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Topic: Ottoman Turks

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In the News (Wed 22 May 19)

  Ottoman Empire
Starting as a small warrior band raiding the Byzantine frontier, the Ottoman Turks built an empire from Morocco to Iran, from the deserts of Iraq and Arabia to the gates of Vienna.
The Ottomans were defeated in World War I. After the war, the empire was abolished in 1923 by Kemal Atatürk and replaced with the modern Turkish Republic.
Ottoman culture has given us a splendid legacy of art, architecture and domestic refinement, as a visit to Istanbul's Topkapi Palace readily shows.
www.turkeytravelplanner.com /details/History/Ottomans.html   (443 words)

  Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Ottoman Empire was established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia and was ruled by the Osmanlı dynasty, the descendants of those Turks.
Ottomans claimed that the source of the inter-ethnic conflicts should be sought within their dynamics and the sources that were supporting the conflicts with hidden goals, more than the policies of the state.
Turks were raised against the Serves, to expel the Greeks, to confront the Republic of Armenia, the Italians, the French and to threaten the British in the region of Straits.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ottoman_Empire   (5776 words)

 Ottoman Turks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire.
However, the Ottoman Turks would create a state in Western Anatolia under Ertugrul, the capital of which was Sögüt; near Bursa to the south of the Marmara, the body of water between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea.
The late calligraphic style of the Ottomans was created by Mustafa Râkim (1757-1826) as an extension and reform of Osman's style, and placing greater emphasis on technical perfection which broadened the calligraphic art to encompass the sülüs script as well as the nesih script which had been the dominant standard script.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ottoman_Turks   (604 words)

 The Ottomans and their dynasty - All About Turkey
Although the Ottoman Empire is not considered a European kingdom per se, Ottoman expansion had a profound impact on a continent already stunned by the calamities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the Ottoman Turks must, therefore, be considered in any study of Europe in the late Middle Ages.
The conquest of Thrace gave the Ottomans a foothold in Europe from which future campaigns into the Balkans and Greece were launched and Adrianople (Edirne) became the Ottoman capital in 1366.
The siege was unsuccessful and the Turks began to retreat.
www.allaboutturkey.com /ottoman.htm   (1751 words)

 ipedia.com: Ottoman Empire Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish state in the Middle East that comprised Anatolia, part of Southwest Asia, North Africa and south-eastern Europe in the 14th to 20th centuries, established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia.
The Ottoman Empire was among the world's most powerful political entities in the 16th and 17th centuries when the nations of Europe felt threatened by its steady advance through the Balkans.
Ottoman state organisation was based on a hierarchy with the sultan in the top and below him his viziers, other court officials and military commanders.
www.ipedia.com /ottoman_empire.html   (883 words)

 Ottoman Empire. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The early phase of Ottoman expansion took place under Osman I, Orkhan, Murad I, and Beyazid I at the expense of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia.
The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of Timur, who defeated and captured Beyazid in 1402.
In 1908 the Young Turk movement, a reformist and strongly nationalist group, with many adherents in the army, forced the restoration of the constitution of 1876, and in 1909 the parliament deposed the sultan and put Muhammad V on the throne.
www.bartleby.com /65/ot/OttomanE.html   (1638 words)

 End of Europe's Middle Ages - Ottoman Turks
The ease with which the Ottoman Empire achieved military victories led Western Europeans to fear that ongoing Ottoman success would collapse the political and social infrastructure of the West and bring about the downfall of Christendom.
A Hungarian-Polish army was decimated at Varna in 1444 by Murad II (c.1403-1451) and Ottoman conquests were virtually unchecked during the reign of his son, Mehmed II the Conqueror (1432-1481).
Although Ottoman expansion was greatly feared in the late Middle Ages, the Ottomans generally allowed religious groups to continue to practice their own faiths within the conquered territories.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/endmiddle/ottoman.html   (1146 words)

 The Rise of the Turks and the Ottoman Empire
To the Ottoman Empire, however, the capture of the imperial capital was of supreme symbolic importance.
Among the Turks he was, as his nomadic warrior forebears had been, the khan, a master of the tribal ruling class.
Ottoman forces confronted those of the Habsburg kingemperor Charles V along the Danube and in the western Mediterranean.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/Turkey2.html   (3639 words)

 Ottoman Empire: History
The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks.
The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of
Turk slaughter of Armenians is little-known; An author documents the overshadowed history of genocide during World War I in the former Ottoman Empire.(NEWS)
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0860176.html   (1028 words)

 CROATS AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE - HERCEG BOSNA :: Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina ::
The conflicts between the classes and their mutual struggles were welcome among the Turks, who in 1527 and 1528 engaged only minor troops to occupy the entire regions of Krbava and Lika, Jajce and Banja Luka and thus approached the banks of the river Una.
Already in the summer 1684, the Ottoman defence lines were broken in the north of Croatia, by the conquest of Virovitica, and until the autumn 1686 the Ottomans were thrown out from Hungary.
Having suffered crushing defeats at Slankamen in 1691 and in the vicinity of Senta in 1697, the Ottoman Empire was compelled to conclude a peace treaty in 1699 according to the principle uti possidetis, i.e.
www.hercegbosna.org /engleski/crootto.html   (4249 words)

 Chapter Moguls, Ottoman Turks. of History of The Decline And Fall of The Roman Empire by Gibbon
Constantinople, whose decline is almost coeval with her foundation, had often, in the lapse of a thousand years, been assaulted by the Barbarians of the East and West; but never till this fatal hour had the Greeks been surrounded, both in Asia and Europe, by the arms of the same hostile monarchy.
The advice was followed: the edict was proclaimed; many thousands of the European captives were educated in religion and arms; and the new militia was consecrated and named by a celebrated dervis.
From Angora to Amasia and Erzeroum, the northern regions of Anatolia were reduced to his obedience: he stripped of their hereditary possessions his brother emirs of Ghermian and Caramania, of Aidin and Sarukhan; and after the conquest of Iconium the ancient kingdom of the Seljukians again revived in the Ottoman dynasty.
www.bibliomania.com /2/1/62/109/25719/1.html   (747 words)

 The Ottomans: Origins
The Ottoman conquerors believed that no conquest could stand without the goodwill of the general population of the conquered, so military campaigns were remarkably fair and easy on the average person.
The Ottomans claimed this title for several reaons: the two major holy sites, Mecca and Medina, were part of the Empire, and the primary goal of the government was the security of Muslims around the world, particularly the security of the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Ottomans believed that simple succession proved that the Sultan was worthy of the crown; however, the Sultan may grow old, feeble, or corrupt and thus lose his worthiness to serve as Sultan.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/OTTOMAN/ORIGIN.HTM   (2272 words)

 Turkish Odyssey/About Turkey/History/Turkish Period   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Turks, or Turkic peoples, are the principal descendants of large bands of nomads who roamed in the Altai Mountains (and thus are also called the Altaic peoples) in northern Mongolia and on the steppes of Central Asia during the early centuries of the Christian era.
The Ottoman Empire was a Moslem Turkish state that encompassed Anatolia, Southeastern Europe, the Arab Middle East and North Africa from the 14C to the early 20C.
The Ottoman Turks were descendants of Turkoman nomads who entered Anatolia in the 11C as mercenary soldiers for the Seljuks.
www.turkishodyssey.com /turkey/history/history3.htm   (4652 words)

 Bulgaria.com - History of Bulgaria, the Ottoman conquest..   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Turks occupied new territories on the Balkans.
In spite of the coalition missing a number of the strong Bulgarian, Serbian and all Byzantine feudal possessions, the united Christian troops succeeded in striking a heavy blow on the Islamic army, believed to be invincible until then, at Plochnik in 1387.
The Ottomans had an overwhelming superiority in combat forces and it was only their crippling losses at Plochnik, Kossovo and in the northern Bulgaria campaign between 1387 and 1389, that prolonged the agony of the Bulgarian states.
www.bulgaria.com /history/bulgaria/ottoman.html   (1345 words)

 SETTLEMENT OF THE OTTOMAN TURKS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
There is no doubt that the deportations which had been realized in the early period of the Ottoman State were made in order to strengthen the authority of central government and to liquidate the strong local dynasties who have possessed the large lands.
That the 1571 Ottoman invasion might be considered as one of the cultural waves from Anatolia (which carried to Anatolia from Central Asia) to Cyprus; that as a result of this conquest traditional rural communities consisting of genuine Turkish origins came into being; that these communities with their social surroundings and values, i.e.
www.pubinfo.gov.nc.tr /si1h598.htm   (2665 words)

 Appearance of Ottoman Turks and empire establishment
The Ottoman Turks were one of the tribes of the Turanian race; their main homeland was central Asia, from the Ural mountains to the plain of Turkistan of China.
It was spread on one side from Greece and all the Christian Balkan countries to the gates of Vienna in Europe, and on the eastern side to Iran and Armenia.
Then for about 350 years, up to the end of the 18th century, the Ottomans made Europe their invasion land and during this time, the realm of the empire was not tampered with.
www.ourararat.com /eng/e_appear.htm   (388 words)

 Ottomans - History for Kids!
Although things were going well in Europe, in West Asia the Ottomans were attacked in 1400 by a new enemy - the Mongols, under their new leader Tamerlane.
In 1453 the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II and his Janissaries even conquered Constantinople (modern Istanbul) from the Byzantine emperors, ending the last piece of the Roman Empire.
By 1517, the Ottomans had defeated the Mamluks to gain control of Egypt, and gradually they extended their control along the North African coast to modern Algeria.
www.historyforkids.org /learn/islam/history/turks.htm   (315 words)

 The Ottoman Sultans of Turkey & Successors in Romania
The Turks are not uniquely at fault for this, and the solution is a kind of society (liberal and capitalistic) upon which few in the world entirely agree, even in the ethnic plurality of societies like the United States.
This was a thinly populated backwater for the Turks, noteworthy mainly for Roman ruins and piracy (with U.S. Marines landing at Tripoli in 1801).
The Turks were not entirely out of the picture until 1913, and this still left a number of the successor states, especially Bulgaria and Serbia, not entirely happy with their shares.
www.friesian.com /turkia.htm   (13594 words)

 Mr. Dowling's Ottoman Empire Page
The Ottoman Turks were Muslims, but they did not impose Islamic law on non-Muslims.
The Ottoman Turks generally allowed Christians, Jews, and people of other faiths to practice their beliefs in peace, although the Armenian Massacre of 1915-1917 is a cruel exception.
The weakened Ottoman Empire was often compared to a “sick man.” European colonial leaders had recently seized most of Africa and were eager to exert their influence in the Middle East.
www.mrdowling.com /608-ottoman.html   (411 words)

 Glossary: Ottoman Turks
In 1396, Hungarian and French forces responding to a papal call for a crusade against the Ottoman Turks were crushed in battle at Nicopolis on the Danube River in Bulgaria.
The Polish and Hungarian armies under Wladyslaw III and Janos Hunyadi were crushed at the Battle of Varna in 1444 by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II.
The Seljuks were succeeded by the Ottoman Turks, who unlike their predecessors established a strong Turkish empire in Asia Minor.
ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/endmiddle/glossary/ottogloss.html   (937 words)

 The Ottoman Empire
Turks were Muslims and were tolerant of other religions because of that.
The Ottomans were exceptional in realizing that a diverse group of peoples could actually assist their Empire.
Upon hearing that the Spanish king was forcing out Jews, Sultan Beyazid.II, who welcomed the Jews to the Ottoman Empire, is reported to have said that if the Spanish king was mad enough to exile the most industrious of his subjects, the Ottomans would be glad to take advantage of his madness.
www.globaled.org /nyworld/materials/ottoman/turkish.html   (1270 words)

 The Ottomans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
   The Ottomans are one of the greatest and most powerful civilizations of the modern period.
Like that earlier expansion, the Ottomans established an empire over European territory and established Islamic traditions and culture that last to the current day (the Muslims in Bosnia are the last descendants of the Ottoman presence in Europe).
While historians like to talk about empires in terms of growth and decline, the Ottomans were a force to be reckoned with, militarily and culturally, right up until the break-up of the empire in the first decades of this century.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/OTTOMAN/OTTOMAN1.HTM   (417 words)

 Cyprus Lost to the Ottoman Turks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Following the fall of Constantinople in 1453, through a series of intermittent wars extending over more than a century, Ottoman Turkish forces surged inexorably through the territories of Venice's empire in the Eastern Mediterranean.
By 1570 the Ottomans were ready to assault the greatest source of Venetian wealth and power in the Eastern Mediterranean: the island of Cyprus.
Upon surrender of the city, the Turks undertook a brutal torture of the Venetian commander, Marcantonio Bragadin, that has remained one of the most brutal and bitterly remembered episodes in all Venetian history.
www.boglewood.com /timeline/cyprusloss.html   (352 words)

 Amazon.com: The Ottoman Turks : An Introductory History to 1923: Books: Justin McCarthy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922 by Justin McCarthy
Justin McCarthy's introductory survey traces the whole history of the Ottoman Turks from their obscure beginnings in central Asia, through the establishment and rise of the Ottoman Empire to its collapse after World War One under the pressures of nationalism.
A thorough researcher and lucid writer, McCarthy focuses on family life and health and disease in the Ottoman Empire as well as the diplomatic, military and political history of the empire.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0582256550?v=glance   (623 words)

 The Fall of Constantinople to Ottomans
The city of Constantine, Constantinople, fell to the hands of the Ottoman Turks on Tuesday, 29 of May, 1453.
Lamenting for the loss of the mother-land, the slavery, the injustice and poverty, as well as the bitterness of living in foreign lands gave the Greek folk song the feeling of sadness.
The same song was arranged for mixed choir by Manolis Kalomiris, who faithful to the Greek ideals, composed it for his last opera "Constantine Paleologos", to the libretto of Nikos Kazantzakis.
www.greece.org /poseidon/work/occupation/constantinople.html   (938 words)

 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire: Bibliography - Bibliography See P. Wittek, The Rise of The Ottoman Empire (1938); W. Miller, The Ottoman Empire...
Ottoman Empire: History - History Origins The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia...
Ottoman Empire: Organization of the Empire - Organization of the Empire Economically, socially, and militarily, Turkey was a medieval state,...
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0837081.html   (283 words)

 The Ottoman Period
When the Ottoman Turks defected the Mameluke forces in 1517, Palestine came under the rule of a new empire that was to dominate the entire Near East for the next 400 years.
Although the renewal of Jerusalem's Jewish community is attributed to the activity of Nahmanides, who arrived in the city in 1267, the community's true consolidation occured in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the influx of Jews who had been expelled from Spain.
Of particular note is the European influence on the city's appearance: European-style buildings, bell towers that altered the skyline, and monumental structures such as the Russian Compound and the Notre Dame de France Pilgrims' Hostel.
jeru.huji.ac.il /eh1.htm   (365 words)

 Articles about Turks, Ottoman Empire, Seljuk, Anatolia, Greece, Balkans and Orientalism
Misaki Milli is an act of the last Ottoman Parliment, which happens to be one of the foundation stones of the Turkish Republic.
A Historical and Economic Geography of Ottoman Greece: The Southwestern Morea in the 18th Century
he decline that had begun at the end of the 16th century with the battle of Lepanto and had continued with the Turks' defeat at the gates of Vienna by the Christian armies commanded by Prince Eugene of Savoy.
www.lahana.org /blog   (1065 words)

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