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Topic: Oxidation


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In the News (Fri 14 Dec 18)

  
  Oxidation
During this procedure, a layer of silicon dioxide is grown on the wafer surface by thermally oxidizing the silicon substate.
The Oxidation Thickness Calculator calculates the thickness of oxide layer given the type of oxidation, the initial thickness of the oxide layer, and the time and temperature at which the oxidation is performed.
The Field Oxidation cross-section illustrates the device after the growth of the thick field oxide for use with P+ diffusion.
www.ee.gatech.edu /research/labs/vc/processes/oxi.html   (1773 words)

  
 Oxidation führt zu einer Beeinträchtigung der ursprünglichen Funktion der Moleküle
Oxidation führt zu einer Beeinträchtigung der ursprünglichen Funktion der Moleküle
Jede Oxidation führt zu einer Beeinträchtigung der ursprünglichen Funktion der Moleküle.
Schutz vor Oxidation ist ein sehr komplexes Gebiet.
www.cholesterin-1.de /oxidation   (2283 words)

  
  Oxidation states (oxidation numbers)
The sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms or ions in a neutral compound is zero.
The sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms in an ion is equal to the charge on the ion.
What is the oxidation state of chromium in the dichromate ion, Cr The oxidation state of the oxygen is -2, and the sum of the oxidation states is equal to the charge on the ion.
www.chemguide.co.uk /inorganic/redox/oxidnstates.html   (2005 words)

  
 The MSDS HyperGlossary: Oxidation and Reduction
A species that causes oxidation is called an oxidant, oxidizer, or oxidizing agent.
Oxidation and reduction are easier to explain using oxidation states (also called oxidation numbers).
Oxidation states are assigned to atoms in a molecule or compound using a general set of rules.
www.ilpi.com /msds/ref/oxidation.html   (528 words)

  
 Oxidation und Reduktion
Typische Oxidations- und Reduktionsmittel in der organischen Chemie
Oxidation: Erhöhung der (formalen) Oxidationszahl; Reduktion: Verminderung der (formalen) Oxidationszahl.
Beachte: die Klassifizierung als Oxidations- oder Reduktionsreaktion bezieht sich stets auf das betrachtete organische Substrat; parallel findet zwangsläufig eine Reduktion des Oxidationsmittels bzw.
www.chemie.fu-berlin.de /chemistry/oc/oc2/redox.html   (1699 words)

  
  Oxidation and Reduction
The earliest view of oxidation and reduction is that of adding oxygen to form an oxide (oxidation) or removing oxygen (reduction).
The view of oxidation and reduction as the loss and gain of electrons, respectively, is particularly appropriate for discussing reactions in electrochemical cells.
Oxidation is then viewed as a reaction which increases the oxidation number and reduction as one which reduces the oxidation number.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/chemical/oxred.html   (728 words)

  
  Redox - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This can be a simple redox process, such as the combustion of carbon to yield carbon dioxide, it could be the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane, or it could be the oxidation of sugar in the human body, through a series of very complex electron transfer processes.
Formerly, oxidation simply meant the addition of oxygen or the removing of hydrogen (hence the name oxidation), and reduction was removal of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen.
In organic chemistry, stepwise oxidation of a hydrocarbon produces water and, successively, an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, carboxylic acid, and then a peroxide.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Oxidation   (810 words)

  
 Oxidation number Summary
Assigning oxidation states to the chemical compounds involved in a redox reaction is important because it allows every electron to be accounted for, which in turn allows for the formation of balanced equations for the reaction.
In chemical nomenclature, the oxidation number (formerly known as the Stock number) of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would bear if all the ligands were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom.
However the oxidation state of transition metals in certain of their complexes can be difficult to ascertain, hence the slightly different formalism for defining an unambiguous oxidation number for the purposes of nomenclature.
www.bookrags.com /Oxidation_number   (1515 words)

  
 Oxidation-Reduction Chemistry
The oxidation state or oxidation number of an atom is simply defined as the sum of the negative and positive charges in an atom.
During this oxidation reaction, the oxidation state of the metal always increases from zero to a positive number, such as "+1, +2, +3....", depending on the number of electrons lost.
Oxidation must always be "coupled" with reduction, and the electrons that are "lost" by one substance must always be "gained" by another as matter (such as electrons) cannot be destroyed or created.
academics.vmi.edu /chem_jt/CH131/oxidation-reduction_chemistry.htm   (1390 words)

  
 Fatty Acid Oxidation
Oxidation of fatty acids occurs in the mitochondria.
The process of fatty acid oxidation is termed b-oxidation since it occurs through the sequential removal of 2-carbon units by oxidation at the b-carbon position of the fatty acyl-CoA molecule.
The net result of the oxidation of one mole of oleic acid (an 18-carbon fatty acid) will be 146 moles of ATP (2 mole equivalents are used during the activation of the fatty acid), as compared with 114 moles from an equivalent number of glucose carbon atoms.
web.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/fatty-acid-oxidation.html   (2755 words)

  
 Oxidation | World of Chemistry
The sum of oxidation numbers for all atoms in a polyatomic ion equals the charge on the ion, and the sum of all oxidation numbers for atoms in a neutral molecule equals zero.
Since changes in oxidation numbers indicate changes in the number of electrons assigned to atoms, the overall change in oxidation numbers of all the atoms involved in the reaction must also be zero.
Oxidation and reduction reactions are essential to life, abound in geological systems, and are mainstays of the chemical manufacturing industry.
www.bookrags.com /research/oxidation-woc   (1848 words)

  
 What is Oxidation?
Oxidation is the interaction between oxygen molecules and all the different substances they may contact, from metal to living tissue.
Sometimes oxidation is not such a bad thing, as in the formation of super-durable anodized aluminum.
Oxidation can also be a problem for car owners, since the outermost layers of paint are constantly exposed to air and water.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-oxidation.htm   (557 words)

  
 Oxidation numbers
The oxidation number of an atom is a kind of fictitious charge (not necessarily the same as the ``formal charge'' introduced in chapter 3) that can be used to describe the chemical transformations that occur in redox reactions, where electrons are transferred.
The oxidation numbers of the atoms in a molecule must add up to the total charge of the molecule (0 for neutral molecules and the appropriate positive or negative charge of an ion).
Oxidation and reduction reactions are characterized by changes in the oxidation numbers of reacting species.
nyu.edu /classes/tuckerman/honors.chem/lectures/lecture_25/node2.html   (441 words)

  
 Oxidation States
Remember that elements can have various oxidation states depending on the number of electrons that they have compared to the number of protons that are in the nucleus.
If you are dealing with a polyatomic ion by itself, the only change is that all of the oxidation states have to add up to the charge on the ion.
Now practice by determining the oxidation states of the elements in these chemicals (which are also listed in exercise 11 in your workbook).
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch105-09/oxidatio.htm   (550 words)

  
 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
By definition, the oxidation number of an atom is equal to the charge that would be present on the atom if the compound was composed of ions.
The oxidation number of sodium in the Na ion is +1, for example, and the oxidation number of chlorine in the Cl ion is -1.
The sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms in a molecule is equal to the charge on the molecule.
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/ch19/oxred_1.php   (1937 words)

  
 Local Oxidation
Here, we focus on our recent work on the local oxidation of semiconductors and thin metal films under ambient conditions.
The capability to oxidize metals and semiconductors with nanometer-scale resolution opens a variety of possibilities to improve current electronic devices such as field-effect transistors and allows the fabrication of novel electronic devices such as single-electron transistors.
The atomic-force microscope (AFM) image above gives an example where   oxide lines of about 20 nm width were used to define the silicon dioxide pattern "IBM NANO" on a silicon wafer.
www.research.ibm.com /nanoscience/local_oxidation.html   (149 words)

  
 The Versatility of Oxidation Ditches - Science - RedOrbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Oxidation clitches provide excellent treatment and are simple to operate.
At mixed liquor temperatures as low as 50 F (10C), a design solids retention time of 14 days should he adequate to achieve excellent nitrification, Because oxidation ditches usually are operated at solids retention times of 20 to 30 days, excess volume is available to achieve denitrification.
During the off period, the oxidation ditch becomes an anoxic reactor, and nitrate is converted to nitrogen gas.
www.redorbit.com /news/science/517530/the_versatility_of_oxidation_ditches/?source=r_science   (2185 words)

  
 Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation - EnviroTools.org
Oxidation is defined as a chemical process in which electrons are transferred from an atom, ion or compound.
The in-situ (below ground) chemical oxidation process is designed to destroy organic contaminants either dissolved in groundwater, sorbed to (stuck to) the aquifer material, or present in their free phase (for examples, as gasoline).
The time required to clean up a contaminated site using che mical oxidation is dependent on the reactivity of the contaminant with the oxidant, the size and depth of the contaminated zone, the speed and direction of groundwater flow and type of soils and the conditions present at the contaminated facility.
www.envirotools.org /factsheets/Remediation/chemical_oxidation.shtml   (1013 words)

  
 BioCarta - Charting Pathways of Life
In the omega oxidation pathway, this carbon is progressively oxidized first to an alcohol and then to a carboxylic acid, creating a molecule with a carboxylic acid on both ends.
Oxidation of the alcohol is catalyzed by an alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase catalyzes the formation of the dicarboxylic acid.
Although omega oxidation is normally a minor pathway of fatty acid metabolism, failure of beta-oxidation to proceed normally can result in increased omega oxidation activity.
www.biocarta.com /pathfiles/omegaoxidationPathway.asp   (305 words)

  
 Oxidation of Carbon Fibers in Water Vapor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The oxidation rate depends on the gas velocity, is directly proportional to the oxidant partial pressure, and is nearly independent of temperature.
The fiber oxidation rate in this regime is independent of the gas velocity, has a complex fractional dependence on the oxidant partial pressure, and is strongly dependent on the oxidation temperature.
Oxidation in water vapor is much slower than oxidation in oxygen for the same amount of oxidant.
www.lerc.nasa.gov /WWW/RT2002/5000/5160opila.html   (523 words)

  
 4-57 Oxidation
Oxidation equipment (thermal or catalytic) is used for destroying contaminants in the exhaust gas from air strippers and SVE systems.
Thermal oxidation units are typically single chamber, refractory-lined oxidizers equipped with a propane or natural gas burner and a stack.
As described in UV Oxidation of Wastewater (Technology Profile Section 4.44), UV oxidation is the process by which chemical bonds of the contaminants are broken under the influence of UV light.
www.frtr.gov /matrix2/section4/4-59.html   (1291 words)

  
 Oxidation Numbers and Redox Reactions
The oxidation number of hydrogen in a compound is 1+, except when hydrogen forms compounds called hydrides with active metals, and then it is 1-.
The oxidation number of oxygen in a compound is 2-, except in peroxides when it is 1-, and when combined with fluorine.
The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers in the formula for a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge on that ion.
www.chem.vt.edu /RVGS/ACT/notes/oxidation_numbers.html   (727 words)

  
 Chemistry Equations, Oxidation States, Balancing Equations
Oxidation and reduction always occur simultaneously (redox reactions), and the substance which gains electrons is termed the oxidizing agent.
Such partial loss of electrons likewise constitutes oxidation in its broader sense and leads to the application of the term to a large number of processes which at first sight might not be considered to be oxidation’s.
Dehydrogenation is also a form of oxidation, when two hydrogen atoms, each having one electron, a removed from a hydrogen-containing organic compound by a catalytic reaction with air or oxygen, as in oxidation of alcohol’s to aldehyde’s.
www.chemistry.co.nz /chemequa.htm   (1271 words)

  
 [No title]
The chlorine is in the same oxidation state on both sides of the equation - it hasn't been oxidised or reduced.
The overall extent of LDL lipid oxidation induced by 15-LO at 37°C was investigated.
At high 15-LO activity (70 nkat/nmol LDL apoB), the extent of oxidation was greater with hLO compared with rLO, as judged by the initial rates of -TOH consumption (Fig 1A) and the accumulation of CE-O(O)H (Fig 1B) and PC-O(O)H (Fig 1C).
www.lycos.com /info/oxidation.html   (827 words)

  
 Vapor-Phase Thermal Oxidation, Catalytic Destruction, and UV Oxidation
Oxidation equipment is used for destroying contaminants in the exhaust gas from air strippers and soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems.
The addition of a catalyst to the basic thermal oxidation configuration accelerates the rate of oxidation by sorbing the oxygen from the air stream and the contaminant vapor onto the catalyst surface where they react to form carbon dioxide, water, and hydrochloric gas.
For both catalytic and thermal oxidation, if chlorinated compounds are in the contaminant mix, there is a concern that either incomplete combustion or other chemical processes will lead to the formation of dioxins and furans.
www.cpeo.org /techtree/ttdescript/oxidate.htm   (531 words)

  
 CHEMystery: Electrochemistry: Reduction and Oxidation (redox)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Oxidation numbers tell which atoms gain or lose their electron(s) in a reaction.
The oxidation number of oxygen is -2 except in peroxides or in flouride compounds.
Oxidation numbers in ion compounds can but determined by setting the side of the equation that was 0 in the previous equation to the ionic charge.
library.thinkquest.org /3659/electrochem/redox.html   (425 words)

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