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Topic: Outer Space Treaty


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In the News (Mon 21 Jan 19)

  
  Outer Space Treaty of 1967 - Wikisource
The exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind.
Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall be free for exploration and use by all States without discrimination of any kind, on a basis of equality and in accordance with international law, and there shall be free access to all areas of celestial bodies.
Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.
en.wikisource.org /wiki/Outer_Space_Treaty_of_1967   (1583 words)

  
  Encyclopedia: Outer Space Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind.
Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall be free for exploration and use by all States without discrimination of any kind, on a basis of equality and in accordance with international law, and there shall be free access to all areas of celestial bodies.
Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Outer-Space-Treaty   (694 words)

  
 Outer Space Treaty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
II of the Treaty states, in fact, that “outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means”.
These concepts are also reaffirmed in Article 11 of the “Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies”(the Moon Agreement) of 1979, that was intended as a follow-up to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.
Experts of international space law state that the Moon falls under the legal concept of res communists, which means that it belongs to a group of persons, may be used by every member of the group, but cannot be appropriated by anyone (the concept is also applied to International Waters).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Outer_Space_Treaty   (270 words)

  
 Code Red - Weapons of Mass Destruction [Online Resource] - Outer Space Treaty
Under the Treaty, the use of space for weapons testing, military maneuvers, or the placement of military installations is expressly prohibited.
The Outer Space Treaty establishes that the Moon is property of all mankind.
This was the substantial basis for the Outer Space Treaty.
library.thinkquest.org /05aug/00639/en/wt_outerspace.html   (741 words)

  
 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas.
When activities are carried on in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, by an international organization, responsibility for compliance with this Treaty shall be borne both by the international organization and by the States Parties to the Treaty participating in such organization.
Ownership of objects launched into outer space, including objects landed or constructed on a celestial body, and of their component parts, is not affected by their presence in outer space or on a celestial body or by their return to the Earth.
www.oosa.unvienna.org /treat/ost/outersptxt.htm   (1524 words)

  
 Disarmament Documentation: Anniversary of Outer Space Treaty: Remarks by Jayantha Dhanapala, October 14
Outer space is widely regarded as the common heritage of humankind and is of concern to the entire international community.
Each of these treaties underlines the notion that the domain of outer space, the activities carried out therein and whatever benefit might accrue therefrom should be devoted to enhancing the well-being of all countries and humankind, and each includes elements elaborating the idea of promoting international cooperation in outer space activities.
The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, whose 35th anniversary we are commemorating this year, establishes the principles governing peaceful activities of States in outer space.
www.acronym.org.uk /docs/0210/doc11.htm   (963 words)

  
 David Kopel & Glenn Reynolds on Mars & Law on National Review Online
And the treaty did many worthwhile things: it forbade placing nuclear weapons in orbit or on the Moon, it established ground rules for liability and registration of spacecraft, and it set forth the principle that outer space should be open to anyone, without regard to nationality.
During the Johnson-Nixon years, Article 2 of the Outer Space Treaty was admired as a triumph of Cold War diplomacy, one that deftly defused a source of tension between the superpowers.
Under the terms of the Outer Space Treaty, however, the United States would be prohibited from accepting the Martian settlement of New California as the 51 state.
www.nationalreview.com /kopel/kopel060402.asp   (1808 words)

  
 [No title]
Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies.
States Parties to the Treaty shall carry on activities in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international co- operation and understanding.
Article IV States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, instal such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner.
history.nasa.gov /1967treaty.html   (1406 words)

  
 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Outer Space Treaty
The Outer Space Treaty contains an undertaking not to place in orbit around the Earth, install on the moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise station in outer space, nuclear or any other weapons of mass destruction.
It limits the use of the moon and other celestial bodies exclusively to peaceful purposes and expressly prohibits their use for establishing military bases, installation, or fortifications; testing weapons of any kind; or conducting military maneuvers.
The Treaty was opened for signature in North America, United Kingdom, and Russia on January 27, 1967.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/ou/Outer_Space_Treaty   (137 words)

  
 OUTER SPACE TREATY
States Parties to the Treaty shall carry on activities in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international co-operation and understanding.
States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas.
States Parties to the Treaty shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the Treaty or the Secretary-General of the United Nations of any phenomena they discover in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, which could constitute a danger to the life or health of astronauts.
www.fas.org /nuke/control/ost/text/space1.htm   (1585 words)

  
 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space ...
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space...
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, 610 U.N.T.S. entered into force, Oct. 10, 1967.
States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any object carrying nuclear weapons or any other kind of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner.
www1.umn.edu /humanrts/peace/docs/treatyouterspace.html   (1580 words)

  
 Outer Space Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The Outer Space Treaty was considered by the Legal Subcommittee in 1966 and agreement was reached in the General Assembly in the same year (resolution 2222 (XXI).
The Treaty was largely based on the Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, which had been adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 1962 (XVIII) in 1963, but added a few new provisions.
The Treaty was opened for signature by the three depository Governments (the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America) in January 1967, and it entered into force in October 1967.
www.oosa.unvienna.org /SpaceLaw/outerspt.html   (408 words)

  
 4Frontiers Corporation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The Moon Treaty prohibits property rights and declares celestial bodies and their natural resources “the common heritage of mankind.” The only way that spacefarers can utilize resources or obtain protection of their property rights is under the auspices of an “international regime” which would be established by the Treaty.
Space lawyers are also concerned that deed purchasers may file lawsuits to challenge the right of spacefarers to occupy their alleged property.
Outer Space Treaty, created any rights in Nemitz to appropriate private property rights on asteroids.” Nemitz appealed the case to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, and that court affirmed the lower court’s dismissal of the case “for the reasons stated by the district court.
www.4frontiers.com /documents/document1.php   (1992 words)

  
 lunar2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The Outer Space Treaty states that space is the "province of all mankind." Space is available for the exploration and the use of everyone; no one nation can restrict the access of space to any other nation.
The Outer Space Treaty further states that space will be used for only peaceful purposes and that no weapons of mass destruction will be placed in space or on other celestial bodies.
The treaty does not deny the military use of space so activities such as reconnaissance, communications, early warning, intelligence gathering, and navigation are permitted.
lunar.arc.nasa.gov /results/ice/ost.htm   (744 words)

  
 Space Future - Real Property Rights in Outer Space
It applies to the space facility, to a reasonable area around the facility (for safety purposes), and to all personnel in or near the facility, irrespective of nationality.
Space objects occupy locations on a first-come, first-served basis, and personnel have the right to conduct their activities without the harmful interference of other states.
The treaty also says, in Article 11, paragraph 1, that "the moon and its natural resources are the "common heritage of mankind." Opponents of the treaty note that the developing nations often interpret "common heritage" to mean "common property" of mankind.
www.spacefuture.com /archive/real_property_rights_in_outer_space.shtml   (4280 words)

  
 China
The Outer Space Treaty (OST) was the second of the so-called "nonarmament" treaties; its concepts and some of its provisions were modeled on its predecessor, the Antarctic Treaty.
Members of the treaty agree not to place in orbit, install on the moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise station in space, nuclear or other weapons of mass destruction.
The OST also limits the use of the moon and other celestial bodies exclusively to peaceful purposes and prohibits their use for establishing military installations or fortifications; testing weapons; or conducting military maneuvers.
www.nti.org /db/china/ostorg.htm   (308 words)

  
 Outer Space Treaty
Addressing the General Assembly on September 22, 1960, President Eisenhower proposed that the principles of the Antarctic Treaty be applied to outer space and celestial bodies.
Article II Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.
Article IV States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner.
www.state.gov /t/ac/trt/5181.htm   (2510 words)

  
 TREATY ON PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ACTIVITIES OF STATES IN THE EXPLORATION AND USE OF OUTER SPACE, INCLUDING THE MOON ...
Article III States Parties to the Treaty shall carry on activities in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international co-operation and understanding.
Article V States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas.
Article VIII A State Party to the Treaty on whose registry an object launched into outer space is carried shall retain jurisdiction and control over such object, and over any personnel thereof, while in outer space or on a celestial body.
www.islandone.org /Treaties/BH500.html   (1185 words)

  
 The Space Review: It's time to rethink international space law
Since the inception of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, international law regarding the use of outer space by nations and individuals has been dominated by the res communis doctrine, the concept that space belongs to mankind and not to one individual or country.
The fact is that although some of the principles espoused by the treaty have merit and have resulted in some child treaties that are certainly beneficial to the progress of space exploration, the underlying premise of res communis effectively limits expansion and innovation in the realm of outer space.
Doubtless the resistance being felt by Burt Rutan and the proponents of the commercialization of space from policymakers is at least partially influenced by the Outer Space Treaty and its progeny.
www.thespacereview.com /article/381/1   (1331 words)

  
 ESA - ESApod - Space Law
In 1967 the Outer Space Treaty, ratified by the UN, fundamentally recognised that space belonged to everyone and in 1969 the US took the lead in the space race with the success of the Apollo mission to the Moon.
Since the end of the Cold War space exploration has totally changed and although the original treaty of 1967 has had four additional conventions, there are many areas where the current regulation is ambiguous, for example in the case of industrial exploitation of minerals from asteroids.
This is particularly relevant for the International Space Station where developments in research are currently covered by the law of each participating country.
www.esa.int /SPECIALS/ESApod/SEM6DD0CYTE_0.html   (265 words)

  
 Outer Space Treaty --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia
It does not include outer space, which, under the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, is declared to be free and not subject to national appropriation.
Outer space lies beyond the currently undefined upper limit of a state's sovereign airspace.
The Outer Space Treaty (1967) reiterated these principles and provided that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried out for...
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-9332230?&query=euclidean   (760 words)

  
 Adelta Legal - The Space Treaties   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Under the Outer Space Treaty, a country is internationally responsible for its "national activities" in outer space regardless of whether they are conducted by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities (Outer Space Treaty, Article VI).
The treaty further provides that, as the "appropriate State", that country's government is required to undertake authorisation and continuing supervision of the activities of non-governmental entities, which is generally understood to include private and commercial entities (Outer Space Treaty, Article VI).
Should a space object be registered in the registry of a country, that country retains jurisdiction and control over that space object (Outer Space Treaty, Article VIII).
www.spacelaw.com.au /content/definitional.htm   (950 words)

  
 Outer Space Treaty Information
Outer Space Treaty (the Treaty), was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union (the three depository governments) on January 27 1967, and the Treaty entered into force on October 10 1967.
These concepts are also reaffirmed in Article 11 of the “Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies” (the Moon Treaty) of 1979, which was intended as a clarifying follow-up to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.
Experts of international space law state that the Moon falls under the legal concept of res communis, which means that it belongs to a group of persons, and may be used by every member of the group, but cannot be appropriated by anyone (the concept is also applied to International Waters).
www.bookrags.com /Outer_Space_Treaty   (389 words)

  
 Outer Space Treaty (1967) | Nuclear Arms Control Treaties | atomicarchive.com
Their successive plans for general and complete disarmament included provisions to ban the orbiting and stationing in outer space of weapons of mass destruction.
The Soviet Union, however, would not separate outer space from other disarmament issues, nor would it agree to restrict outer space to peaceful uses unless U.S. foreign bases at which short-range and medium-range missiles were stationed were eliminated also.
Differences on the few remaining issues -- chiefly involving access to facilities on celestial bodies, reporting on space activities, and the use of military equipment and personnel in space exploration -- were satisfactorily resolved in private consultations during the General Assembly session by December.
www.atomicarchive.com /Treaties/Treaty4.shtml   (833 words)

  
 The Outer Space and Moon Treaties and the Coming Moon Rush
Both of these treaties, the Outer Space Treaty and the Moon Treaty, have generated much discussion and speculation regarding the impact they might have on space, especially lunar, development.
Van Traa-Engelman believes that particular attention needs to be paid to the Moon Treaty's article XI provisions that the moon is the common heritage of mankind and that an international regime should be established to govern the exploitation of the moon when such activities become feasible.
The Moon Treaty is no impediment, and the Outer Space Treaty is acknowledged as debatable on the issue of private appropriation of lunar materials.
www.spacedaily.com /news/oped-02c.html   (1712 words)

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