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Topic: Ottoman sultan


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In the News (Mon 19 Aug 19)

  
 Osmanli - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan.
The sultan was the sole regent and government of the empire, at least officially.
Caliph, and the Ottoman Empire was synonymous with the Caliphate, the Islamic State.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ottoman_Sultan   (417 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - Muhammad VI, Ottoman sultan (Turkish And Ottoman History, Biography) - Encyclopedia
Muhammad VI or Mehmet VI, 1861–1926, last Ottoman sultan (1918–22), brother and successor of Muhammad V. He became sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) near the end of World War I and soon capitulated to the Allies, who occupied Constantinople and sought to rule through him what remained of Turkey.
The sultanate was abolished and the republic of Turkey established.
In 1924 the caliphate was abolished and all members of the Ottoman house were exiled.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/M/Muhammd6-Ot.html   (264 words)

  
 The Ottomans and their dynasty - All About Turkey
Although the Ottoman Empire is not considered a European kingdom per se, Ottoman expansion had a profound impact on a continent already stunned by the calamities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the Ottoman Turks must, therefore, be considered in any study of Europe in the late Middle Ages.
The conquest of Thrace gave the Ottomans a foothold in Europe from which future campaigns into the Balkans and Greece were launched and Adrianople (Edirne) became the Ottoman capital in 1366.
Some historians consider that this policy of imprisonment contributed to the decline of the Ottoman Empire as mentally unstable and politically inexperienced sultans were rescued from prison and placed upon the throne.
www.allaboutturkey.com /ottoman.htm   (1751 words)

  
 Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture - Coins of Ottoman Period   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Ottoman showed its tolerance and flexibility not only in the government of the newly conquered lands but also in the minting of the coins and the coins minted in all regions had different embodiment and style unique to the minting region.
Sultan Mustafa II added the throne ascending date and number indicating the year of the empire and thus the certain date of the coins was known.
Sultans were not able to control the treasury of the state due to palace intrigues, frequently encountered short reigns and overspending of the palace.
www.kultur.gov.tr /portal/tarih_en.asp?belgeno=1347   (1309 words)

  
 The Ottoman state and government - All About Turkey
The central function of the ruler or Sultan in Ottoman political theory was to guarantee justice (adalet) in the land.
As Caliph, the Sultan was responsible for Islamic orthodoxy.
In the early history of the Empire, the Sultanate clearly passes from father to eldest son; in 1603, at the death of Ahmed I (1603-1617), the Sultanate passed to the brother of the Sultan.
www.allaboutturkey.com /ottoman2.htm   (2014 words)

  
 Mavi Boncuk: Art and diplomacy in Ottoman Constantinople
The relations of the Ottoman Sultan with other Muslim rulers such as the Shah of Persia and the Mogul emperor were frequently hostile and, although embassies were exchanged, never attained the level of permanent diplomatic representation.
The Ottoman intention was, as the eighteenth-century historian, Subhi, wrote, to impose on the astonished diplomat a sense of 'the superiority of the ceremonial, customs and etiquette of the Ottoman court'.In accordance with France's role as the Ottoman Empire's most constant ally, French ambassadors most frequently commissioned pictures of the city.
Among them are representations of their reception by the Sultan, portraits of different craftsmen and officers of the city, and a family tree where Ottoman Sultans are represented literally growing out of the branches of a tree.
maviboncuk.blogspot.com /2004/05/art-and-diplomacy-in-ottoman.html   (3556 words)

  
 Royalty.nu - Sultans of the Ottoman Empire - History of Turkey
The Ottoman Empire arose from a Turkish principality founded in Anatolia (Asia Minor) at the end of the 13th century, when the empire of the Seljuk Turks had collapsed and the Byzantine Empire was crumbling.
Sultans in Splendor: Monarchs of the Middle East 1869-1945 by Philip Mansel.
Ottomans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe: The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest edited by Pal Fodor and Geza David.
www.royalty.nu /history/empires/Ottoman   (2375 words)

  
 illustrated ottoman empire encyclopedia of habibullah (sultan, topkapi, ottoman, palace, harem, eunuch, history, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Ottoman Empire to perform the most menial tasks, while they were in training to become members of the elite Janissary Corps.
Ottoman Turkish troops that fought on the Byzantine frontier.
A unit of Ottoman measurement, one arşun was the modern equivalent of 75.8 cm.
www2.egenet.com.tr /mastersj/encyclopedia-a.html   (3858 words)

  
 N2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Ottomans rivalled the coat-of-arms formed with rich components of the European monarchies with the mysterious appearance of "tugras"(the seals of the sultans).
The most important characteristic of the Ottoman coats-of-arms made in conjunction with the reforms implemented towards the end of the 18th century was its militaristic appearance.In the coat-of-arms produced during the reign of Abdülhamid II, the idea to reflect the state with all its institutions was foremost in the minds of the artists.
The Ottoman coat-of-arms received remarkable respect from the people and was widely adopted by them, for the Ottoman people saw that their religious and national symbols were prominently displayed on the coat-of-arms.
www.byegm.gov.tr /yayinlarimiz/NEWSPOT/1999/mar/N2.htm   (2495 words)

  
 Royalty.nu - Turkish Royal History - Ottoman Empire - Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Sinan: Architect of Suleyman the Magnificent and the Ottoman Golden Age by John Freely, photographs by Ara Guler.
Suleyman the Magnificent and the Ottoman Empire by Miriam Greenblatt.
This documentary explores the political, social and cultural background of the Ottoman Empire, focusing on the reign of Sultan Suleyman (1520-1566) under whose auspices the empire spread to Asia, Europe, and Africa.
www.royalty.nu /history/empires/Ottoman/Suleiman.html   (602 words)

  
 Albania and the Eastern Question
Sultan Murad II launched the major Ottoman onslaught in the Balkans in 1423, and the Turks took Janina in 1431 and Arta on the Ionian coast, in 1449.
The Ottoman sultan considered himself God's agent on earth, the leader of a religious--not a national--state whose purpose was to defend and propagate Islam.
In the early years of the empire, all Ottoman high officials were the sultan's bondsmen the children of Christian subjects chosen in childhood for their promise, converted to Islam, and educated to serve.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/593Alb.html   (4536 words)

  
 Ottomans
BAYAZID II (1448-1512), Ottoman sultan of Turkey (1481-1512), son and successor of Muhammad II, the conqueror of Constantinople.
Son of Sultan Mehmed II; challenged accession of his brother, Bayezid II (1481); raised revolt of nobles in Anatolia but was defeated; in exile in Rhodes and Rome until death.
MURAD II (1404-51), sultan (1421-44 and 1446-51) of the Ottoman Empire, the son of Muhammad I (1389-1421).
website.lineone.net /~johnbidmead/ottomans.htm   (2807 words)

  
 History of The Ottoman Empire - Time of Fatih Mehmet the Conquerer
Devotes his energy to reunification of Ottoman lands and reconsolidation of sultan’s authority; European territories kept fairly intact and most Anatolian provinces recovered; avoiding unnecessary foreign conflicts, Mehmet provides a breathing period in which to heal wounds and reintegrate previous conquests.
War with Hungary provokes another crusade against Ottomans; coalition of Hungary, Poland, Bosnia, Wallachia, and Serbia led by the Hungarian, John Hunyadi, wins a victory; Murat signs ten-year truce at Szegedin (1444), voluntarily abdicates in favor of his 14-year-old son, Mehmet, and retires to life of religious study and contemplation.
Ottomans invade Bosnia in 1453; Bosnian nobles refuse to support Catholic king, Stephen, and hand over fortresses to Mehmet, many converting to Islam at the same time, thus beginning the process which ultimately sees most Bosnians become Muslims.
www.turizm.net /turkey/history/ottoman1.html   (666 words)

  
 Al-Ahram Weekly | Chronicles | Europe's 'old man' dies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The renunciation of the "sultan" in Egypt was one of the byproducts of the Declaration of 28 February 1922, according to which the British recognised the independence of Egypt.
When Abdel-Hamid II, "the Red Sultan" as he was called, was deposed in 1909, it was obvious to all that the underpinnings of the Ottoman throne had been so thoroughly shaken as to augur its approaching demise.
The fate of the line of Ottoman sultans was sealed when the last sultan assumed the throne during the final months of World War I, which Turkey had chosen to enter on the wrong side -- that of the Central Powers which soon met with a resounding defeat.
weekly.ahram.org.eg /2000/476/chrncls.htm   (2779 words)

  
 The Ottomans: Origins
From that point onwards, the capital of the Ottoman Europe would remain fixed in Istanbul and, under the patronage of the Ottoman sultans, become one of the wealthiest and most cultured cities of the early modern world.
The Ottomans claimed this title for several reaons: the two major holy sites, Mecca and Medina, were part of the Empire, and the primary goal of the government was the security of Muslims around the world, particularly the security of the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.
Once a Sultan had assumed the throne, all his brothers were executed as well as all their sons—had Selim I lost his bid for the crown, Suleyman would have been killed.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/OTTOMAN/ORIGIN.HTM   (2272 words)

  
 Deringil1
Finally the sultan, accompanied by the empress dowager and the reigning empress emerged from the palace in his landau and proceeded to the mosque.
The Byzantine past was a sensitive issue as the Ottoman official mythology stressed the position of the Ottoman sultans as the successors of Rome and Byzantium.
Gulru Necipoglu has shown that the ceremonial progress by a newly enthroned sultan to the mausoleums of his ancestors in Istanbul was itself a means of declaring his legitimacy: 'These tombs built posthumously by the successors of deceased sultans proclaimed Ottoman dynastic legitimacy architecturally by highlighting the uninterrupted continuity of a proud lineage.
coursesa.matrix.msu.edu /~fisher/hst373/readings/Deringil1.html   (9632 words)

  
 The Ottoman Sultans of Turkey & Successors in Romania
This was a thinly populated backwater for the Turks, noteworthy mainly for Roman ruins and piracy (with U.S. Marines landing at Tripoli in 1801).
Under the Ottomans, Turkish was sometimes even written in the Armenian (as in the Greek) alphabet; but that era is long gone, and the Armenian alphabet today is only seen in the former Soviet Republic of Armenia and in Armenian exile communities, as in Syria, Lebanon, and the United States.
As the Ottoman Empire declined in strength, and Christians in the Balkans found European allies who favored their independence, like Britain for Greece and Russia for Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria, the Balkans became the scene of one conflict after another.
www.friesian.com /turkia.htm   (13594 words)

  
 Memories of Khassaki Sultan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
As its name "Khassaki Sultan" indicates, this architectural complex is related to Roxelane, the wife of the Ottoman Sultan Sulayman al-Qanouni (1520-1566).
And that the sultanic kitchen originally founded to serve the Jerusalem poor and the nearby Sufis is still offering weekly meals and daily soup for those interested and for the needy, despite the loss of most of the waqf land, especially after 1948.
It is worth mentioning that Madrasat al-Aytam al-Islamiyya is two sections: the first is vocational, with the students either boarding in the school or outside; the second is academic, with the students studying the regular curriculum taught in other Palestinian schools.
www.jqf-jerusalem.org /2000/jqf7/natsheh.html   (2569 words)

  
 Brief History of Turkish Jews
The Ottoman Empire at its zenith became one the largest empires in World History covering most of Mediterranean basin region extending from North Africa to Eastern Europe.
It has been suggested that one of the characteristics that extended the domination of the Ottoman Empire was its allowance of religious freedom for the different nationalities and minorities under its rule.
The history of the Ottoman Jews is rich with mutual complementary cultural influences.
www.science.co.il /hi/Turkish   (1399 words)

  
 Murad, Ottoman Sultan (1361-1389)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Second son of Sultan Orkhan, Murad created the European part of the Ottoman Empire.
Murad himslf invaded with relatively small numbers, but by the end of his reign he was able to raise large numbers of troops settled as Timariots across the Balkons.
He was killed at the Battle of Kossovo in 1389, although the battle was an Ottoman victory and crushed the last Serbian resistance to the Turks, leaving the burden to fall on the Hungarians.
www.rickard.karoo.net /articles/people_murad.html   (133 words)

  
 Muhammad II, Ottoman sultan
Muhammad II Muhammad II or Mehmet II(Muhammad the Conqueror), 1429–81, Ottoman sultan (1451–81), son and successor of Murad II.
He is considered the true founder of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
To Greek and Armenian citizens of Constantinople he granted the privileges that they were to enjoy throughout Ottoman rule, including the freedom to practice Orthodox Eastern Christianity.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/people/A0834341.html   (308 words)

  
 Muhammad V, Ottoman sultan
Muhammad V or Mehmet V,1844–1918, Ottoman sultan (1909–18).
He succeeded to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) when the liberal Young Turk revolution of 1909 deposed his brother, Abd al-Hamid II.
He exercised no actual power under the new constitution, and the administration was dominated by
www.factmonster.com /ce6/people/A0834344.html   (121 words)

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