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Topic: Origins of anarchism


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 Anarchism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Anarchism comprises various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of the State, and authoritarian social and economic relationships.
Insurrectionary anarchism is not an ideological solution to all social problems, a commodity on the capitalist market of ideologies and opinions, but an on-going praxis aimed at putting an end to the domination of the state and the continuance of capitalism, which requires analysis and discussion to advance.
Historically, anarcho-communism is believed to have been put into practice by millions of people in the anarchist collectives and communes of the anarchist-controlled region of Ukraine during the Russian Revolution, and during the Spanish Civil War in the Aragon and Catalonia regions of Spain.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Anarchist

  
 Institute for Social Ecology - Anarchism: Past and Present
Historically, it is not accidental that Anarchism in Spain, in the Ukraine, and, in its Zapatista form in Mexico, could be crushed only by a genocidal destruction of its social roots, notably the village.
Anarchism, in effect, provides the materials for an analysis of the nature of freedom and the nature of oppression that go beyond the conventional economistic, nexus of capitalist society into the very sensibility, structure, and nature of human consociation as such.
The seeming "atavism" of Anarchism -- its attempts to retain artisanship, the mutual aid of the community, a closeness to nature and enlightened ethical norms -- are its virtues insofar as they seek to retain those richly articulated, cooperative, and self-expressive forms of human consociation scaled to human dimensions.
www.social-ecology.org /article.php?story=20031117102316395

  
 Whither Anarchism?
Anarchism's lifestyle tendencies orient young people toward a kind of rebellion that expresses itself in terms of narcissism, self-expression, intuition, and personalism--an orientation that stands sharply at odds with the socialistic core of anarchism that was celebrated by Bakunin, Kropotkin, and Malatesta, among so many others.
In periods of capitalist stability, social anarchism is often eclipsed on the Left by reform-oriented social-democratic and liberal ideologies, while lifestyle anarchism emerges as the embodiment of anarchism par excellence.
At one extreme of anarchism is a liberal ideology that focuses overwhelmingly on the abstract individual (often drawing on bourgeois ideologies), supports personal autonomy, and advances a negative rather than a substantive concept of liberty.
dwardmac.pitzer.edu /Anarchist_Archives/bookchin/whither.html

  
 The communist origins of anarchism - International History of anarchism - Anarkismo
While anarchism was born decidedly communist, it is true that the persecution of the international by the governments of the period led to deviations of Bakuninist theory, deviations which would leave their mark on the history of the anarchist movement, above all on the Italian movement.
After the decline of anarchism at the end of the last century into an isolationist period of terrorist acts, in many countries it re-discovered its mass base through anarcho-syndicalism, in other words in those workers' organizations which slowly brought anarchism back to its communist roots.
Review of 'Mikhail Bakunin; the philosophical basis of his anarchism' A19 1:14pm
www.anarkismo.net /newswire.php?story_id=38

  
 Post Colonial Anarchism
A different way of understanding anarchism in relation to the centuries-old struggle against arbitrary power is to view it as the newest member of a global family that includes numerous historical and present day communal societies and struggles against authority.
And political leaders who resort to blood and soil tales of national origins do so because their reactionary nationalism is rooted in appeals to racism and imperialism and therefore needs a biological- land tie.
This choice has also led some to abandon anarchism.
colours.mahost.org /articles/white2.html

  
 Anarchism: Arguments for and against -- by Albert Meltzer
Anarchism, said Marx, was the movement of the artisan worker -- that is to say, the self-employed craftsman with some leisure to think and talk, not subject to factory hours and discipline, independently-minded and difficult to threaten, not backward like the peasantry.
Anarchism is neither a mindless theory of destruction nor, despite some liberal-minded literary conceptions, is it hero-worship of people or institutions, however liberated they might be.
On the contrary: had anarchism been victorious in any period before 1914, it would have been a triumph for the poorer peasants and artisans, rather than among the industrial proletariat amongst whom the concept of anarchy was not widespread.
www.spunk.org /library/writers/meltzer/sp001500.html

  
 Eyal's Radical Corner - Anarchism
What Anarchism proposes is almost diametrically opposed to Lenin's variety of Socialism- not to mention the sad degeneration of even that flawed experiment from Stalin's days onward.
In a nutshell, I will say is that after considering the views and actions of both sides, I came to the conclusion Anarchism is right and Marxism wrong.
The Bolshevik faction of the Russian Communist Party, which took power in the name of the Working Class (and the peasants, sort of) in October 1917 believed that the liquidation of the previous expoiting classes (the Russian Aristocracy and Bourgeoisie) and a transition to state Capitalism are enough to propel the revolution towards ultimate success.
www.earendil.ath.cx /radical/anarchism.html

  
 Frank Popper Interview / Introduction
Anyone who looks at the historical record of the juncture of art and technology finds you nearly unaccompanied when it comes to documenting this historical record between the years of the late-1960’s up to the early 1990s.
At first, my reaction was that some of these works would share the fate of sculpture, where an original mould is the basis for the "tirage" of any number of "copies" and the question of the "aura" of the original work of art does not even arise.
But what we have to consider essentially is the difference between the historical value and the contemporary value of a work of art in the electronic era.
www.eyewithwings.net /nechvatal/popper/intervewww1.html

  
 'Notes on Anarchism' by Noam Chomsky
Rudolf Rocker describes modern anarchism as "the confluence of the two great currents which during and since the French revolution have found such characteristic expression in the intellectual life of Europe: Socialism and Liberalism." The classical liberal ideals, he argues, were wrecked on the realities of capitalist economic forms.
In its recognition of this lies the genuine and profound justification for the existence of anarchism."[14] From this point of view, anarchism may be regarded as the libertarian wing of socialism.
Anarchism is necessarily anticapitalist in that it "opposes the exploitation of man by man." But anarchism also opposes "the dominion of man over man." It insists that "socialism will be free or it will not be at all.
www.spunk.org /library/intro/sp000281.html

  
 Cave Culture » Blog Archive » Noam Chomsky on anarchism (reprint from ZMAG Dec 6th, 2004)
Do you agree with this theoretical separation, and in this perspective, where do you see the historical beginnings (origins) of anarchism in the U.S. NC: The individualistic anarchism that you are talking about, Stirner and others, is one of the roots of — among other things — the so-called “libertarian” movement in the US.
ZV: Ordinary people often confuse anarchism with chaos and violence, and do not know that anarchism (an archos) doesn’t mean life or state of things without rules, but rather a highly organized social order, life without a ruler, “principe”.
NC: There has been an element within the anarchist movement that has been concerned with “propaganda by the deed,” often with violence, and it is quite natural that power centers seize on it in an effort to undermine any attempt for independence and freedom, by identifying it with violence.
caveculture.bonsonno.org /?p=8

  
 Appendix: Defining Anarchism
Anarchism: The theory or doctrine that all forms of government are unnecessary, oppressive, and undesirable and should be abolished.
A number of critics have rejected my proferred definition of anarchism, which may be found in The American Heritage College Dictionary:
The word "book" means whatever people happen to have in mind when they think of "books"; if historical investigation were to discover that the term derives from ancient Egyptian, and at that time meant "parchment," this would not show that current usage is "wrong." It would show that words change their meaning.
www.gmu.edu /departments/economics/bcaplan/def.htm

  
 Newswire - History of anarchism - Anarkismo
Greek translation of "The communist origins of anarchism" by A. Dada.
southern africa / history of anarchism / review
southern africa / history of anarchism / opinion/analysis
www.anarkismo.net /newswire.php?topic=historyofanarchism

  
 Nihilism - free-definition
In fact, many forms of anarchism rely on the existence or creation of a strong community.
Though it is often described as a fundamentally nihilist philosophy, before entering a brief discussion on postmodern thought it is important to note that nihilism itself is open to postmodern criticism: nihilism is a claim to a universal truth, exactly what postmodernism rejects.
This is not necessarily the case with anarchism (see Emma Goldman).
www.free-definition.com /Nihilism.html

  
 Anarchist Theory FAQ Version 5.2
Anarchism is defined by The American Heritage College Dictionary as "The theory or doctrine that all forms of government are unnecessary, oppressive, and undesirable and should be abolished." Anarchism is a negative; it holds that one thing, namely government, is bad and should be abolished.
Anarchism of this sort is a kind of ideal dream, which is beautiful and inspiring to contemplate while we pursue more concrete aims.
The conservative critique of anarchism is much less developed, but can be teased out of the writings of such authors as Edmund Burke, Russell Kirk, and Ernest van den Haag.
www.gmu.edu /departments/economics/bcaplan/anarfaq.htm

  
 Amazon.com: Books: Anarchism: From Theory to Practice
This book puts the lie to anyone who equates anarchism with violence and turmoil, revealing it instead to be a sincere effort of working class people to build a better world.
Daniel Guerin walks the reader through it all, neatly dividing it into three parts: the origins of the ideas in part 1; the assorted approaches to the theory in part 2; and the revolutionary practice in part 3, going up to the late 1960s (the book came out in 1970).
Anarchism : A Collection of Revolutionary Writings by Peter Kropotkin
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0853451753?v=glance

  
 Anarchism And The Platformist Tradition NEFAC
The origins of the Platform lie in the Russian anarchist movement's experiences during the Russian Revolution and the resulting civil war.
Though Platformism had a shaky start with many prominent anarchists denouncing them as trying to 'Bolshevize' anarchism, it has now been taken on by many libertarian communist groups across the world such as the Workers' Solidarity Movement in Ireland, Northeastern Federation of Anarchist-Communists in North America and the Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Federation in South Africa.
Revolutionary Anarchism and Political Parties: Mexican Anarchists on the Role of the Anarchist Organisation, Alianza Comunista Libertaria
www.nefac.net /node/544

  
 Molinari Institute
Market Anarchism is the doctrine that the legislative, adjudicative, and protective functions unjustly and inefficiently monopolised by the coercive State should be entirely turned over to the voluntary, consensual forces of market society.
The first explicit defender of Market Anarchism was the 19th-century economist and social theorist Gustave de Molinari.
It has its origin in the principles of society and the natural constitution of man. It existed prior to government, and would exist if the formality of government was abolished.
praxeology.net /anarcres.htm

  
 Articles by Topic
Anarchism: Two Kinds Originally appeared on www.mises.org, December 13, 1999.
War is the Health of the State: Its Meaning The Freeman, July 1999 [14K],
Art and State: The Case for Separation Originally posted on www.mises.org, September 28, 1999.
www.zetetics.com /mac/topics.html

  
 Philosophical Dictionary: Ambiguity-Anselm
The Apeiron of Anaximander; A Study in the Origin and Function of Metaphysical Ideas
Examination of fossil evidence persuaded Anaximander that living beings develop from simpler to more complex forms over time.
www.philosophypages.com /dy/a4.htm

  
 Marxism and Anarchism
Both communism and anarchism, as revolutionary currents in the working class, have their origins in the struggles of the working class itself, not just in the writings of its leaders.
(Anarchism of the libertarian variety has a long history of support in the Russian aristocracy, counting Leo Tolstoy among its numbers.) Kropotkin was the most prominent anarchist of the years leading up to the Revolution, but he is not a significant figure for the anarchism of the post-revolutionary period.
Until the 1960s, anarchism, in the forms known on the Contintent, never took on in England; the English anarchists were either anarcho-syndicalists or better described as ultra-left or anti-parliamentarian socialists.
www.marxists.org /subject/anarchism   (2730 words)

  
 Anarchist symbolism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Regardless of the exact origins of anarchism, it is a fact that the color black became associated with anarchism starting in the 1880s, as a sign of mourning for the Paris Commune.
Their symbol is a black cross, with the upwards-facing line being replaced with a 'clenched fist' 'closed fist', or 'raised fist', a symbol also associated with anarchism, defiance of authority, and personal empowerment (black power, youth power, women's liberation, American Indian Movement, 'power to the people', etc...).
Anarchism and the History of the Black Flag
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/anarchist_symbolism   (2730 words)

  
 civilization - G@
primitivists- typically focus on the question of origins, feminists primarily focus on the roots and manifestations of patriarchy, and insurrectionary anarchists mainly focus on the destruction of contemporary institutions of control), most green anarchists agree that it is the underlying problem or root of oppression, and it needs to be dismantled.
Green anarchists tend to view civilization as the logic, institutions, and physical apparatus of domestication, control, and domination.
Many green anarchists promote and practice getting in touch with and rekindling dormant or underutilized methods of interaction and cognition, such as touch, smell, and telepathy, as well as experimenting with and developing unique and personal modes of comprehension and expression.
www.greenanarchy.info /civ.php   (789 words)

  
 Sucking Pit
Green Anarchism: Its Origins and Influences by PNR (Alder Valley Anarchists, Camberley n.d.), the text of a lecture given by Paul Rogers on 24/11/92, further highlights the contradictory message sent out by Green Anarchist on the issue of population.
Anarchism has merely to repeat and to replay the same simple, total conclusion in every single struggle, because this first conclusion was from the beginning identified with the entire outcome of the movement.
Equally disturbing is the way in which Green Anarchism appears to be reviving in a coded form, and probably quite unconsciously on the part of its activists, an aspect of Bakunin's ideology which has been dropped like a hot potato by most of his more recent apologists, that is to say his anti-semitism.
www.stewarthomesociety.org /pit.htm   (8362 words)

  
 THE ECOANARCHIST MANIFESTO, EAM
Anarchism and anarchists are principally opposed to, and want alternatives to the state in the meaning of 1.
The word anarchism origins from the word anarchy, also an old Greek word
- experts, also of anarchism, may be useful, but they shall not rule or be rulers.
www.anarchy.no /eam.html   (3509 words)

  
 Religion @ OnlineReligion.com (Online Religion)
Some Christians have disagreed or are still disagreeing with scientists in areas such as the validity of Keplerian astronomy, the theory of evolution, the method of creation of the universe and the Earth, and the origins of life.
In the case of Christianity, a relevant factor may be that it was among Christians that science in the modern sense was developed.
The perceived conflict between science and Christianity may also be partially explained by a literal interpretation of the Bible adhered to by many Christians, both currently and historically.
www.onlinereligion.com   (5066 words)

  
 African Anarchism: The History of a Movement - Sam Mbah & I. E. Igariwey
definitions; attitudes toward capitalism, the state, religion, and other hierarchical institutions; positive aspects - voluntary co-operation, mutual aid, decentralisation, horizontal organisation, individual autonomy; what anarchism is not (chaos, terrorism); origins of anarcho-syndicalism
anarchism in a world context; the crises of capitalism and marxist “socialism”; Africa’s dire economic situation; anarchism and the national question; anarchism - the only way out for Africa.
African Anarchism: The History of a Movement - Sam Mbah and I. Igariwey
www.zabalaza.net /texts/african_anarchism/contents.htm   (125 words)

  
 Anarchism: Arguments for and against -- by Albert Meltzer
Anarchism, said Marx, was the movement of the artisan worker -- that is to say, the self-employed craftsman with some leisure to think and talk, not subject to factory hours and discipline, independently-minded and difficult to threaten, not backward like the peasantry.
Anarchism is neither a mindless theory of destruction nor, despite some liberal-minded literary conceptions, is it hero-worship of people or institutions, however liberated they might be.
What we may call 'mainstream' anarchism was coherent and united, and was given body by the writings of a number of theoreticians, such as Peter Kropotkin.
www.spunk.org /library/writers/meltzer/sp001500.html   (15157 words)

  
 George Henry Evans & The Origins Of American Individualist-Anarchism
Both men drifted into anarchism before the Civil War, and Ingalls came to write for the anarchist journal, Liberty, edited by Benjamin Tucker.
www.uncletaz.com /liberty/evans_origins.html   (3398 words)

  
 Correspondence: anarchism, marxism, and the 'death of communism'. International Communist Current
This incoherence is a consequence of anarchism’s origins.
While anarchism may have borrowed ideas from other schools of socialism, it differs from these (and in particular marxism) ultimately as it was based from its beginnings on ‘abstract eternal principles’ (2) like ‘individual freedom’ and ‘absolute liberty’ (due to the influence of petit-bourgeois ideology).
Correspondence: anarchism, marxism, and the 'death of communism&;.
en.internationalism.org /wr/240_fanar.htm   (3151 words)

  
 Marxism and Anarchism
Both communism and anarchism, as revolutionary currents in the working class, have their origins in the struggles of the working class itself, not just in the writings of its leaders.
The founders of both Anarchism and Marxism all came out of the dissolution of the Young Hegelians in the 1840s, during the revolutionary upheavals that swept across Europe and destroyed the “Old Order”.
(Anarchism of the libertarian variety has a long history of support in the Russian aristocracy, counting Leo Tolstoy among its numbers.) Kropotkin was the most prominent anarchist of the years leading up to the Revolution, but he is not a significant figure for the anarchism of the post-revolutionary period.
www.marxists.org /subject/anarchism   (2705 words)

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