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Topic: Ottoman language

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  Ottoman Empire - One Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Ottoman Empire was a state that existed from 1281 to 1923 and that, at its height, comprised Anatolia, the Middle East, part of North Africa, and south-eastern Europe, established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia and ruled by the Osmanli dynasty.
From 1517 onwards, the Ottoman Sultan was also the Caliph of Islam, and the Ottoman Empire was from 1517 until 1922 (or 1924) synonymous with the Caliphate, the Islamic State.
Ottoman state organisation was based on a hierarchy with the sultan in the top and below him his viziers, other court officials, and military commanders.
www.onelang.com /encyclopedia/index.php/Ottoman_Empire   (1104 words)

 ottoman empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish state in the Middle East that comprised Anatolia, part of Southwest Asia, North Africa and south-eastern Europe in the 14th to 20th centuries, established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia.
The Ottoman Empire was among the world's most powerful political entities in the 16th and 17th centuries when the nations of Europe felt threatened by its steady advance through the Balkans.
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire was the refuge of the Jews of Europe.
www.yourencyclopedia.net /ottoman_empire.html   (934 words)

 Ottoman Empire - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Ottoman Empire was a state that existed from 1281 to 1922, one of the largest empires to rule the borders of the Mediterranean Sea which, at its height, comprised Anatolia, the Middle East, part of North Africa, and south-eastern Europe.
The Ottoman Empire was defeated by the Allies during the war and its territories were colonized by the victors.
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire was the refuge of the Jew s of Europe, who did not have the freedom of religion in Europe that the citizens of the Ottoman Empire did.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /ottoman_empire.htm   (1485 words)

 Encyclopedia: Albanian language
The related languages spoken in Italian and Greek enclaves have a common origin with Tosk and appear to be related most closely to the dialect of Çamëria in the extreme south of Albania.
Languages sharing a common origin with Tosk are spoken by the Arbëreshë of Italy and among the Arvanites of Greece.
Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa (Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by the Tyras (Dniester or Nistru...
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Albanian-language   (2663 words)

 Ottoman Turkish language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ottoman Turkish is the variant of the Turkish language which was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire, containing extensive borrowings from Arabic and Persian and written in Arabic script.
The reason of the changes were because people who didn't have training for that language could not understand it, as their mother language was a cleaner Turkish.
Ottoman Turkish is held by many to be a completely different language than the Turkish of today.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ottoman_language   (245 words)

 UCLA Language Materials Turkish Language Profile
Ottoman Turkish was basically Turkish in structure, but with a heavy overlay of Arabic and Persian vocabulary and an occasional grammatical influence.
Ottoman Turkish co-existed with spoken Turkish, with the latter being considered a "gutter language" and not worthy of study.
Spoken Turkish was declared the language of the country; measures were taken to expunge Persian and Arabic borrowings and to replace them with native Turkish or at least Turkic words; the Arabic alphabet was replaced with the Roman alphabet currently used to represent Turkish; and a massive literacy campaign was undertaken.
www.lmp.ucla.edu /profiles/proft04.htm   (1135 words)

 illustrated ottoman empire encyclopedia of habibullah (sultan, topkapi, ottoman, palace, harem, eunuch, history, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Ottoman Empire to perform the most menial tasks, while they were in training to become members of the elite Janissary Corps.
Ottoman Turkish troops that fought on the Byzantine frontier.
A unit of Ottoman measurement, one arşun was the modern equivalent of 75.8 cm.
www2.egenet.com.tr /mastersj/encyclopedia-a.html   (3966 words)

 Turkish language - All About Turkey
Strictly speaking, the "Turkish" languages spoken between Mongolia and Turkey should be called Turkic languages, and the term "Turkish" should refer to the language spoken in Turkey alone.
The history of the language is divided into three main groups, old Turkish (from the 7th to the 13th centuries), mid-Turkish (from the 13th to the 20th) and new Turkish from the 20th century onwards.
Ottoman Turkish, and the spoken language were both represented with an Arabic script.
www.allaboutturkey.com /dil.htm   (924 words)

 Modern History Sourcebook: Edward Augustus Freeman (1823-92): Race And Language, 1879
The language which the race speaks may be changed, either by a conscious act of the will or by that power of fashion which is in truth the aggregate of countless unconscious acts of the will.
Language is no certain test of race; but if a man, struck by this wholesome warning, should run off into the belief that language and race have absolutely nothing to do one another, he had better have gone without the warning.
But community of language is, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, a presumption of the community of blood, and it is proof of something which for practical purposes is the same as community of blood.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/freeman-race.html   (15040 words)

 Discover Turkey: LANGUAGE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Arabic was the primary language of religion and religious law, while Persian was the language of art, literature.
Ottoman Turkish, on the other hand, was the language of the educated elite, in both written and oral communications.
The two basic elements of this language reform were the adoption of a new alphabet and the purification of the language.
www.turkishnews.com /DiscoverTurkey/culture/language   (481 words)

 Turkey - Language Reform: From Ottoman to Turkish
The principle of Turkish language reform thus was tied intimately to the reforms of the 1839-78 period (see External Threats and Internal Transformations, ch.
Language and language reform continue to be political issues in Turkey.
Language reform and modern usage have pushed forward during periods of liberal governments and been deemphasized under conservative governments such as those of the 1980s.
countrystudies.us /turkey/25.htm   (1180 words)

 interview with Aron Rodrigue
It is important not to ascribe to the Ottoman case a static vision of an arrangement between "majority versus minority," or "ruler versus ruled," or "state versus society," but rather to unpack the situation over particular periods in history.
Language was for communication and for religion, and in fact, people often used the script associated with their religion (Greek, Hebrew, etc.), regardless of the language they were recording (i.e., Arabic or Turkish).
Language was primarily for trade or for making a living, so most people had some knowledge of a multiplicity of languages, without full mastery of them.
www.stanford.edu /group/SHR/5-1/text/rodrigue.html   (4505 words)

 illustrated ottoman empire encyclopedia of habibullah (sultan, topkapi, ottoman, palace, harem, eunuch, history, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
During his reign, he posed a continuing threat to Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II (by whipping up Shiite religious sentiment in south-western Anatolia) and to Beyazid's son, Sultan Selim I -- who finally defeated (and, for a short while, effectively neutralized) the Persian Shiite leader at the Battle of Çaldıran in 1514.
The chief administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire, governed by a sancak beyi ; subdivision of a beylerbeyilik.
Sultan Selim III ascended to the Ottoman throne (on August 6, 1789) after the death (by natural causes) of Sultan Abdulhamid I.
practicalturkish.com /encyclopedia-s.html   (7068 words)

 Ottoman and Turkish Studies at Harvard
As early as the nineteenth century, courses on Ottoman history were taught at the University.
During the early 1960s, Turkish language studies was boosted by the addition of Zekiye Eglar and Omeljan Pritsak to the faculty.
Turkish and Ottoman art and manuscripts figure prominently in the collections of the Harvard Art Museums and the Harvard University Libraries.
www.fas.harvard.edu /~turkish/about_turkish_studies.html   (1400 words)

 Culture in Geopolitics by Serif Mardin, Caspian Crossroads 1.2
Turkish always remained the language of the Ottoman ruling elite although a form of officialese developed among it which used many Arabic and Persian roots.
What this also meant was that the language of the elite had to be de-elitized in order to achieve some resonance among the popular classes who did not have the advantage of a sophisticated Muslim education and who spoke the vernacular, what was known as "Crude Turkish" (Kaba Turkce).
The very first generation of Ottoman reformers, the men of tile 1840s, were already aware that they needed to create the secular educational institutions that would mobilize a larger number of intermediary cadres to achieve the goals they had in mind, namely the strengthening of the Ottoman social structure.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/usazerb/125.htm   (1002 words)

 Ottoman History @ ArabesQ
As well the Ottoman Empire was a crossroads of trade and culture between Europe and Asia and Islaam prevailed.
Suleyman the Magnificent "During the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire experienced its golden age and ranked foremost among world powers in cultural and social fields as well as militarily and politically".
Ottoman Sultans 1290-1924 - listing the sultans with maps indicating the extent of the empire at different times.
www.arabesq.com /educate/Ottoman.html   (796 words)

 Encyclopedia article on Ottoman Empire [EncycloZine]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Mehmed II The Ottoman State was founded as an autonomous state or Beylik in 1281 by Osman I, who was earlier Bey of his tribe.
After the Turkish War of Independence ( 1918 - 1923), Republic of Turkey was founded on October 29, 1923 from remnants of the fallen empire.
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire was the refuge of the Jew s of Europe, who did not enjoy the freedom of religion in Europe that the citizens of the Ottoman Empire did.
encyclozine.com /Ottoman_Empire   (1303 words)

 Ottoman Sephardic Genealogy: An Introduction
For example, studies in Ottoman economic history often mention the interaction of Jewish merchants with European counterparts from the 17th through early 20th centuries.
Arabic script is different from most alphabets in that some of the letters can take on as many as 4 different forms based on whether the letter appears at the front (initial) of a word, the middle or end of a word, or in an isolated position.
Lists of Ottoman Vilayet/Sanjaks for the years 1831, 1872, 1874, 1877/78, 1881/82-1893, 1894, 1895,1896, 1897, 1899,1906/07, and 1914 are contained in Karput (1985).
www.sephardicstudies.org /cal.html   (2306 words)

 Mardin. Young Ottoman Thought
The Ottoman statesmen were thus justified in believing that a surrender of these communal privileges should be the price paid for the establishment of an Ottoman nationality under which everyone would fully enjoy the benefits of state services as well as the equal protection of the laws.
Since the Hatt was, in fact, the product of foreign interference in Ottoman affairs, a face-saving device was invented in that Article IX of the Treaty of Paris, to which the Hatt had been annexed, stipulated that the enforcement of the provisions contained in the Hatt was not to constitute a pretext for foreign interference.
He added that the European belief that the Ottoman Empire was in its death throes gave an additional reason to the founders to proclaim, by the inclusion of the word ªYoungº in the name of the society, the vitality of the empire.
www.juedisches-archiv-chfrank.de /kehilot/turkei/INFOS/mardin.html   (7906 words)

 American Turkish Association of North Carolina   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The history of the Turkish language and script system is as turbulent as the history of the region itself.
Ottoman Turkish was primarily the language of the Anatolian peasants.
The move toward a simpler written language closer to the spoken language of the common people resulted in both script and language reform, which took place in the context of the much larger cultural and political reform that was led by Mustafa Kemal in 1923.
www.ata-nc.org /computinginturkish.html   (2567 words)

 Modern History Sourcebook: The Young Turks: Proclamation for the Ottoman Empire, 1908
All Ottomans, being equal before the law as regards rights and duties relative to the State, are eligible for government posts, according to their individual capacity and their education.
Every Ottoman citizen, within the limits of the prescriptions of the Constitution, may operate a private school in accordance with the special laws.
In order to obtain for Ottoman citizens an education of a homogenous and uniform character, the officials schools will be open, their instruction will be free, and all nationalities will be admitted.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1908youngturk.html   (633 words)

B.A. Thesis, “Bir Hançer-i Semenfam - Cenap Şahabettin.” [An approach to the literary position of a nineteenth century Ottoman poet Cenap Şahabettin in the context of Westernization in Turkish Literature], Boğaziçi University, İstanbul 1989.
Modern Turkish Language and Literature in English, A project which investigates the representation of Turkish literature in English language.
An Intermediate Ottoman Reader, An Ottoman reader with grammatical annotations, and general explanations of certain usages in written Ottoman Turkish and definitions of basic Persian and Arabic forms used in Ottoman Turkish.
faculty.washington.edu /selims/CV.htm   (2140 words)

Department of the Languages and Cultures of the Near and Middle East, Faculty of Languages and Cultures
A first course in classical Ottoman Turkish (16th-19th centuries), involving study of the principal orthographic and grammatical features through detailed comparison of style and usage in selected texts.
The course is a compulsory second-year component of the BA programmes in Turkish (single honours) and Turkish and another subject (combined honours).
www.soas.ac.uk /studying/coursedetail.cfm?coursesunitsid=486   (227 words)

 The Ladino Language
The dialect, or maybe it is a separate language, is commonly called, Ladino.
My ancestors found refuge in the Ottoman Empire, and settled on the Island of Rhodes.
Ottoman Jewish communities flourished in Rhodes, Salonika, Izmir, Istanbul, Sarajevo and elsewhere for 500 years and there they preserved the language that they had taken with them from Spain; Fifteenth Century Spanish, the dialect of Columbus, Ferdinand, Isabella and Cervantes.
home.earthlink.net /~benven/ladino.html   (621 words)

He, too, was an adherent to Ottomanism as well as a supporter of the Mesrutiyet, demanding the re-application of the 1876 Constitution -long awaited since its suspension in 1878 ending the first period of Mesrutiyet (8).
Considering Ottomanism as the only way to preserve the unity of the Empire, he wants to assure those subjects by stressing that it would not harm them.
For a considerable time, Hilmi, aiming at Ottoman unity, even had his several writings translated into various languages so as to be able to address several ethnic elements of the Empire.
meria.idc.ac.il /journal/1997/issue2/jv1n2a9.html   (2962 words)

 Croats in BiH
Probably the most interesting writings about the life in Ottoman Empire in the 16th century are numerous works published by Bartol Gyurgieuvits (1506-1566), who spent there 13 years as a slave.
When Bosnia fell under the Ottoman rule in 1463, her two children (a boy and a girl) had been taken to slavery and educated in the spirit of Islam, her husband decapitated.
The penetration of the Ottoman Empire to Europe was stopped on Croatian soil, which could be in this sense regarded as a historical gate of European civilization.
www.hr /darko/etf/et02.html   (9705 words)

 Habibullah at the Ottoman Court -- Editor's Preface   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
But, besides his towering interest in making money in every seaport from Beirut to Gibraltar, Archie was also deeply attracted to the history of the Ottoman Empire between 1300 and 1600 -- and was a 'legitimate' (though self-trained) Turkish-language 'expert' (much more so than this editor).
His love of the language encompassed modern Turkish, but also Osmanlica -- and it seems he became familiar with the Arabic script just so he could decode the original Stefano/Habibullah Arabic manuscript into Osmanlica (thence into modern Turkish, and finally into English).
Exactly how the original Arabic manuscript got into Archies hands is not well-known to me. His cryptic notes about its acquisition are attached to what appear to be cash-receipts (three in Arabic, two in Greek, and one in Russian) -- which suggests, to me at least, an illegal transaction of some sort.
practicalturkish.com /habibullah-editor-online-preface.html   (698 words)

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