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Topic: Ottoman


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  Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Ottoman Empire was established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks, or the remains of Seljuk Turks, in western Anatolia and was ruled by the Osmanlı dynasty, the descendants of those Turks.
Ottomans claimed that the source of the inter-ethnic conflicts should be sought within their dynamics and the sources that were supporting the conflicts with hidden goals, more than the policies of the state.
The Ottomans were eventually defeated at the end of the war by the Allies, due to key attacks by British General Edmund Allenby, assistance from the Arab Revolt, and assistance from Republic of Armenia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ottoman_Empire   (5800 words)

  
 The Ottoman state and government - All About Turkey
The central function of the ruler or Sultan in Ottoman political theory was to guarantee justice (adalet) in the land.
The Ottomans claimed this title for several reasons: the two major holy sites, Mecca and Medina, were part of the Empire, and the primary goal of the government was the security of Muslims around the world, particularly the security of the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Ottomans believed that simple succession proved that the Sultan was worthy of the crown; however, the Sultan may grow old, feeble, or corrupt and thus lose his worthiness to serve as Sultan.
www.allaboutturkey.com /ottoman2.htm   (2014 words)

  
 ottoman
For administrative purposes, Ottoman Iraq was divided into the three central eyalets of Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra, with the northern eyalet of Sharihzor, east of the Tigris, and the southern eyalet of Al-Hasa, on the western coast of the Persian Gulf.
Absorbed piecemeal by the Ottoman sultans Selim I and Süleyman I in the 16th century, this region on the empire's eastern periphery was the battleground in recurrent struggles between the Sunnite Ottomans and the Shi'ite rulers of Iran and was subject to frequent Arab and Kurdish tribal disturbances.
The Ottomans at first attempted to rule the Iraqi provinces directly, but in the 17th and 18th centuries a weakened government in Istanbul was obliged to concede extensive autonomy to the governors, and some areas were beyond the reach of Ottoman authority for extended periods.
www.angelfire.com /nt/Gilgamesh/ottoman.html   (689 words)

  
 The Ottomans and their dynasty - All About Turkey
Although the Ottoman Empire is not considered a European kingdom per se, Ottoman expansion had a profound impact on a continent already stunned by the calamities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the Ottoman Turks must, therefore, be considered in any study of Europe in the late Middle Ages.
The conquest of Thrace gave the Ottomans a foothold in Europe from which future campaigns into the Balkans and Greece were launched and Adrianople (Edirne) became the Ottoman capital in 1366.
Some historians consider that this policy of imprisonment contributed to the decline of the Ottoman Empire as mentally unstable and politically inexperienced sultans were rescued from prison and placed upon the throne.
www.allaboutturkey.com /ottoman.htm   (1751 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks.
The early phase of Ottoman expansion took place under Osman I, Orkhan, Murad I, and Beyazid I at the expense of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia.
The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of Timur, who defeated and captured Beyazid in 1402.
www.bartleby.com /65/ot/OttomanE.html   (1638 words)

  
 ottoman
Ottoman sultans had to contend with the draining distractions of internal conflicts, rebellions and attacks on leadership.
It was a matter of bad historical timing that the period during which the Ottoman Empire was increasingly challenged in the Indian Ocean by the Portuguese and the rise of Western European power, the Turks seemed to lack the necessary leaders with insight and ability.
Ottoman sultans rested on their laurels, focused on maintaining and enjoying the gains already made, and failed to notice the threat of European sea dominance and economic wealth/control until it was too late.
www.hcc.hawaii.edu /distance/hist/ottoman.htm   (1160 words)

  
 Ottoman Women and the Visual Arts
The harem of an Ottoman household, which was common only among the wealthy, did not simply consist of a male head and his wives, but included children, widowed sisters or mothers, and female servants as well.
Ottoman women in the city centers, confined to their homes by social convention, used embroidery mainly to pass the time, but the beautiful pieces they produced became a source of income as well, thereby allowing them some financial independance.
This essay investigates how Ottoman women's dress in the 19th century demonstrated for the wearer social and political status, and was seen as a public display of individual style, though it was only seen within private space.
www.skidmore.edu /academics/arthistory/ah369/ottoman.html   (3182 words)

  
 Bulgaria Under Ottoman Domination 1336
What remained from the long rule of the Ottoman sultans was the memory of the retrograde education system (medreses) that fettered the spiritual development of their people, of the ruthless atrocities committed by them and the destructive wars that followed one another.
As the scholar of Ottoman Turkey M. Mayer points out, the sultans "devoted a great deal of attention to the spreading of the Muslim religion in the newly conquered European territories, both by forcible Islamisation of the population and by creating numerous faith-propagating centres (imarets) on the basis of vakif property".
Naturally, the Ottoman system of land ownership sustained substantial transformations, especially at the turn of the 19th century when in the regions suitable for industrial crops new estates called cifliks were formed.
www.geocities.com /nbulgaria/bulgaria/ottomans.htm   (2451 words)

  
 Decline of Islamaic and Ottoman Power
The Ottoman Empire - the greatest empire in the world in the 1500s - was ruled by sultans, and a sultan was commander-in-chief of the military and a member of the Janissaries.
In the 1600s the Ottoman historian, Haji Khalifa (1608-1657), saw Ottoman society resting on four pillars: the mullahs (Islamic clerics) the army, the merchants and the farmers, and he saw Ottoman society as sick because of corruption, high taxation and oppression of the masses.
The Ottomans were expanding their control on the island of Crete, but the glorious days of Islamic conquest were over, never to be replicated.
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h21-ot.html   (1527 words)

  
 History of The Ottoman Empire - Time of Fatih Mehmet the Conquerer
Devotes his energy to reunification of Ottoman lands and reconsolidation of sultan’s authority; European territories kept fairly intact and most Anatolian provinces recovered; avoiding unnecessary foreign conflicts, Mehmet provides a breathing period in which to heal wounds and reintegrate previous conquests.
War with Hungary provokes another crusade against Ottomans; coalition of Hungary, Poland, Bosnia, Wallachia, and Serbia led by the Hungarian, John Hunyadi, wins a victory; Murat signs ten-year truce at Szegedin (1444), voluntarily abdicates in favor of his 14-year-old son, Mehmet, and retires to life of religious study and contemplation.
Ottomans invade Bosnia in 1453; Bosnian nobles refuse to support Catholic king, Stephen, and hand over fortresses to Mehmet, many converting to Islam at the same time, thus beginning the process which ultimately sees most Bosnians become Muslims.
www.turizm.net /turkey/history/ottoman1.html   (666 words)

  
 ottoman
Even after Ottoman control began to decline in the early 1800's, the Ottoman Empire was able to hold onto the southern tip of the Balkans and much of the Near East until the Empire was finally destroyed by World War One.
Because of the relative tolerance of Ottoman rulers towards the monotheistic religions of Christianity and Judaism (discussed in Unit 11), Orthodox Christian, Catholic and Judaic communities were allowed to continue to practice their religion.
Ottoman regional dominance, and European attempts to avoid that economic control, were the catalysts for European sea dominance, colonization, Western "discovery" of the American continent and the further increase of global interactions!!
www.hcc.hawaii.edu /distance/hist151/ottoman.htm   (2237 words)

  
 History of the Ottoman Empire - Decline and Fall
But in the 17th c., the Ottomans were confronted by an extended arc of opponents, Venice, Austria, Poland, Russia, and Iran, often obliged to confront several at once.
During the mid-century interlude of peace on the European frontiers, Ottoman political authority was further diffused.
In the 1850s-60s, intellectuals known as the New Ottomans” engaged in a liberal critique of Tanzimat policies with emphasis on fatherland (vatan), freedom (hurriget), and constitutionalism.
www.turizm.net /turkey/history/ottoman3.html   (1362 words)

  
 The Ottoman Sultans of Turkey & Successors in Romania
This was a thinly populated backwater for the Turks, noteworthy mainly for Roman ruins and piracy (with U.S. Marines landing at Tripoli in 1801).
Under the Ottomans, Turkish was sometimes even written in the Armenian (as in the Greek) alphabet; but that era is long gone, and the Armenian alphabet today is only seen in the former Soviet Republic of Armenia and in Armenian exile communities, as in Syria, Lebanon, and the United States.
As the Ottoman Empire declined in strength, and Christians in the Balkans found European allies who favored their independence, like Britain for Greece and Russia for Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria, the Balkans became the scene of one conflict after another.
www.friesian.com /turkia.htm   (13594 words)

  
 Growth of the Ottoman Empire Activity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Ottomans (1290-1326) conquered the northwestern portion of Asia Minor.
By 1520 the Ottoman Empire had grown to include Palestine, Egypt, Asia Minor, the Balkan peninsula and parts of northern Africa and Syria.
Remind students that while the Ottoman Empire fell, the influence of Islam not only as a religion but in its cultural contributions still continues today and has affected many important events up to the present.
www.mcps.k12.md.us /curriculum/socialstd/MWH/11013_2.html   (710 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire --  Encyclopædia Britannica
In 1324 or 1326 the Ottoman Turks captured Bursa, on the opposite side of the Sea of Marmara from Constantinople, and this city became the first capital of the young empire.
The Ottoman Empire originated in a small emirate established in the second half of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia.
Covers different topics such as Süleyman the Magnificent, Selim II, Ottoman decline during the 17th and 18th centuries, European imperialism during the 19th century, and the Balkan crisis of the early 20th century.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9111081?source=RSSOTD   (958 words)

  
 The Ottoman Empire and the Armistice of Moudros
The Ottoman delegation was armed with cabinet instructions, which, considering the hopeless situation of the Ottoman army, seemed to display a certain lack of realism.
Finally he said that he had conveyed to his government the urgent requests of the Ottoman delegation that no Greek troops be allowed to land either in Istanbul or Izmir and that Istanbul should not be occupied as long as the Ottoman government could protect Allied lives and possessions there.
Looking back from where we are, the Ottoman Empire is only one of the great continental empires to disappear in the wake of World War I, but we should not forget that in 1918 the Ottoman dynasty, unlike that of the Romanovs, the Habsburgs or the Hohenzollerns, did manage to hang on to its throne.
www.let.leidenuniv.nl /tcimo/tulp/Research/LIDDLE.htm   (2461 words)

  
 The Ottomans: Origins
In 1402, the Ottomans moved their capital to Edirne in Europe where they threatened the last great bastion of the Byzantine Empire, its capital, Constantinople.
From that point onwards, the capital of the Ottoman Europe would remain fixed in Istanbul and, under the patronage of the Ottoman sultans, become one of the wealthiest and most cultured cities of the early modern world.
The Ottomans claimed this title for several reaons: the two major holy sites, Mecca and Medina, were part of the Empire, and the primary goal of the government was the security of Muslims around the world, particularly the security of the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/OTTOMAN/ORIGIN.HTM   (2272 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Histrorians are impressed to see the creativity of the Turks in their formation of social and administrative institutions during Ottoman rule, and their tolerant attitude towards religious and ethnic communities, as well as the support they had extended to the development of the arts and sciences.
The system for appointing administrators and military officials in the Ottoman Empire was based, in contrast to the empires of Christendom, on merit rather than birth.
During his reign Ottoman art and culture flourished, and the Ottomans set themselves up as a bridge between the East and West by merging the different cultures of the communities living within the borders of the empire over large parts of Europe, Asia and Africa.
www.byegm.gov.tr /yayinlarimiz/NEWSPOT/1997/2/N9.htm   (1088 words)

  
 Mr. Dowling's Ottoman Empire Page
The Ottoman Empire lasted until the early 20th century, a span of almost six hundred years.
The Ottoman Turks generally allowed Christians, Jews, and people of other faiths to practice their beliefs in peace, although the Armenian Massacre of 1915-1917 is a cruel exception.
The weakened Ottoman Empire was often compared to a “sick man.” European colonial leaders had recently seized most of Africa and were eager to exert their influence in the Middle East.
www.mrdowling.com /608-ottoman.html   (411 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Ottoman Centuries: Books: Lord Kinross   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Ottoman Empire began in 1300 under the almost legendary Osman I, reached its apogee in the sixteenth century under Suleiman the Magnificent, whose forces threatened the gates of Vienna, and gradually diminished thereafter until Mehmed VI was sent into exile by Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk).
In reality, the 19th c is one of the most interesting periods of Ottoman history, wherin the empire was forced to respond to th impact of European capitalism and imperialism.
Really dynamic and creative reform programs were instituted with the result that the Ottomans at the turn of the 20th c were incalculably stronger than they were at the turn of the 18th.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0688080936?v=glance   (2892 words)

  
 Ottoman Rule
Following the Ottoman conquest in 1517, the Land was divided into four districts and attached administratively to the province of Damascus and ruled from Istanbul.
With a gradual decline in the quality of Ottoman rule, the country was brought to a state of widespread neglect.
By the end of the 18th century, much of the land was owned by absentee landlords and leased to impoverished tenant farmers, and taxation was as crippling as it was capricious.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/History/Ottoman.html   (424 words)

  
 Modern History Sourcebook: The Young Turks: Proclamation for the Ottoman Empire, 1908
All Ottomans, being equal before the law as regards rights and duties relative to the State, are eligible for government posts, according to their individual capacity and their education.
Every Ottoman citizen, within the limits of the prescriptions of the Constitution, may operate a private school in accordance with the special laws.
In order to obtain for Ottoman citizens an education of a homogenous and uniform character, the officials schools will be open, their instruction will be free, and all nationalities will be admitted.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1908youngturk.html   (633 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire 1300-1750 -- Web Sites   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Ottoman Empire and Multiculturalism in the Middle East
A short history of the Ottoman Empire and related topics.
The Ottoman Sultans and other Islamic dynasties (other parts of this page may be of interest to those who wish to know more about Islamic political history in general).
www.tau.ac.il /~shefer/websrcs.html   (683 words)

  
 Ottoman Content Management System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Ottoman is an open source content management system powered by PHP and MySQL.
Ottoman is small and compact offering the basics of a content management system with easy to adapt coding for advancements.
Ottoman does no rendering itself of your content, but using designed commands you can render information exactly to your preference.
www.lowter.com /p/ottoman   (100 words)

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