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Topic: Ottoman wars in Europe


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  Ottoman Empire - Printer-friendly - ninemsn Encarta
Thirty six sultans from the house of Osman ruled the Ottoman empire during its history, and loyalty to the Ottoman dynasty was a powerful factor in the endurance of the empire.
Ottoman administration was shaped primarily by the needs of the army, by far the largest item of state expenditure.
The administration employed a language (the Ottoman Turkish language) which was Turkish in grammar and largely Arabic or Persian in vocabulary, and written in the Arabic script; (iii) the Muslim religious institution which consisted of Muslim functionaries concerned with education and law grouped under the overlordship of the Shaykh al-Islam.
au.encarta.msn.com /text_761553949___4/Ottoman_Empire.html   (1627 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire - MSN Encarta
Ottoman Empire, dynastic state centered in what is now Turkey, founded in the late 13th century and dismantled in the early 20th century.
This led to a period in Ottoman history known as “the Sultanate of the Women.” During this period the political impact of the harem was felt and the mothers of young sultans exercised power in the name of their sons.
To be an Ottoman one had to serve the state and the religion and know the “Ottoman way.” Serving the state meant having a position within the military, the bureaucracy, or the religious establishment that carried with it the coveted askeri status and tax exemption.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761553949/Ottoman_Empire.html   (6098 words)

  
 The Ottomans: European Imperialism and Crisis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Ottoman history in the nineteenth century was dominated by European wars and expansion.
The history of Europe in the latter half of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth is a sordid history of land grabbing and conflict among European states.
By 1919, the Ottoman Empire was reduced to Turkey only, which extended from the southern European shores of the Black Sea, to Asia Minor in the west, to Iran in the east, and Syria and Iraq, newly created states in 1919, in the south.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/OTTOMAN/EUROPE.HTM   (1238 words)

  
 love turkey world
The Ottoman Empire was a Muslim Turkish state that encompassed Anatolia, southeastern Europe, and the Arab Middle East and North Africa from the 14th to the early 20th century.
Under the structure formalized in the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire was dominated by a small ruling class that achieved its power and wealth as a result of the status of its members as slaves (kapikullari) of the sultan.
The empire, however, survived for 3 centuries longer because Europe was unaware of the extent of its weakness, and the mass of Ottoman subjects were protected from the worst results of the decay by their millets and guilds.
groups.msn.com /loveturkeyworld/ottomanempire.msnw   (1629 words)

  
 Brief History of Ottoman Empire
One group held that the root of the problem was that the Ottoman institutions, beginning with the army, had been allowed to decline from the state of excellence which had prevailed in the 15th century and the answer was to return to the old situation.
The collapse and extinction of the Ottoman empire was a consequence of World War I. The government made the mistake of entering the war on the side of the Central Powers, and the defeat of Germany meant the end for the Ottomans.
It was an empire with a talent for war and government and also had grasped one great imperial secret: empires depend on minimal government for their survival; once they begin to interfere too much with the lives of their citizens, people begin to think they could run their own affairs better.
www.ottomansouvenir.com /General/more_on_ottoman_empire.htm   (2822 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The first serious blow by Europe to the empire was the naval defeat of Lepanto (1571; see Lepanto, battle of), inflicted on the fleet of Selim II by the Spanish and Venetians under John of Austria.
Although Turkey was theoretically among the victors in the Crimean War, it emerged from the war economically exhausted.
In 1908 the Young Turk movement, a reformist and strongly nationalist group, with many adherents in the army, forced the restoration of the constitution of 1876, and in 1909 the parliament deposed the sultan and put Muhammad V on the throne.
www.bartleby.com /65/ot/OttomanE.html   (1638 words)

  
 The Ottomans: The 17th and 18th Centuries   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
This explains the Ottoman practice of killing the brothers of the Sultan and their sons; the purpose of this practice was to obviate rebellion or rival claims to the throne.
In both Islamic and Western histories of the Ottomans, this decline in the Sultanate is regarded as one of the prime causes of its decline.
War with Russia, in fact, dominates the Ottoman scene from much of the eighteenth century; the two states clashed between 1768 and 1774, and again between 1787 and 1792.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/OTTOMAN/17TH.HTM   (1172 words)

  
 Ottoman wars in Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
After a series of inconclusive wars over the course of 150 years, the kingdom finally crumbled in the Battle of Mohács of 1526, after which most of it was either occupied or brought under Ottoman suzerainty.
In the meantime, in 1538, the Ottoman Empire invaded Moldavia.
Ottoman naval victories; Battle of Preveza (1538), Battle of Djerba (1560).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ottoman_wars_in_Europe   (1877 words)

  
 Osmanlı Tarihi Kültürü Medeniyeti Edebiyatı Sanatı
From 1517 onwards, the Ottoman Sultan was also the Caliph of Islam, and the Ottoman Empire was from 1517 until 1922 (or 1924) synonymous with the Caliphate, the Islamic State.
Ottoman state organization was based on a hierarchy with the sultan, who was usually the Caliph at the top and below him his viziers, other court officials, and military commanders.
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire was the refuge of the Jews of Europe, who did not have the freedom of religion in Europe that the citizens of the Ottoman Empire did.
www.osmanlimedeniyeti.com /wiki   (1800 words)

  
 Bulgaria Under Ottoman Domination 1336
What remained from the long rule of the Ottoman sultans was the memory of the retrograde education system (medreses) that fettered the spiritual development of their people, of the ruthless atrocities committed by them and the destructive wars that followed one another.
As the scholar of Ottoman Turkey M. Mayer points out, the sultans "devoted a great deal of attention to the spreading of the Muslim religion in the newly conquered European territories, both by forcible Islamisation of the population and by creating numerous faith-propagating centres (imarets) on the basis of vakif property".
Naturally, the Ottoman system of land ownership sustained substantial transformations, especially at the turn of the 19th century when in the regions suitable for industrial crops new estates called cifliks were formed.
www.geocities.com /nbulgaria/bulgaria/ottomans.htm   (2451 words)

  
 European Institutions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Europe developed the concept of the "nation state" to a degree unknown in other civilisations and the concept of the nation state and of the sovereignty of nation states became the model for the development of international law and order as known to day.
There is however relative peace in Europe until the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War which was quickly followed by World War I and the disastrous Treaties of Versailles.
Europe has become the world's largest economic and trading bloc and is expanding its influence around the Mediterranean basin.
www.eurolegal.org /europe.shtml   (675 words)

  
 The Ottoman Empire
While they tried to copy Europe and reform their system, the Ottomans were buffeted by attacks from powerful neighbors, especially Russia.
Istanbul, the Ottoman capital, was seized by the Allies themselves.
Other Ottoman subjects -- the Bulgarians, Greeks, Romanians, Armenians, and others -- adopted European nationalism and began to see themselves as "peoples"who should have their own countries, but it took disaster before the Turks saw themselves as members of a Turkish nation.
www.globaled.org /nyworld/materials/ottoman/modernization.html   (958 words)

  
 The Decline of the Ottoman Empire
One of the primary causes blamed for the fall of the Ottoman Empire was the decline of the Sultanate.
Because of the decline of the Sultanate, the Ottomans were beginning to lose control of their empire.
During that war, the empire was torn apart until all that remained was the territory of modern-day Turkey.
www.hyperhistory.net /apwh/essays/cot/t1w26ottomandecline.htm   (986 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Ottomans expanded their territories only as fast as they could digest their conquests, and generally attempted to leave the large bulk of the conquered populace and their institutions intact, to ensure that they would be responsive to the needs to generate tax revenues, as well as not likely to foment revolutions.
At various points in the middle and latter part of the history of the Ottoman Empire, political intrigues and rebellions begun by the Janissaries in turn had to be extinguished by the Ottoman army with the assistance of the armies of their vassal states.
Wholesale slaughter of the Armenians were systematically pursued by the Ottoman militias, and the 1890's witnessed spectacles of Armenians hunted down in city streets being beaten to death, and slaughtered in the waters of the harbors as they attempted to swim to safety.
www.geohistory.com /GeoHistory/GHMaps/GeoWorld/ottoman.html   (2513 words)

  
 1710
The war of 1714-18 with Venice and Austria was concluded by the Treaty of Passarowitz (1718); and three wars with Russia and Austria, in 1736-39, 1768-74, and 1787-92, culminated in the treaties of Belgrade (1739), Küçük Kaynarca (1774), and Jassy (1792).
In order to avoid disrupting the established Ottoman institutions, it was financed by an entirely new treasury, called the irad-i cedid ("new revenue"), whose revenues came from taxes imposed on previously untaxed sources and from the confiscation of some timars whose holders were not fulfilling their military and administrative duties to the state.
By 1812 the Ottomans had lost all their possessions on the northern coast of the Black Sea, from the Romanian principalities to the Caucasus, including Bessarabia, southern Ukraine, and the Crimea (the soldiers of which had provided the strongest element in the Ottoman army during the 17th century).
www.naqshbandi.org /ottomans/history/1710.htm   (730 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire - Crystalinks
The Ottomans are one of the greatest and most powerful civilizations of the modern period.
Like that earlier expansion, the Ottomans established an empire over European territory and established Islamic traditions and culture that last to the current day (the Muslims in Bosnia are the last descendants of the Ottoman presence in Europe).
The Ottoman Empire was a vast state founded in the late 13th century by Turkish tribes in Anatolia and ruled by the descendants of Osman I until its dissolution in 1918.
www.crystalinks.com /ottomanempire.html   (1735 words)

  
 Mr. Dowling's Ottoman Empire Page
The Ottoman Turks generally allowed Christians, Jews, and people of other faiths to practice their beliefs in peace, although the Armenian Massacre of 1915-1917 is a cruel exception.
The weakened Ottoman Empire was often compared to a “sick man.” European colonial leaders had recently seized most of Africa and were eager to exert their influence in the Middle East.
The Allied Powers of World War I were eager to assert their influence in the Middle East and North Africa at the end of the war.
www.mrdowling.com /608-ottoman.html   (429 words)

  
 The Real History of the Crusades
The Crusades are generally portrayed as a series of holy wars against Islam led by power-mad popes and fought by religious fanatics.
Europe is littered with thousands of medieval charters attesting to these sentiments, charters in which these men still speak to us today if we will listen.
In the wake of such a disaster, Christians across Europe were forced to accept not only the continued growth of Muslim power but the certainty that God was punishing the West for its sins.
www.crisismagazine.com /april2002/cover.htm   (3721 words)

  
 Islam vs Orthodox Christianity - Eastern Europe - Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, Russian Empires   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Aftermath of the Crimean War and Emancipation Edict
This resolved the civil war, but when Ali's son was killed during a rebellion in 680, a new movement within the community was formed: The "partisans of Ali" or "shi'at Ali," called "Shi'a" for short, to distinguish themselves from the Abbasids, the descendants of al-Abbas.
The Ottomans were forced to withdraw their forces from the Crimean peninsula, still inhabited by Muslim Tatars, permitting Russia to annex the Crimea in 1783.
www.generationaldynamics.com /cgi-bin/D.PL?d=ww2010.book.easteurope   (9637 words)

  
 The Province of Bosnia was a key Ottoman province   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
was a key Ottoman province, the westernmost one, based on the territory of the present day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
During the Ottoman times it was both a single sanjak, and after 1580 a pashaluk divided into several sanjaks.
However, the Ottoman wars in Europe continued and the province significantly decreased in territory during the same century.
koz.vianet.ca /boshis60.htm   (170 words)

  
 Ottoman   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
In guiding his government toward alignment with Germany, Enver was able to play on fear of the traditional Ottoman enemy, Russia, the ally of Britain and France in the war.
Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire on November 5, followed the next day by Britain and France.
During the winter months of 1915, as the shattered Ottoman army retreated toward Lake Van, a massive deportation of as many as 2 million Armenians was undertaken in the war zone.
www.theottomans.org /english/history/worldwar.asp   (392 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire - Search Results - MSN Encarta
The purpose of the Balkan League was to end Ottoman...
Russo-Turkish Wars, series of conflicts between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, which was centered in what is now Turkey, during the 17th, 18th, and...
Ottoman Empire : pictures related to the Ottoman Empire
ca.encarta.msn.com /Ottoman_Empire.html   (163 words)

  
 Europeon links
Crimean War with motivations and data on leaders from France, Russia, Sardinia, England, Italy, Turkey, and Austria.
Europe - clickable map for all of Europe circa.
Ottoman Empire - Brief history of the Empire plus data on the royal families and slavery in the Ottoman Empire called The Harem, The Eunuchs, and The Royal Family
killeenroos.com /link/europe.htm   (2594 words)

  
 Europe Historical Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online
"Europe during the 12th Century The Age of the Crusades" with inset map "The Christian States in the East in 1142" from An Historical Atlas Containing a Chronological Series of One Hundred and Four Maps, at Successive Periods, from the Dawn of History to the Present Day by Robert H. Labberton, sixth edition, 1884.
"Europe in 1648.-Peace of Westphalia; showing especially (a,) The Possessions of the two branches of the house of Habsburg at the end of the Thirty Years War (purple).
Principal Seats of War in Europe, I. From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923.
www.lib.utexas.edu /maps/historical/history_europe.html   (3029 words)

  
 IslamOnline - Art & Entertainment Section   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Wars during the times of Prophet Mohamed, Caliph Abou Bakr, and caliph Umar were just defensive or protective wars.
As for wars of Ottoman State, its wars were for mere political reasons.
So, Muslim battles were defensive and protective wars to protect the borers of the state form its enemies who threaten it.
www.islamonline.net /English/artculture/2005/01/article08-7.shtml   (1365 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire: History
The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of
Abd al-Hamid II acceded (1876) after the brief reign of Murad V. A liberal constitution was framed by Midhat, and the first Turkish parliament opened in 1877, but the sultan soon dismissed it and began a rule of personal despotism.
The Activities of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine in the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0860176.html   (1031 words)

  
 Talk:Ottoman wars in Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Ottoman wars in Europe article.
The Ottoman siege of Malta, of the Island of Rhodes and the Naval Battles of Lepanto had nothing to do with Russia.
It would be like merging the Thirty years war in Europe with the First world War.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Talk:Ottoman_wars_in_Europe   (618 words)

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