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Topic: Orontes River

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  Orontes River - ArchaeoWiki
The Orontes or ‘Asi (Arabic: Nahr al-'Asi) is a river of the northern Levant, flowing generally northwards through the modern states of Lebanon and Syria.
On the Orontes was fought the Battle of Kadesh during the reign of Ramesses II (1279 – 1213 BC).
For the Crusaders in the 12th century, the Orontes River became the permanent boundary between the Principality of Antioch and that of Aleppo.
www.archaeowiki.org /Orontes_River   (353 words)

 Orontes River
The Orontes rises in the great springs of Labweh on the east side of the Buka’a, or inter-Lebanon district, very near the fountains of the southward-flowing Litani, and it runs due north, parallel with the coast, falling 2000 feet through a rocky gorge.
This central Orontes valley ends at the rocky barrier of Jisr al-Hadid, where the river is diverted to the west, and the plain of Antioch opens.
Passing north of the modern Antakia (Antioch) the Orontes plunges southwest into a gorge (compared by the ancients to Tempe), and falls 150 feet in 10 miles to the sea just south of the little port of Suedia (anc.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/or/Orontes_River.html   (199 words)

 Lebanonwire.com | Study laments fouling of Orontes River
Agriculture, fisheries, industry and tourism along the Orontes River are polluting the waters and in some parts killing marine life, according to a Syrian-Lebanese study whose results were announced Thursday.
And the Orontes is becoming increasingly important as the region suffers from desertification, making the average amount of water available for every Syrian close to 1,000 cubic meters per year and for every Lebanese 1,800 cubic meters.
Lebanon’s main contribution to the pollution of the Orontes comes from the 27 cafes along the river and the fisheries, whose waste is directly dumped in the main stream.
www.lebanonwire.com /0302/03022111DS.asp   (730 words)

 Saudi Aramco World : A River Called Rebel   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Since the Orontes flows through deep gorges over much of its course, the crudely built wheels, said to be of Persian origin, used to be a characteristic sight along the whole river; the need for them is sometimes cited as another explanation of the river's "rebel" name.
The river was one of the keys to Antioch's rise and fall and the Romans knew it.
The Orontes was at once the route by which new religions spread and the place where old, heretical minorities found a haven.
www.saudiaramcoworld.com /issue/197303/a.river.called.rebel.htm   (2944 words)

 Orontes River
River of Lebanon, Syria and Turkey, 400 km long.
The river originates in the Bekaa Valley, from where it flows northward.
In Syria, the river forms the Lake of Homs, formed by an antique dam.
lexicorient.com /e.o/orontes_r.htm   (86 words)

 AQUASTAT - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The Karaoun dam on the Upper Litani river is the largest, with a storage capacity of 220 million m³ and an effective storage of 160 million m³ from year to year.
The Bisri dam on the Awali river is currently at the final design stage for a storage capacity of 128 million m³ and is intended mainly for supplying water to Greater Beirut.
River calibration is also done to protect against flood damage, especially over the Litani river, upstream of Karaoun Lake, where the drainage and calibration works realized in the 1970s helped to alleviate the flood damage on about 1 500 ha.
www.fao.org /ag/AGL/aglw/aquastat/countries/lebanon/index.stm   (2760 words)

 Tigris-Euphrates River Dispute
This river, along with the Tigris, was the cradle of the early Mesopotamian civilizations and irrigation made it possible for the locals to develop agriculture.
Following independence, the Orontes river was first to utilized by the Syrian government, and the utilization of the Euphrates river came during the late 1950s.
The Bekhme Dam on the Greater Zap, the Dokan Dam and the Dibbis Dam on the Lesser Zap, the Darbandikhan Dam and the Hamrin Dam on the Diyala are the remaining operational dams on the Tigris river.
www.american.edu /ted/ice/tigris.htm   (4216 words)

 Orontes - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Nahr al-Asi, river, c.250 mi (400 km) long, rising in the northern part of the Al Biqa valley, Lebanon, and flowing generally N through Syria, then W into S Turkey and into the Mediterranean Sea; celebrated because of the antiquity of settlement along its banks.
The river is unnavigable but is important for irrigation, especially in Syria.
On its lower course, the river has cut below the surrounding plain, and it is noted for remarkable water wheels, from 20 to 70 ft (6-21 m) in diameter, at Homs and Hama; the wheels, turned by the current, lift water onto the plains.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-orontes.html   (262 words)

 Water And War In The Middle East
Yarmuk River The Yarmuk river originates on the eastern margin of the rift in a complex of wadis developed in quaternary volcanic rock overlying late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic carbonate rocks.
The Tigris, Euphrates River Basin and Shatt Al-Arab The Tigris and Euphrates rivers are among the largest in the region.
For nations sharing river basins, factors affecting the successful negotiation and implementation of international agreements include whether a nation is upstream, downstream, or sharing a river as a border, the relative military and economic strength of the nations, and the availability of other sources of water supply.
www.globalsecurity.org /military/library/report/1995/AH.htm   (4734 words)

 Locating The Garden of Eden - TruthBook
This is a strong clue, since it indicates that river which ran through the peninsula must have been connected with the Euphrates river which runs across the lowlands of Mesopotamia to the Persian Gulf and presently comes to within 150 mi of the Mediterranean.
Indeed, the Euphrates river heads directly for the mouth of the Orentes river for 100 miles before turning 90 deg to the North as shown in Figure 2.
Another river, the Pedieos, also empties into Famagusta Bay but its origin is in the central highlands of Cyprus (not far from Mount Olympus) rather than in the coastal highlands.
www.truthbook.com /1784.cfm   (2170 words)

The inhabitants of the city of Kadesh had cut a channel from the river to a stream south of town, which had turned the town into a virtual island.
He immediately took the Amun Corps, constituting only one quarter of his army, across the Orontes River ahead of the main body to capture the city before Muwatallish's forces could arrive to stop them.
He attacked the Hittite front along the river where it was the weakest, penetrating the encirclement and securing his back.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Styx/7480/page4.htm   (1802 words)

At the rugged bases of the mountain the ground was leveled for a glorious street which extended for four miles across the length of the city, and where sheltered crowds could walk through continuous colonnades from the eastern to the western suburb.
The whole was surrounded by a wall which ascending to the heights and returning to the river does not deviate very widely in its course from the wall of the Middle Ages, which can still be traced by the fragments of ruined towers.
She was represented in a famous allegorical statue as a female figure, seated on a rock and crowned, with the river Orontes at her feet.
www.gracenotes.info /topics/antioch.html   (2616 words)

 Antakya - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Antakya, city in southern Turkey, capital of Hatay Province, on the Orontes River, near the Mediterranean Sea.
Antioch (California), city, Contra Costa County, western California, on the San Joaquin River, near the mouth of the Sacramento River; incorporated...
- city in southern Turkey on the Orontes River.
ca.encarta.msn.com /Antakya.html   (92 words)

 Antioch - Crystalinks
The site is at the southwest corner of the fertile Amik plain, at the point where the Orontes river cuts through the mountains to the sea.
Antioch on the Orontes, also called Syrian Antioch, was situated on the eastern side of the Orontes River, in the far southeastern corner of Asia Minor.
To build south of the river, and on and under the last east spur of Casius, was to have security against invasion from the north, and command of the abundant waters of the mountain.
www.crystalinks.com /antioch.html   (2225 words)

 AQUASTAT - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The Tigris, which is the second most important river in the counay, borders the country to the east and has a mean annual flow of 18 km³.
An agreement was signed in 1955 between Syria and Jordan regarding the allocation of the water of the Yarmouk river, and was further revised in 1987.
In 1993 it was estimated that 60.2% of the area was irrigated from groundwater and 39.8 % from surface water (gravity-fed or pumped from the rivers and lakes).
www.fao.org /ag/agl/aglw/aquastat/countries/syria/index.stm   (2560 words)

 Battle of Kadesh: The Battle of Kadesh (Qadesh), Part II
While crossing the River Orontes (Arnath) to begin the approach to the city from the south, two Bedouin tribesmen, secretly in the employ of the Hittite king, led what appears to have been a gullible Ramesses the Great into believing that the Hittite army was
As the Army of Re crossed the Orontes River, they were set upon by Hittite chariotry, who emerged from the tree line to the right of the column about three quarters of a mile distant.
Nevertheless, the Hittite forces were sent scurrying back across the Orontes river and we are told that many nobles and men of importance within the Hittite confederation lay dead on the battle field, or were swept away by the river in their panicked retreat.
touregypt.net /featurestories/kadesh.htm   (4184 words)

 Orontes — FactMonster.com
river, c.250 mi (400 km) long, rising in the northern part of the Al Biqa valley, Lebanon, and flowing generally N through Syria, then W into S Turkey and into the Mediterranean Sea; celebrated because of the antiquity of settlement along its banks.
On its lower course, the river has cut below the surrounding plain, and it is noted for remarkable water wheels, from 20 to 70 ft (6–21 m) in diameter, at Homs and Hama; the wheels, turned by the current, lift water onto the plains.
Kadesh, ancient city of Syria - Kadesh, ancient city of Syria, on the Orontes River.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/world/A0836910.html   (205 words)

 Ramses II the Great (reigned 1279-1213 B.C.)
Seti achieved some success against the Hittites at first, but his gains were only temporary, for at the end of his reign the enemy was firmly established at Kadesh, on the Orontes River, a strong fortress defended by the river, which became the key to their southern frontier.
The main force then resumed its march to the River Orontes, the army being organized in four divisions of chariotry and infantry, each consisting of perhaps 5,000 men.
Crossing the river from east to west at the ford of Shabtuna, about eight miles from Kadesh, the army passed through a wood to emerge on the plain in front of the city.
www.thelatinlibrary.com /imperialism/notes/ramses2.html   (2008 words)

 The Egyptian Versian of the Peace Treaty of Ramses II with Hattusilis of Kadesh
This color enhanced image of the Orontes River at Hamath shows it was not much more than a miller's stream and not the size of a river which would deter the Egyptian army from any battle or escape plans.
Egyptians knew large rivers, their own Nile was to them an example of a river, not the Orontes.
A river is smaller the closer one gets to its source depending on the number and size of contributory rivers.
www.specialtyinterests.net /peacetreaty.html   (1007 words)

 Syria Gate - About Syria - The Norias of Hama
The Orontes River (Al Assi) was of great importance to the growth and development of Hama through history.
The Orontes walls were too deep for water to be transferred directly from the river, so gigantic waterwheels were designed and built in order to raise water from the river and drop it into ducts and canals that lead to the fields waiting to be irrigated.
There are 17 surviving Norias along the Orontes, and most of the existing Norias were rebuilt after the Byzantines by the Ayyubids.
www.syriagate.com /Syria/about/cities/Hama/norias.htm   (176 words)

 Hama, Syria (Homs Online - Homsonline.com)
Hama is situated 47 Km north of Homs and 140 km south of Aleppo.
This beautiful city use the Orontes River as its cooling system and the Orontes valley for greenery.
is the capital of Hama governorate, W central Syria, on the Orontes River.
www.homsonline.com /Citeis/Hama.htm   (771 words)

 IASPS Research Papers in Strategy
Israel’s June 1982 capture of the Litani River raised Syrian concerns of an Israeli extension of control over subsidiary water sources (specifically the Orontes River) and provided one of the principal rationales for retaining control (either directly or through its Lebanese proxy) over the Bekaa Valley and the Orontes headwaters.
The Litani is Lebanon’s largest river with an estimated annual discharge of 700 to 900 million cubic meters (mcm).
It was followed in 1944 by the famous Lowdermilk Plan, which proposed the irrigation of much of the Jordan River Valley, the intensive development of the Israeli Negev desert, and the storage of surplus water from the Yarmouk River in Lake Kinneret.
www.israeleconomy.org /strat10/strat10.htm   (5405 words)

 Orontes River - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon, Syria and Turkey
It was anciently the chief river of Syria, also called Draco, Typhon and Axius.
By the Orontes the Battle of Qarqar was fought in 853 BC, when the army of Assyria, led by king Shalmaneser III, encountered an allied army of 12 kings led by Hadadezer of Damascus.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Orontes_River   (389 words)

 The Battle of Kadesh ~ Asiatics Fleeing across the Orontes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The Hittite troops, a horse and rider, and chariots and teams escape from Ramesses II by swimming across the Orontes.
Note the courage of these ancient warrior kings who lead their troops into battle, unlike today's politicians in their guarded government buildings who mandate war for the young to carry out.
The horse carrying a rider through the river wears a breastpiece typical of chariot horses, with the square suggesting that this horse initially pulled a chariot.
www.nilemuse.com /muse/orontes.html   (145 words)

 Euphrates Basin
Negotiate an equitable allocation of the flow of the Euphrates River and its tributaries between the riparian states
The three riparians to the river -- Turkey, Syria, and Iraq -- had been co-existing with varying degrees of hydropolitical tension through the 1960's.
The Syrians claimed that less than half the river's normal flow had reached its borders that year and, after a barrage of mutually hostile statements, pulled out of an Arab League technical committee formed to mediate the conflict.
www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu /projects/casestudies/euphrates.html   (782 words)

 Hatay, St.Peter's Churchs, Mosaic Museum, Turkey-Adiyamanli.org
Turkish ANTAKYA, populous city of ancient Syria, since 1939 the chief town of the il (province) of Hatay in southern Turkey, near the mouth of the Orontes River (Turkish Asi Nehri).
It was founded in 300 BC by the Greeks and was the centre of the Seleucid Kingdom until 64 BC, when the Romans made it the capital of their province of Syria.
Antakya, the biblical Antioch, is situated on the Asi River (Orontes) in a fertile surrounding.
www.adiyamanli.org /hatay.html   (998 words)

 Saudi Aramco World : Memories of a Muslim Prince   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Between the Mediterranean Sea and the Syrian Desert, in central Syria, the Orontes River perversely wends its way northward along the flanks of the coastal mountain range, contrary to the southward flow of neighboring streams.
Along the river's edge, the mellow murmur of the ancient Roman waterwheels magnifies the stillness as they lift clear, cold water to the thirsty soil.
Strategically situated on this promontory, which rises 40 yards and is washed on three sides by the winding river, Shayzar looks over the deep gorge of the Orontes and the plain beyond.
www.saudiaramcoworld.com /issue/197003/memories.of.a.muslim.prince.htm   (2384 words)

 [No title]
In ancient times it was called “The Queen of the East,” because of the beauty of its surroundings, the importance of its commerce, and its strategic location on intersecting caravan routes between the east, west, north, and south.
The suburb of Daphne, five miles to the south, was a favorite pleasure resort and residential area for Antioch's upper classes; and the seaport Seleucia Pieria, at the mouth of the Orontes River, was the city's harbor.
Antioch was the centre of the Seleucid kingdom until 64 BC, when it was annexed by Rome and made the capital of their province of Syria.
www.realtime.net /~wdoud/documents/TOPICS_DOC/antioch.doc   (947 words)

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