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Topic: Orthography


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  Orthography information - Search.com
The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.
One of the most complex orthographies is that of Japanese, which uses a combination of several thousand logographic glyphs (Chinese characters Hanzi) called kanji, two syllabaries called katakana and hiragana, and the Latin alphabet, rōmaji.
An orthography that does not represent all the sounds of a language, such as that of Italian or Arabic, is called 'defective'.
www.search.com /reference/Orthography   (446 words)

  
 Ingush Phonology and Orthography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The orthography currently in use in Ingushetia is based on the Russian cyrillic alphabet.
This orthography severely underdifferentiates the phonemes of Ingush.
It is compatible with the practical Chechen orthography proposed for use by Erwin Komen.
ingush.berkeley.edu:7012 /orthography.html   (345 words)

  
  Simplified Spelling Society : A new orthography.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
A new orthography should treat the many accents of Standard English as variants of a single language, as far as possible accounting for phonetic variation by differences of phonetic realization rather than differences of underlying representation.
In practice the traditional orthography is a trustworthy guide, underlying /j/ always corresponding to except in the word , which is always /sowjr, sojr, sowljr/.
The traditional orthography uses for 8 different values in , and the traditional pronunciation of , which are better spelt: /ðis (ddis), θing (thing), taim, hot-huws, eitθ, (eitth), klowz, *redrif/.
www.spellingsociety.org /journals/j4/morfo.php   (4769 words)

  
  Orthography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.
One of the most complex orthographies is that of Japanese, which uses a combination of several thousand glyphs for morphemes (parts of words), called kanji, and a hundred glyphs for syllables, called kana.
An orthography that does not represent all the sounds of a language, such as that of Italian or Arabic, is called 'defective'.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Orthography   (386 words)

  
 Phonemic Orthography Encyclopedia Article, Description, History and Biography @ ArtisticNudity.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
A phonemic orthography is a writing system where there is a one-to-one relationship between graphemes in the written form and phonemes in the spoken form of a language.
One example of a phonemic orthography is the International Phonetic Alphabet, intended to accurately describe the pronunciation of a language.
Note that phonemic orthographies are different from phonetic orthographies; whereas in a phonemic orthography, allophones will be represented by the same grapheme, a phonetic orthography demands, by its very nature, that the phonetically distinct allophones be written as such.
artisticnudity.com /encyclopedia/Phonemic_orthography   (492 words)

  
 Orthography - Simple English Wikipedia
Orthography is the right way of writing words.
English orthography, or English spelling, is famously hard to get right.
Spanish orthography is very regular, so people find it easier.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/Orthography   (98 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Orthography
ORTHOGRAPHY Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language...
The failure of a proof-reader to notice gross errors in the meaning of the text being checked, because different and incompatible levels of processing are required for checking meaning and orthography.
Whereas, in standard orthography, the same letters can be used to represent different sounds (the y in sky and syrup), and different combinations of letters can be used to represent the same sound (the...
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Orthography   (778 words)

  
 ORTHOGRAPHY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The orthography of a language is the set of rules of how to write correctly in the language.
A vowel that is not preceded immediately by another vowel, and that is followed by an "E" at the end of the word, without any other vowels between that vowel and the "E", may represent the "long" sound of the vowel.
It is licensed under the GNU free documentation license.
www.yotor.org /wiki/en/or/Orthography.htm   (105 words)

  
 IIALC 1930, Practical Orthography of African Languages
Over large areas which have political, geographical, or linguistic unity an unsatisfactory state of affairs is found to exist at the present time owing to lack of agreement as to the general principles of writing down the languages, and as to the letters to be used and the meanings attached to them.
It would obviously be a great advantage if in the orthography of the new language, the value of the letters were the same, or as nearly as possible the same, as those they have already learnt for their mother tongue.
In the new orthographies for Bari, Nuer, Dinka, Shilluk, and other Sudanic languages where the distinction between dental t, d, n and alveolar t, d, n is found, the notation th, dh, nh has been adopted for the dental sounds.
www.bisharat.net /Documents/poal30.htm   (5661 words)

  
 ORTHOGRAPHY
The argument of those who advocate the new orthography is naturally its easiness, and those supporting the return to the classical spelling system substantiate their opinion by the fact that by rejecting the classical orthography we severed ties with our classical culture.
That classical orthography is more difficult and does not correspond to the current two Armenian languages is not new: it was not without reason that its reform became an agenda issue still at the beginning of the 20th century.
Or try to convince Germans to restore the pre-Lutheran orthography, and the Russians to restore their old orthography, explaining to them that after the spelling reform in 1918 (also initiated by the Bolshevik government) they lost the spirit of their epics.
www.armeniadiaspora.com /conference2002/htms/docs/khachatrian.htm   (2477 words)

  
 A New Standard Orthography (NSO)
The Onwu Orthography allowed Igbo to be written entirely in the Roman script, with only the exception of the three closed vowels— i*, o*, and u*—with subscript dots under them.
Moreover, by using the sub-dot, the Onwu Orthography consigned Igbo, unintentionally, to a script group to which, by the very nature of its sound system, it did not belong.
The New Standard Orthography (NSO) resolves this difficulty by replacing the digraph "ch" through with a simple "c." It is a modest but important change.
www.kwenu.com /uwandiigbo/echeruo_nso.htm   (538 words)

  
 English Orthography Encyclopedia Article, Description, History and Biography @ ArtisticNudity.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
English spelling (or orthography), although largely phonemic, has more complicated rules than many other spelling systems used by languages written in alphabetic scripts and contains many inconsistencies between spelling and pronunciation, necessitating rote learning for anyone learning to read or write English.
English, it seems, is somewhere in between: its spelling system is highly irregular, but it is regular to some degree and mastery only requires knowledge of the 26 letters of the alphabet, whereas mastering written Chinese or Japanese is much more difficult, requiring the memorization of thousands of different characters.
Studies have shown that dyslexia occurs more often (or at least is more noticeable) among speakers of languages such as English whose orthography differs heavily from the phonology than speakers of languages where the letter-sound correspondence is more regular.
www.artisticnudity.com /encyclopedia/English_orthography   (1654 words)

  
 Simplified Spelling Society : Spanish orthography.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
In this paper the history of Spanish orthography is briefly recounted and especially a focus is made on the role of the Real Academia Espanola de la Lengua in the simplification and unification of the spelling system of the 'Spanish language.
The evolution of Spanish orthography is well described by Angel Rosenblat (1951) in his opening study to the fifth volume of Andrés Bello's Complete Works.
Subjects were 150 students (equal numbers of males and females) of the third year of high school education, and identified as members of the local lower, middle and upper classes, and 50 students (equal numbers of males and females) from the course "Language and communication" at the Instituto Universitario Pedagógico de Caracas.
www.spellingsociety.org /bulletins/b82/fall/spanish.php   (4130 words)

  
 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience - Orthography Influences the Perception of Speech in Alexic Patients - The MIT Press
The effect of word orthography on auditory lexical access was investigated in two patients with alexia without agraphia.
The nonobligatory activation of orthography was examined in an auditory lexical decision task, in which the orthographic and phonological similarity between prime and target was manipulated.
An alternate account posits that the OP advantage does not require on-line access of orthography, but instead is a developmental by-product of learning to read an orthographically inconsistent language.
mitpress.mit.edu /catalog/item?ttype=6&tid=11598   (238 words)

  
 Webster Language
It has been observed by all writers, on the English language, that the orthography or spelling of words is very irregular; the same letters often representing different sounds, and the same sounds often expressed by different letters.
It is not to be expected that an orthography, perfectly regular and simple, such as would be formed by a "Synod of Grammarians on principles of science," will ever be substituted for that confused mode of spelling which is now established.
But it is apprehended that great improvements may be made, and an orthography almost regular, or such as shall obviate most of the present difficulties which occur in learning our language, may be introduced and established with little trouble and opposition.
edweb.sdsu.edu /people/DKitchen/new_655/webster_language.htm   (3493 words)

  
 Mracian orthography of Slevan - FrathWiki
Long vowels are marked with acute accent in the modern orthography but with circumflex in the Mrácian orthography.
The letter Z z denoted the sound /z/ at the beginning of a word or where it was etymologicallly derived from a word spelled with z -- or rather usually Greek words spelled with ζ.
This was one of the points where Mrác consciously diverged from a phonemic orthography for reasons of his aesthetic predilections.
wiki.frath.net /Mracian_orthography_of_Slevan   (1286 words)

  
 Traditional English Orthography - History
They confuse the language with its traditional orthography and have a misplaced reverence for the antiquated spellings preserved in the dictionary.
This article reveals some of the absurdities of the spelling system used in English speaking countries since 1800, explains the difference between a language, a script, and a spelling system, and chronicles some of the attempts to "break the spell"* advanced by advocates of simplified and regularized spelling.
The reason that the orthographies for other languages are more consistent is because they have been reformed.
victorian.fortunecity.com /vangogh/555/Spell/trublspl1.html   (2174 words)

  
 FAMSI - John Montgomery, Dictionary of Maya Hieroglyphs
The best known of the colonial orthographies is the one developed in northern Yucatán, and used by Diego de Landa, among others.
One of the first accomplishments of the Academia was to adopt a standardized orthography for all of the Mayan languages in Guatemala, to facilitate the teaching and written dissemination of Mayan languages in Guatemala (López Raquec 1989).
By happy coincidence, the orthography is almost identical to that used by Alfredo Barrera Vásquez in his great dictionary of Yukatek Mayan (Barrera Vásquez 1980).
www.famsi.org /mayawriting/dictionary/montgomery/orthography.htm   (373 words)

  
 Orthography of Dr. Webster
Webster's improved dictionary of the English language, exhibiting the origin, orthography, pronunciation, & definition of words; embracing all the principal terms used in literature, science & art, according to the best authorities; and likewise giving the synonymous terms for nearly all the words explained.
-- The orthography oxyd (from oxýs) is considered preferable to oxide, because in all other derivatives the Greek [upsilon] is represented by the English y, as in oxygen, hydrogen, &c.
In such terminations as chlorid, ammid, &c., the final e is not used, because they are formed in analogy with acid, and the e is unnecessary, and might lead to the error of giving a long sound to the preceding i.
www.evertype.com /gram/webster-spelling.html   (1137 words)

  
 English orthography : Spelling   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The first is that the admirably consistent orthography of Old English was swept away by the Norman Conquest, and English itself was eclipsed by French for three centuries, eventually emerging with its spelling much influenced by French.
Although it is undoubtedly easier to learn the spelling system of Swedish, Serbian or Swahili more quickly - all these languages have more regular and simpler systems than that of English - a literate native speaker of English generally has no difficulty with a word he or she has not seen before.
However, studies have shown that dyslexia occurs more often among speakers of languages such as English whose orthography differs heavily from the phonology than speakers of languages such as Finnish or Italian where the letter-sound correspondence is more regular (see: PISA report[?]).
www.freetemplate.ws /sp/spelling.html   (1139 words)

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