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Topic: Orientalism

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In the News (Mon 19 Aug 19)

  Orientalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages and peoples by Western scholars.
In the former meaning the term Orientalism has come to acquire negative connotations in some quarters and is interpreted to refer to the study of the East by Americans and Europeans shaped by the attitudes of the era of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Supporters of "Oriental Studies" counter that the term "Asian" is just as encompassing as "Oriental" and may well have originally had the same meaning, if it were derived from an Akkadian word for "East" (a more common derivation is from one or both of two Anatolian proper names.).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Orientalism   (3466 words)

 Orientalism (book) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orientalism is a 1978 study by Edward Said that marks the beginning of post-colonial studies.
Through unmasking the superstructure behind scholarly, literary, and political texts for 18th and 19th century Britain and France and 20th century America, Said shows that the "Orient" has very little relationship to lives of Middle Eastern and Islamic culture but shows Western sense of superiority and its definition of the self and the Other.
Orientalism is often classed with postmodernist and post-colonial works sharing various degrees of skepticism about representation itself, but a few months before he died Said indicated he regarded the book as in the tradition of "humanistic critique" and the Enlightenment.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Orientalism_(book)   (478 words)

Orientalism is "a manner of regularized (or Orientalized) writing, vision, and study, dominated by imperatives, perspectives, and ideological biases ostensibly suited to the Orient." It is the image of the 'Orient' expressed as an entire system of thought and scholarship.
The discourse and visual imagery of Orientalism is laced with notions of power and superiority, formulated initially to facilitate a colonizing mission on the part of the West and perpetuated through a wide variety of discourses and policies.
A rejection of Orientalism entails a rejection of biological generalizations, cultural constructions, and racial and religious prejudices.
www.english.emory.edu /Bahri/Orientalism.html   (954 words)

 Orientalism revisited by Keith Windschuttle
Oriental Studies is a composite area of scholarship comprising philology, linguistics, ethnography, and the interpretation of culture through the discovery, recovery, compilation, and translation of Oriental texts.
The first is that Orientalism, although purporting to be an objective, disinterested, and rather esoteric field, in fact functioned to serve political ends.
The only plausible connection he establishes between Oriental scholarship and imperialism is the example of the Comte de Volney, who wrote two travel books on Syria and Egypt in the 1780s suggesting that the decaying rule of the Ottoman Empire in those countries made them ripe for political change.
www.newcriterion.com /archive/17/jan99/said.htm   (4274 words)

 Reason: 2001 Nights: The end of the Orientalist critique
His famous book Orientalism (1978) was a harsh interpretation of the West’s attitude toward just these matters, and the critique he established has since dominated the intellectual appraisal of the West’s political and cultural relationship to the Muslim world and other peoples of the East.
Orientalism, the systematic stereotyping and degradation of Easterners that dehumanized them in the eyes of the West, enabled the colonial powers not only to mistreat whole populations, but also, in some of the West’s flest moments, to slaughter them in horrifying numbers.
The same critics of Orientalism have long accused the West of depicting authority in the East in terms of a distorted concept of "Oriental Despotism." There are entire studies of this one subject (the most exhaustive is Alain Grosrichard’s 1979 work, The Sultan’s Court).
reason.com /0112/cr.cf.2001.shtml   (4605 words)

 Orientalism, Misinformation and Islam
One is forced also to concede that Oriental studies in the West have not always been inspired by the purest spirit of scholarly impartiality, and it is hard to deny that some Islamicists and Arabists have worked with the clear intention of belittling Islam and its adherents.
The most readily accepted designation of for Orientalism is an academic one, and indeed, and indeed the label still serves in a number of academic institutions.
The history of Orientalism is hardly one of unbiased examination of the sources of Islam especially when under the influence of the bigotry of Christianity.
www.islamic-awareness.org /Quran/orientalism.html   (2886 words)

 What is Orientalism?: Classical Middle Eastern Dance (Wichita Belly Dance)
Orientalism in scholarship and the arts has appeared for two hundred years throughout the West: in painting and sculpture, clothing styles, politics, anthropology, literature.
Orientalism, whether that of Hollywood or the Cairo film industry, whether advertisement or vaudeville, has given our art a tremendous vitality that continues to re-export itself from country to country, from Europe to the US and even back to the Middle East.
Orientalism is a style of thought based upon ontological and epistemological distinction made between "the Orient" and (most of the time) "the Occident." Thus a very large mass of writers.
www.dancewichita.com /wbd/vision/orientalism.html   (1200 words)

 Students, Teachers and Edward Said: Taking Stock of Orientalism
Edmond Burke, like Said, criticizes Oriental studies scholars who at the start of the twentieth century dealt with minor issues: "studies on obscure manuscripts, folk traits, rural sufism and popular religion," instead of dealing with topics he considered to be more important, such as study of the national movements that developed in the region.
Orientalism did have a salubrious effect to the extent that it brought into greater relief the influence of discourse on academic writing, particularly with respect to the analysis of the "other." Many scholars did need to be reminded of the humanity of their subjects, and their empathy needed to be strengthened.
Orientalism in increasing the awareness of scholars to cultural biases and the importance of discourse in shaping research, the harm the book wrought was no less great.
meria.idc.ac.il /journal/2006/issue1/jv10no1a2.html   (8067 words)

Orientalism expresses and represents that part culturally and even ideologically as a a mode of discourse with supporting institutions, vocabulary, scholarship, imagery, doctrines, even colonial bureaucracies and colonial styles.
The most readily accepted designation for Orientalism is an academic one, and indeed the label still serves in a number of academic institutions.
There is, on the one hand, the well-known use of the `foreign' for purposes of social critique, and the potential for delivering a Bakhtinian carnivalesque inversion of dominant values, and, on the other, a facility for encouraging notions not simply of ethnic difference, but of racial difference.
www.jennahennebry.com /orientalism.html   (776 words)

 Jews, Islam, and Orientalism
The object of Said's attack was the academic discipline of Orientalism, the study of the East and its various cultures, especially Islam.
Orientalism, an expression of the West's arrogant Eurocentrism, had created a distorted representation of the East's inferiority and then proceeded to justify and extend European colonialism on the basis of the self-interested simulacrum it had produced.
Said's Orientalism has become the bible of fashionable Third Worldism and the central document of postcolonial studies, which it did much to spawn.
library.flawlesslogic.com /orientalism.htm   (1436 words)

 Art/Museums: Noble Dreams Wicked Pleasures, Orientalism in American Art   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Many of the catalogue's essays were written by scholars who were not specialists in American art and while "a number of exhibitions have brought together the exotic imagery of the Near East…none seems to have approached the subject with an attempt to cross so many boundaries between high and low art," Mr.
Orientalism, Pre-Raphaelism and Art Nouveau are various manifestations of lush, richly embued, symbolic decorative aesthetics, often tinged if not overwhelmed by a sense of history and prior historic periods.
In discussing the phenomenon of near consistent Near Eastern "oriental" costuming of many American fraternal groups by the end of the nineteenth century, Mr.
www.thecityreview.com /oriental.html   (2205 words)

 Jonah Goldberg's Goldberg File on National Review Online   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
To the vast majority of the "high-brow" public, "Orientalism" simply means "anti-Arab" or "anti-Muslim." Exactly why it means that is a mystery to many of those who use the word unselfconsciously.
Orientalism was not intended to make Westerners more open-minded to other cultures; the West has always been receptive to new ideas.
Orientalism, the book that launched much of this buffoonery, ridiculed British and French Orientalists, yet ignored Soviet and other Marxist Orientalists —; even though many of the Marxists were much more virulently anti-Islam.
www.nationalreview.com /goldberg/goldberg020402.shtml   (1384 words)

 Al-Ahram Weekly | Opinion | Preface to Orientalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Orientalism is very much a book tied to the tumultuous dynamics of contemporary history.
My idea in Orientalism is to use humanistic critique to open up the fields of struggle, to introduce a longer sequence of thought and analysis to replace the short bursts of polemical, thought-stopping fury that so imprison us.
Therefore it would seem to be a vital necessity for independent intellectuals always to provide alternative models to the simplifying and confining ones based on mutual hostility that have prevailed in the Middle East and elsewhere for so long.
weekly.ahram.org.eg /2003/650/op11.htm   (2655 words)

 Orientalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Orientalism is more an indicator of the power the West holds over the Orient, than about the Orient itself.
For many Westerners, Islamic society is still understood in terms of the West's Oriental history (the heathen violent fighters of the Crusades), and not in the context of followers of a religion that shares much with both Judaism and Christianity.
The Orientalism of the nineteenth century built collections in the museums of Europe, institutions dedicated to the study of the East.
www.wmich.edu /dialogues/texts/orientalism.htm   (2140 words)

 3.9 Orientalism
Orientalism and the modern myth of “Hinduism.”; Numen 46: 146-85.
Domestic orientalism: The representation of “oriental” Jews in Zionist/Israeli historiography.
Ruth Benedict’s legacy of shame: Orientalism and occidentalism in the study of Japan.
www.themargins.net /fps/csbib/3.09orientalism.htm   (290 words)

My contention is that without examining Orientalism as a discourse one cannot possibly understand the enormously systematic discipline by which European culture was able to manage—and even produce—the Orient.
Students are reminded that because of Akitoshi Miyashita’s 4:35 lecture on October 19, this Orientalism seminar will take place from 6:10 to 7:40 instead of the usual time.
Said’s last “Preface to Orientalism,” written for the twenty-fifth anniversary edition, may be found in the Al-Ahram archive in English, the AMIN archive in Arabic, and in Japanese translation here.
themargins.net /fps/crspgs/orientalism.html   (990 words)

 Never Yet Melted » Orientalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
As far as large sections of the British intelligentsia are concerned, orientalism is thought of as an historical evil, something to be ashamed of and linked, however vaguely, to such wickednesses as crusading, racism, the slave trade, colonialism and Zionism.
Orientalism, by the Palestinian literary critic Edward Said, published in 1978, pioneered this paranoid approach to an essentially benign academic discipline.
He suggested that there was a malign tradition of disparaging and stereotyping orientals in various ways that went back to Homer, a tradition that was continued by such grand writers as Aeschylus, Dante, Flaubert and Camus.
neveryetmelted.com /?cat=190   (858 words)

 Three Forms of Orientalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Compared with Oriental studies or area studies, it is true that the term Orientalism is less preferred by specialists today, both because it is too vague and general and because it connotes the high-handed executive attitude of nineteenth-century and earlytwentieth-century European colonialism.
In brief, because of Orientalism the Orient was not (and is not) a free subject of thought or action.
This is not to say that Orientalism 7 unilaterally determines what can be said about the Orient, but that it is the whole network of interests inevitably brought to bear on (and therefore always involved in) any occasion when that peculiarS entity "the Orient" is in question.
www.scholars.nus.edu.sg /landow/post/poldiscourse/said/orient4.html   (506 words)

 H-Asia: "Orientalism" Thread
With regard to Orientalism and the "Far Orient", there is (or was) an ongoing debate in NIAS-nytt, the Nordic Newsletter of Asian Studies, especially in the two issues of 1994, and 1995.
There are chapters on the Orientalism debate, the Orient and culture and imperialism, Orientalism in art; in architecture; design, music and the theatre.
Orientalism, Said tells us, is more valuable as a sign of western power than as "veridic discourse" about the Orient.
www.h-net.msu.edu /~asia/threads/thrdorientalism.html   (6250 words)

 Black Orientalism - Islam America
Said noted that Orientalism was not a purely political affair, something that only Western governments and armies used against Oriental despots and their cowering subjects.
It is neither Black Orientalism nor a manifestation of anti-Muslim bias to criticize and analyze such works but, on the contrary, such criticism and analysis is necessary for the establishment of a standard that can be applied fairly and consistently across the board.
In describing "White" Orientalism, Edward Said noted that it was grounded in the fears, desires, repressions and prejudices of the West.
www.islamamerica.org /articles.cfm/article_id/89   (6129 words)

 BookkooB : Orientalism - Edward W. Said : Compare Book Prices
Those who see the book as repetative and hypocritically reductive have failed to grasp the true substance which is in the criticism and not primarily in the conclusions which are, for the most part, self-evident, as Said himself declares from the outset.
Although from the perspective of postcolonial and cultural studies in the late nineties Said's Orientalism may seem basic or unselfconscious, one must remember the importance of this book to a wide range of fields.
Through his identification of the construction of the racist and imperialist discourses of academic Orientalism, Said forces those interested in literary and cultural studies to reflect upon their own status as intellectuals and their own complicity with Orientalism and, by extension, other exploitative modes of power.
www.bookkoob.co.uk /book/0141187425.htm   (1003 words)

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