint containing organotin chemicals.
Organotin is toxic in the marine environment at extremely low concentrations and has been shown to interfere with the biological processes in a diverse range of species.
Organotin wastes may be disposed of to an industrial waste landfill or a solid waste class 2 landfill provided that the waste is completely isolated from the other waste and leachate in the landfill cell.
www.epa.nsw.gov.au /chemicals/ccos.htm   (2254 words)

 Organotin stabilisers
Organotin compounds for stabilising PVC have been in commercial use for over 40 years and the commercial products currently available are well proven in their respective applications.
Organotin stabilisers, specifically octyl and methyl tin products, have extensive national approvals for food contact applications.
In the case of potable water pipe, tin stabilisers are approved in all European countries and in the USA.
www.ecvm.org /code/page.cfm?id_page=139   (501 words)

 Organotin Toxicity
Organotin compounds found to interfere with immune system cell activity.
Organotins, principally dibutyltin and monobutyltin, are used as stabilizers in Vinyl as an alternative to Lead and Cadmium.
Organotins were substituted for lead when vinyl miniblinds were formulated.
www.turnertoys.com /organotin_toxicity.htm   (1178 words)

 About Organotin - Ortep Association
Organotin chemicals are those compounds containing at least one bond between tin and carbon.
As the world of organotin chemicals is quite extensive and diverse, this paper will briefly discuss some of the major commercial uses concentrating on the alkyltins (methyltins, butyltins, octyltins), with a brief mention of phenyltins and cyclohexyltins used in certain applications.
The majority of organotin uses are comprised of five major commercial applications: PVC Heat Stabilizers, Biocides, Catalysts, Agrichemicals, and Glass Coatings.
www.ortepa.org /aboutorganotin.htm   (306 words)

 Heterogeneous organotin catalysts patent invention
Among the advantages of organotin catalysts with respect to others, their very high efficiency, high selectivity and high activity at low concentration are often stressed.
5,561,205 have described polymeric organotin compounds in which the organotin is attached to a styrene based polymer made by polymerization of functionalized styrene based organotin monomers.
Although the corresponding organotin catalysts obtained by polymerization lead to polymers with high loading, the inaccessibility of some tins and a difficult control of polymer characteristics during the polymerization reaction remain the main difficulties and drawbacks of this synthetic route.
www.freshpatents.com /Heterogeneous-organotin-catalysts-dt20051124ptan20050261444.php   (1190 words)

 Environment: Why Phase-Out Organotin Paint?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Organotin compounds, such as TBT, are considered to be amongst the most toxic chemicals ever released into the marine environment.
Studies show that organotins are present in marine species at all levels of the ecosystem: fish, birds and mammals.
This has been shown to reduce levels of organotin, but their continued use on larger ships, and the fact that the compounds can persist in sediments for a lengthy time period, means that the marine environment is still saturated with these chemicals at unacceptably high levels.
www.softapproach.com /Articles/Environment/Environment/why-phase-out-organotin-paint.html   (384 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Interpretation---In these regulations, unless the context otherwise requires,--- ``Organotin'' means a substance that is characterised by at least one direct carbon-tin bond; and includes tributyltin and triphenyltin.
Revocation---The Pesticides (Organotin Antifouling Paints) Regulations 1989 S.R. are hereby consequentially revoked.
The Pesticides (Organotin Antifouling Paints) Regulations 1989, which impose restrictions on the sale and use of organotin antifouling paints, are consequentially revoked.
www.knowledge-basket.co.nz /regs/regs/text/1993/1993326.txt   (208 words)

 MEL - MESL :Organotins in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman
Organotin contamination in marine sediments and biota from the Gulf and adjacent region
Organotin compounds are persistent in the marine sediments owing to their slow degradation rates and consistent flux.
A survey was conducted to assess organotin contamination in sediments and biota in the coastal zone of Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, together with the first such data from the Gulf of Oman.
www-naweb.iaea.org /naml/meslresorggulfoman.asp   (1204 words)

Organotin compounds, due to their versatility, have been exploited for use in a plethora of diverse applications with the intent to benefit human society.
For example, organotin compounds have been used as insecticides, fungicides (e.g., fungicidal wood preservatives), herbicides, acaricides, disinfectants (e.g., textiles), antifoulant coatings/biocides (e.g., applied to ship and boat hulls, docks, fishnets, buoys, etc., to discourage the growth of marine organisms), and preservatives for many other different types of materials.
Selected organotin compounds: monomethyltin trichloride*, dimethlytin dichloride*, monobutyltin trichloride*, and dibutyltin dichloride* are listed on the Occurrence and Research Priorities lists of the CCL because more data are needed for these potential contaminants before the Agency can determine whether to regulate them.
oaspub.epa.gov /eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=18406   (1548 words)

 Ortep Association
To promote and foster the dissemination of scientific and technical information on the environmental effects of organotin compounds and to provide greater appreciation of the available scientific and technical information on environmental aspects of organotin compounds.
In 1972, the International Tin Research Institute, in cooperation with global major producers of organotin compounds, set up at the Organic Chemistry Institute of the University of Utrecht in The Netherlands, an environmental research program to establish analytical methods for detecting trace amounts of organotin compounds.
This organization established a database of technical and environmental information relating to organotin compounds, currently maintained in England.
www.ortepa.org   (273 words)

 Screening for Organotin Compounds in European Landfill Leachates -- Mersiowsky et al. 30 (5): 1604 -- Journal of ...
Linear regression analysis for calibration of organotin species in water (for comparison and method validation); results of standard addition: target compounds were spiked in tap water.
organotin stabilizers was found to be generally low (Mersiowsky et al., 1999).
Organotin compounds in sediments of the rivers Elbe and Mulde.
jeq.scijournals.org /cgi/content/full/30/5/1604   (4039 words)

 Antifungal and/or antibacterial organotin compounds, and use - Patent 4221811
The present invention relates to antifungal and/or antibacterial organotin compounds, their preparation and use in compositions having high antifungal and antibacterial activities.
The nature of the organic group R appeared to be of decisive importance in contrast to the nature of the anionic group Y, which does not appreciably influence the activity.
More in particular for the application of organotin biocides as preservatives for emulsion paints and in wood-preservation, there is an urgent need for organotin biocides having both a high water-solubility and a broad-spectrum activity.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4221811.html   (2158 words)

 Organotin and seals
Organotin and seals in the Dutch Wadden Sea.
Organotin is de verzamelnaam voor organische tinverbindingen, waarvan die met butyl of fenyl-groep(en) het meest worden toegepast.
Doordat in het verleden, voor zover bekend, geen onderzoeken op de zeehond zijn uitgevoerd is deze dagelijkse opname vergeleken met een effectconcentratie bij ratten en muizen.
www.waddenloket.nl /?id=1200   (325 words)

 SETAC 2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
We confirmed that ethylation of organotin compounds with sodium tetraethylborate was superior to propylation with a Grignard reagent (i.e., lower detection limits were achieved with ethylated derivatives).
We detected 11 kinds of organotin compounds in coastal seawater from Suruga Bay; tributyltin was detected at the highest concentration.
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be transported through volatilization of organotin compounds, and volatilization of organotin compounds may be a major sink in the marine environment.
abstracts.co.allenpress.com /pweb/setac2004/document/?ID=42254   (292 words)

 Stannin (SNN)
Organotin dealkylation has also been detected in the environment, where alkyl group removal has been attributed to the action of UV light, chemical cleavage, and biological degradation by bacteria.
Although the chemistry of organotin degradation has never been elucidated, organotin reactivity has been attributed to the nature of the C-Sn bond that can be attacked by both nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents.
To study the chemistry of organotin binding to biological dithiols, we synthesized a nine-residue peptide (SNN-PEP) corresponding to amino acids 29-37 of stannin (ILGCWCYLR) and examined its binding with different organotin compounds.
www.chem.umn.edu /groups/veglia/snn.htm   (1390 words)

 Lit.Org : Announcements : Phasing out organotin paints : Writers Workshops, Writing Tips, articles, stories, poetry, ...
This will be achieved through eliminating the use of organotin anti-fouling paints, with action taken to bring about such elimination of the use organotins before the date proposed by the IMO of 2003.
The main qualification for membership in the 2003 Group (organotin free group) will be that the industry player concerned is fully organotin free by January 1st 2003.
Recent studies show that organotins are present in marine species at all levels of the ecosystem: fish, birds and mammals and possible human endocrine disrupting properties of organotins have been seen.
www.lit.org /view/1260   (478 words)

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