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# Topic: Oxidation state

###### In the News (Thu 14 Feb 19)

 Oxidation state - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In chemistry, the oxidation state is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. The increase in oxidation state of an atom is known as an oxidation: a decrease in oxidation state is known as a reduction. It should be remembered that the oxidation state of an atom does not necessarily represent the real charge on that atom: this is particularly true of high oxidation states, where the ionization energy required to produce a multiply positive ion are far greater than the energies available in chemical reactions. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Oxidation_state   (530 words)

 Redox - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This can be a simple redox process, such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide, it could be the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane, or it could be the oxidation of sugar in the human body, through a series of very complex electron transfer processes. Formerly, oxidation simply meant the addition of oxygen or the removing of hydrogen (hence the name oxidation), and reduction was removal of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen. The redox state is reflected in the balance of several sets of metabolites (e.g., lactate and pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) whose interconversion is dependent on these ratios. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Oxidation   (937 words)

 Oxidation-Reduction Chemistry The oxidation state or oxidation number of an atom is simply defined as the sum of the negative and positive charges in an atom. Assigning all atoms an oxidation state of zero serves as an important reference point, as oxidation-reduction reactions always involve a change in the oxidation state of the atoms or ions involved. Oxidation must always be "coupled" with reduction, and the electrons that are "lost" by one substance must always be "gained" by another as matter (such as electrons) cannot be destroyed or created. academics.vmi.edu /chem_jt/CH131/oxidation-reduction_chemistry.htm   (1390 words)

 Oxidation State When an oxidation number is assigned to the element, it does not imply that the element in the compound acquires this as a charge, but rather that it is a convenient number to use for balancing chemical reactions. The oxidation state of hydrogen is +1 in its compounds, except for metal hydrides, such as NaH, LiH, etc., in which the oxidation state for H is -1. A raise of oxidation state is an oxidation whereas a lower of oxidation state is a reduction. www.science.uwaterloo.ca /~cchieh/cact/c123/oxidstat.html   (686 words)

 Chemical Sciences: Stoichiometry: Oxidation State The oxidation state of an atom of an element in a compound is the difference between the number of electrons an atom of that element has in the pure element and the number of electrons an atom of the element has in the particular compound. Calculation of the oxidation state of an element when it is combined in a compound or ion is somewhat arbitrary but can be done by the application of one rather obvious definition and a few general properties of some of the common elements. The oxidation state of the alkali metals (Group 1) in compounds is normally +1 and the oxidation state of the alkaline earths (Group 2) is normally +2. www.psigate.ac.uk /newsite/reference/plambeck/chem1/p01027.htm   (816 words)

 Oxidation Numbers and Redox Reactions The oxidation number of hydrogen in a compound is 1+, except when hydrogen forms compounds called hydrides with active metals, and then it is 1-. The oxidation number of oxygen in a compound is 2-, except in peroxides when it is 1-, and when combined with fluorine. first divide the equation into half-reactions (notice that the copper is going from a 0 oxidation state to 2+ which is oxidation, and some of the nitrogen is being reduced from 5+ in the nitrate ion to 4+ in the nitrogen dioxide). www.chem.vt.edu /RVGS/ACT/notes/oxidation_numbers.html   (727 words)

 The Rules of Assigning Oxidation Numbers Hydrogen in compounds is assigned an oxidation state of +1. Oxygen in compounds is assigned an oxidation state of -2. The sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms in a species must be equal to net charge on the species. www.molecularsoft.com /data/help/oxinum.htm   (167 words)

 Oxidation state (General Chemistry) - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks Oxidation states (Or Oxidation numbers) are used to determine the bonding of the various atoms and ions within a compound. Oxidation states are written above the element or group of elements which they go along with. Since oxidation numbers are just the sum of the electrons given or gained, calculating them for single elements is easy: the oxidation state of a single element is the same as its charge. en.wikibooks.org /wiki/Oxidation_state_(General_Chemistry)   (173 words)

 Oxidation states (oxidation numbers) Oxidation state shows the total number of electrons which have been removed from an element (a positive oxidation state) or added to an element (a negative oxidation state) to get to its present state. The sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms or ions in a neutral compound is zero. The sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms in an ion is equal to the charge on the ion. www.chemguide.co.uk /inorganic/redox/oxidnstates.html   (2005 words)

 The Oxidation State of the Mantle II Posters - Volcanology, Geochemistry, Petrology [V] The oxidation state of bulk rock basalts is not necessarily reflecting the oxidation state of the source regions because pre- and post-eruptive redox modifying processes are likely to have influenced bulk rock chemistry. Oxidation states of primitive, subaerially-erupted basalts, in the Oregon segment of the Cascade volcanic arc, have been determined by S K$\alpha$ peak shift measurements and olivine-spinel oxygen barometry. Although previous studies have indicated that the oxidation states of basalts may not be truly representative of the mantle oxidation state, the relative difference between oxygen fugacities of various basalts may correlate to heterogeneities in the source region. www.agu.org /meetings/fm04/fm04-sessions/fm04_V43A.html   (3466 words)

 Chapter 8, Section 10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The oxidation number of an atom is the charge that results when the electrons in a covalent bond are assigned to the more electronegative atom; it is the charge an atom would possess if the bonding were ionic. In HCl the oxidation number of H is +1 and that of Cl is -1. In general, the most negative oxidation state of a nonmetal corresponds to the number of electrons that must be added to the atom to give it an octet. cwx.prenhall.com /bookbind/pubbooks/blb/chapter8/medialib/blb0810.html   (1536 words)

 Lecture Notes The oxidation state of the atoms in a covalent compound is the imaginary charge the atoms would have if the shared electrons were divided equally between identical atoms bonded to each other or, for different atoms, were all assigned to the atom in each bond that has the greater attraction for electrons. The oxidation state of an atom in an element is 0 (e.g. Oxygen is assigned an oxidation state of -2 in its covalent compounds (e.g. php.iupui.edu /~bdehoff/lectredo.htm   (447 words)

 Chemical Sciences: Electrochemical Terms and Concepts: Oxidation and reduction The concept of oxidation state, which was introduced in an earlier section in which it was used to name compounds, arose from early studies of electrochemical reactions. The procedures used to assign oxidation states to atoms in electrochemistry are the same procedures used for chemical nomenclature. Oxidation reactions are reactions in which the oxidation state(s) of the atoms of the element(s) involved increases. www.ualberta.ca /~jplambec/che/p102/p02072.htm   (646 words)

 Oxidation Numbers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The oxidation number for an element in its elemental form is 0 (holds true for isolated atoms and elemental substances which bond identical atoms: e.g. The sum of the oxidation numbers is zero for an electrically neutral compound and equals the overall charge for an ionic species. The overall molecule has a net charge of 2- (an overall oxidation number of ­2), therefore, the C must have an oxidation state of +4, i.e. wine1.sb.fsu.edu /chm1045/notes/Bonding/OxNum/Bond10.htm   (588 words)

 Oxidation State Rules   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Oxidation state pure neutral element = 0 (e.g. Oxidation state of O = -2 in all its compounds except: Sum of oxidation states is zero for neutral compounds, and equal to the overall charge for polyatomic ionic species. www.seas.upenn.edu /~chem101/oxidationstate.html   (80 words)

 Re: concerning the oxidation numbers in sodiumtetrathionate Since the total oxidation state for tetrathionate is -2, and there are six oxygens, each with an oxidation state of -2 for a total of -12, the sum of the sulfur oxidation states has to be equal to -2 - (-12) = +10. A fractional oxidation state is a dead giveaway that not all the sulfur atoms have the same oxidation state. The total oxidation states of the four sulfur atoms is 5 + 5 + 0 + 0 = 10, or an average of +2.5. www.madsci.org /posts/archives/may2001/988919069.Ch.r.html   (290 words)

 Articles - Oxidation number Manganese with an oxidation state of +4 present in manganese dioxide is given the name manganese(IV) oxide. For example, Fe, in which iron has an oxidation number of 3, is called ferric oxide and FeO, in which iron has an oxidation number of 2, is called ferrous oxide. Oxygen has an oxidation number of -2 in compounds, except (i) in the presence of fluorine, in which fluorine's oxidation number takes precedence; (ii) in oxygen-oxygen bonds, including peroxide and superoxide, where one oxygen must neutralize the other's charge. www.sterlingsilvercenter.com /articles/Oxidation_state   (777 words)

 oxstate.htm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The determination of oxidation states is based on knowing which elements can have only one oxidation state other than the elemental state and which elements are able to form more than one oxidation state other than the elemental state. For example, what is the oxidation state of chromium in dichromate ion, (Cr As before, assign the oxidation state for oxygen, which is known to be -2. Since the oxidation state for chromium is not known, and two chromium atoms are present, assign the algebraic value of 2x for chromium: www.towson.edu /~ladon/oxstate.html   (914 words)

 ENCE 433 Dr   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The oxidation state of cadmium has increased from 0 to +2 requiring a loss of two electrons. The oxidation state of nitrogen has decreased from +5 to +2, requiring a gain of three electrons. Note that the +5 state is the maximum oxidation state for nitrogen, and is reduced to a lower oxidation state. www.glue.umd.edu /~alba/ence433/F-97/solhw7/solhw7.html   (332 words)

 Research and Reviews: Meat, Special Circular 172-99, Evaluation of Lipid Oxidation in Animal Fat Lipid oxidation during prolonged storage or short-term exposure to high temperatures is often associated with "off flavors," "warmed over flavor," "rancid," and "stale" characteristics in mutton which result in product degradation and reduced case-life of an otherwise nutritious protein source. The most common chemical measurement of lipid oxidation in muscle foods is the thiobarbaturic acid (TBA) assay, based on the reaction of MA and TBA generating a TBA-MA complex with an absorbance maximum at 530 nm (Patton and Kurtz, 1951). The ability of mPV to detect the oxidation of mono unsaturated fatty acids suggests that this method is more accurate in determining the oxidation state of all the fatty acids in the sample in contrast to the traditional TBA methodology. ohioline.osu.edu /sc172/sc172_6.html   (2704 words)

 oxidation_state.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) You need to be able to calculate the oxidation state of a molecule, so you can analyze the reactions it undergoes. The overall oxidation state of a neutral molecule is (of course) zero. For your presentations, calculate the oxidation states of the carbons of your molecules. bgsu.edu /departments/chem/faculty/leontis/chem447/oxidation_state.html   (279 words)

 Oxidation State, Charge, Valence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Oxidation state and charge are pretty much the same thing, it is a statement on the difference between the number of protons and electrons found in each atom or ion. Since it is the outer electrons that tend to be removed during oxidation, then valency is a good way of predicting oxidation states. What they have in common is an attempt to correlate atomic/molecular structure to some "intrinsic" property (empirical or theoretical) of the constituent atoms (oxidation state, charge, valency). www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/chem03/chem03566.htm   (320 words)

 Electrochemistry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) In reaction (1) zinc went from elemental metallic Zn with an oxidation state of 0 to the zinc ion with an oxidation state of +2. The copper ion went from a +2 state to elemental copper with an oxidation state of 0. The oxidation potential for Cu would be -0.3394 indicating that it doesn't like to be oxidized, that is it is a poor reducing agent. v.d.singleton.home.att.net /genchem/electrch.htm   (5254 words)

 Introduction to Oxygen Functional Groups   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The concept of oxidation state is useful in dealing with these classes of oxygen functional groups, but in a somewhat different way than the way in which the concept of oxidation state is used with inorganic compounds. The oxidation state used with organic compounds is the oxidation state of the carbon to which the oxygen is attached; the other carbon atoms are ignored. The oxidation state of the carbon is then calculated in the usual way with oxygen taken as having an oxidation state of -2 and hydrogen an oxidation state of +1. www.3rd1000.com /chem301/chem301q.htm   (361 words)

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