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Topic: Ostracism

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In the News (Sun 16 Jun 19)

  Ostracism - LoveToKnow 1911
OSTRACISM, a political device instituted, probably by Cleisthenes in 508 B.C., as a constitutional safeguard for the Athenian democracy.
Ostracism must therefore be carefully distinguished from exile in the Roman sense, which involved loss of property and status, and was for an indefinite period (i.e.
Grote maintains that ostracism was a useful device, on the grounds that it removed the danger of tyranny, and was better than the perpetual civil strife of the previous century.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Ostracism   (819 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for ostracism
ostracism method of banishment in ancient Greece by voting with potsherds or tiles on which the name of the person proposed to be banished was written.
Where religious and social communities are nearly identical it is attended by social ostracism, as in the case of Baruch Spinoza, excommunicated by the Jews.
He was elected one of the three archons in 493 BC In succeeding years many of his rivals were eliminated by ostracism and he became the chief figure of Athenian politics.
www.encyclopedia.com /searchpool.asp?target=ostracism   (848 words)

 Ostracism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ostracism (Greek ὀστρακισμός ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which a prominent citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years.
Ostracism was simply a pragmatic measure; the concept of serving out the full sentence did not apply as it was a preventative measure, not a punitive one.
In part ostracism lapsed as a procedure at the end of the fifth century because it was replaced by the graphe paranomon, a regular court action under which a much larger number of politicians might be targeted, instead of just one a year as with ostracism, and with greater severity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ostracism   (2424 words)

Ostracism was a procedure under the Athenian democracy where a prominent citizen could be expelled from the city for ten years.
Ostracism was not in use throughout the whole period of Athenian democracy (c.
Ostracism, too, may have been intended to work in the same direction: by temporarily decapitating a faction, it could help de-escalate a confrontation that might have gone on to threaten the order of the state.
www.mlahanas.de /Greeks/LX/Ostracism.html   (2136 words)

 Ostracism at Athens
Ostracism was used until Hyperbolus, but it ended with him, and they did not employ the law later on, because of the weakness which came about in Athenian public affairs.
For ostracism was not the punishment of any criminal act, but was speciously said to be the mere depression and numiliation of excessive greatness and power, and was in fact a gentle relief and mitigation of envious feelings, which were thus allowed to vent themselves in inflicting no intolerable injury, only a ten years' banishment.
The fact that an ostracism took place indicates [that the Thucydides in Aristophanes' passage was] the son of Melesias, and the one who was ostracised.
www.csun.edu /~hcfll004/ostracis.html   (1680 words)

 OSTRACISM - Online Information article about OSTRACISM
ordinary fact that, if ostracism was introduced in 508 B.C. for the purpose of expelling Hipparchus it was not till twenty years later that he was condemned.
evidence of antiquity that Cleisthenes was the inventor of ostracism.
Grote maintains that ostracism was a useful device, on the grounds that it removed the danger of tyranny, and was better than the perpetual See also:
encyclopedia.jrank.org /ORC_PAI/OSTRACISM.html   (1372 words)

In the Athenian democracy ostracism was not a term describing social exclusion but a legal process of the democracy under which a single citizen was exiled for a 10 year period without other loss of rights.
The word 'ostracism' comes from the Greek word ostracon or "pottery fragment" or potsherd.
In a world short of papyrus (an expensive import from Egypt) casual sketches, note-taking, and balloting were performed on fragments of pottery.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/os/Ostracism.html   (245 words)

 Strategies from the Past: Boycott, Part 1
Ostracism and boycott are such closely related social tactics that one is often considered a form of the other.
Ostracism dates back to ancient Greece (at least) and refers to the act of excluding an unacceptable person from the fellowship of society through general consent.
Ostracism is often no more than the punishment of an individual while boycott aims at achieving social change.
www.fff.org /freedom/0900f.asp   (1088 words)

 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2006.06.02
In particular, she views ostracism as both a response to the instability caused by elite political strife and a symbol of democratic moderation that shaped subsequent actions (5).
Second, the institution of ostracism played an important and organic role in the establishment of the Athenian democracy: "at the same time as the Athenian people took control over political power in the polis (as evidenced by the democratic reforms that followed their uprising), they also took control over decisions of exile" (136).
The last section of the chapter contrasts the banishments perpetrated by the Thirty with the moderation of ostracism and of the restored democracy--an issue which she revisits in chapter 6: moderation in imposing exile became a touchstone by which to evaluate democratic and non-democratic regimes, typically to the latters' discredit.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/2006/2006-06-02.html   (2552 words)

 ostracism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Ostracism is intended to deprive the target of the sense of belonging.
Prescribed ostracism occurs when you are not expected to acknowledge the presence of others - as for example, sharing a seat on a bus.
The causes of ostracism have been analyzed by investigators Williams and Zadro in terms of the sources of ostracism, the targets of ostracism and the situations of ostracism.
www.psychologyinfo.com /DrHorwatt/ostracism.htm   (705 words)

 The Power of Ostracism
Ostracism was the threat that made merchants comply with the judgments of the law merchant.
This ostracism is sustained by reality because, in the competition to survive, a society which did permit unprovoked violence may not survive.
Ostracism is a tool which most of us do not think of when we think of public problems.
libertariannation.org /a/f22h2.html   (2896 words)

Ostracism, "the judgment of the potsherds": Athenian juridical practice in which a potentially dangerous person would be exiled from the city without loss of property or civil rights.
A possible measure to protect democracy would be to exile the too influential politician, but although a very common way to protect the city from rivalries, this was a harsh measure that was only taken by the community as a whole.
The ostracism of an adviser of Pericles named "Damonides of Oe" or "Damon, son of Damonides of Oe" is mentioned in the Athenian Constitution, a treatise that belongs to the Corpus Aristotelicum.
www.livius.org /on-oz/ostracism/ostracism.html   (627 words)

 2006 Action Teaching Award: Honorable Mention   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The "O" train ("O" stands for ostracism) is an action teaching exercise in which participants play the role of either a target or source of ostracism during a five-minute simulated train ride.
During the demonstration, targets of ostracism should occupy the center seat of each row and be flanked by the sources of ostracism.
Because the ostracism in this exercise is brief and is counteracted by the instructor's remarks afterward, we have never witnessed a long-lasting adverse reaction.
www.socialpsychology.org /awards/action2006hm1.htm   (1342 words)

 Science Show - 3/02/01: Ostracism
Ostracism is an age-old social tactic which is employed for all kinds of reasons.
Kip Williams: Yes, she says that ‘at least it was a roof over my head’ and she came to think of herself as worthless and basically that nobody else would be interested in her either, and so she felt lucky just to have a roof over her head.
But then if they are repeatedly exposed to ostracism day in and day out they finally just sort of accept or internalise those lost needs and they become alienated and despondent and helpless.
www.abc.net.au /rn/science/ss/stories/s241161.htm   (1899 words)

 Archaeopaedia: ostracism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Ostracism was first introduced by Cleisthenes in the 5th century, as a guard against tyranny.
It is important to note that Ostracism was not designed as a criminal punishment; the individuals who were ostracized, although forced to live away from Attica for a decade, were free to return after that period without any stigma.
Though ostracism was used frequently in the 5th century, it was seldom used after that; a total of around one dozen ostracisms is known today.
traumwerk.stanford.edu:3455 /Archaeopaedia/166   (884 words)

 Effects of ostracism are a health concern
Ostracism is more powerful now than ever because people have fewer strong family and friend support systems to fall back on when faced with exclusion in relationships, the workplace or even Internet chat rooms, says a Purdue University social psychologist.
"Ostracism is one of the most widely used forms of social punishment, and some see it as more humane than corporal punishment, as when used in a time-out, but there is a deeper psychological impact that needs to be taken seriously," he says.
"Ostracism is present in the animal kingdom and is often used to increase a group's chance for survival by basically excluding the weakest link," Williams says.
www.news-medical.net /?id=12082   (1049 words)

 Ostracism: A Social and Biological Phenomenon
Ostracism as a Social and Biological Phenomenon: An Introduction Margaret Gruter and Roger D. Masters (p.
Ostracism and Indirect Reciprocity: The Reproductive Significance of Humor Richard D. Alexander (p.
Ostracism and the Law of Defamation Howard C. Anawalt (p.
www.bepress.com /gruterclassics/ostracism   (259 words)

 Forsdyke, S.: Exile, Ostracism, and Democracy: The Politics of Expulsion in Ancient Greece.
In contrast to previous interpretations, Sara Forsdyke argues that ostracism was primarily a symbolic institution whose meaning for the Athenians was determined both by past experiences of exile and by its role as a context for the ongoing negotiation of democratic values.
Forsdyke shows how ostracism functioned both as a symbol of democratic power and as a key term in the ideological justification of democratic rule.
Crucial to the author's interpretation is the recognition that ostracism was both a remarkably mild form of exile and one that was infrequently used.
press.princeton.edu /titles/8078.html   (412 words)

 Ostracism - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Ostracism, in Greek antiquity, political procedure providing for the temporary banishment of a citizen considered dangerous to public welfare....
Spain: international diplomatic ostracism after World War II
Spain emerged from the war politically and economically isolated.
ca.encarta.msn.com /Ostracism.html   (115 words)

 Untitled Document
It is ostracism, the act of excluding or ignoring a person by giving them the silent treatment or cold shoulder.
He also said that ostracism might be more potent than ever because many people have smaller families to fall back on or experience less social contact because they stay at home more, belong to fewer groups and do many tasks by computer.
Williams has no illusions that ostracism can be stopped, but he hopes his work in applied science might influence the use of it by parents and school authorities.
news.uns.purdue.edu /Clips/2005/sept/050915.Ostracism.html   (699 words)

 Ostracism: The Power of Silence
He elucidates the causes and consequences of ostracism by presenting a compelling theoretical model and supporting it through a series of fascinating laboratory experiments, Internet-based research, narrative accounts, in-depth interviews, and surveys.
Ostracism is a groundbreaking book that sets the agenda for future research in this area.
From schoolroom time-outs and the "silent treatment" from a family member or friend, to governmental acts of banishment or exile, ostracism is practiced in many contexts, by individuals and groups.
www.guilford.com /cgi-bin/cartscript.cgi?page=sapp/williams2.htm&cart_id=566295.28611   (455 words)

 ostracism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
It was introduced after the fall of the family of Pisistratus.
When the polling took place, each voter put into an urn a potsherd (ostrakon) marked with the name of a person he wished ostracized.
The last ostracism was probably that of Hyperbolus (416?
www.bartleby.com /65/os/ostracis.html   (206 words)

 Detail Page
Created in reaction to the tyrannies of Pisistratus and Hippias (1), ostracism was intended for use against wealthy politicians who, while not guilty of wrongdoing, might still be suspected of hoping to seize supreme power.
Unlike more punitive forms of banishment, ostracism allowed the victim to retain his Athenian citizenship and property while absent and to return after the allotted 10 years.
Many other Athenians were named as ostracism candidates but did not receive majority votes—as indicated by the 64 names compiled from the several thousand ostraka discovered in modern archaeological excavations of the Athenaian Agora and other sites.
www.fofweb.com /Onfiles/Ancient/AncientDetail.asp?iPin=GRE0369   (455 words)

 SPN Professional Profile: Kip Williams
Our studies indicate that the initial reaction to ostracism is pain, which is similarly felt by all individuals regardless of personality or social/situational factors.
Ostracism then instigates actions aimed at recovering thwarted needs of belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence.
We are currently investigating the effects of ostracism on social susceptibility, pro-social behaviors, and aggression.
williams.socialpsychology.org   (499 words)

 UNSW: The University of New South Wales - Sydney Australia - News - THE PAIN OF OSTRACISM
Dr Kip Williams from the UNSW School of Psychology is studying the effects of ostracism both on the person being excluded and on the excluder.
Part of the trauma of ostracism is that it is like an example of how life would be if you didn't exist, if you were dead.
If a group of people is ignoring someone they may feel closer to each other because of their shared ostracism.
www.unsw.edu.au /news/pad/media/2000/dec/ostracism.html   (415 words)

 CuisineNet Digest: Oysters Ostracism
, points out that the presence of oysters in ancient Greek society may be detected in the word "ostracism." In the early sixth century BCE, the Athenian statesman Cleisthenes instituted a constitution for Athens.
Included in this was a process intended to prevent the possibility of tyranny, in which the governing body would vote to remove undesirable persons -- that is, those who had the potential to become tyrants -- from its midst.
Eventually, clay shards took the place of the shells, and the period of exile was shortened to five years.
www.cuisinenet.com /digest/ingred/oyster/ostracism.shtml   (141 words)

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