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Topic: Paradox of entailment


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  Paradox of entailment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The paradox of entailment is an apparent paradox derived from the observation that, in classical logic, inconsistent premises always make an argument valid; that is, inconsistent premises imply any conclusion at all.
The paradox of entailment is perfectly true; it is what Quine has called a "veridical" paradox.
Its seeming strangeness comes from the fact that the definition of validity in classical logic does not always agree with the use of the term in ordinary language.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Paradox_of_entailment   (397 words)

  
 Paradoks - Wikipedia
Elevator paradox: Elevators can seem to be mostly going in one direction, as if they were being manufactured in the middle of the building and being disassembled on the roof and basement.
Paradox of hedonism: When one pursues happiness itself, one is miserable; but, when one pursues something else, one achieves happiness.
Epicurean paradox, or Problem of evil: The existence of evil is incompatible with the existence of an omnipotent and caring God.
id.wikipedia.org /wiki/Paradoks   (2216 words)

  
 List of paradoxes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Richard's paradox: We appear to be able to use simple English to define a decimal expansion in a way which is self-contradictory.
Supplee's paradox: the buoyancy of a relativistic object (such as a bullet) appears to change when the reference frame is changed from one in which the bullet is at rest to one in which the fluid is at rest.
Epicurean paradox, or Problem of evil: The existence of evil seems to be incompatible with the existence of an omnipotent and caring God.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/List_of_paradoxes   (1921 words)

  
 Paradox - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paradoxes that arise from apparently intelligible uses of language are often of interest to logicians and philosophers.
Russell's paradox, which shows that the notion of the set of all those sets that do not contain themselves leads to a contradiction, was instrumental in the development of modern logic and set theory.
Paradoxes which are not based on a hidden error generally happen at the fringes of context or language, and require extending the context or language to lose their paradox quality.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Paradox   (969 words)

  
 Paradox: Encyclopedia topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A paradox is an apparently true (true: Proper alignment; the property possessed by something that is in correct or proper alignment) statement or group of statements that seems to lead to a contradiction (contradiction: (logic) a statement that is necessarily false) or to a situation that defies intuition, such as "This statement is false".
Paradox of entailment (Paradox of entailment: the paradox of entailment is an apparent paradox derived from the observation that, in...
Raven paradox (Raven paradox: the raven paradox is a paradox proposed by the german logician carl gustav hempel...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /reference/paradox   (4403 words)

  
 Paradox
Put simply, a paradox is 'the opposite of what one thinks to be true.' The identification of a paradox based on seemingly simple and reasonable concepts has often led to significant advances in science, philosophy and mathematics.
The etymology of paradox can be traced back to texts appearing at the dawn of the renaissance, a period of accelerated scientific thought in Europe and Asia sometime after the year 1500 AD.
In quantum physics, many paradoxical behaviors can be observed (the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, for instance) and some have attributed these paradoxes to inherent limitations of language and scientific models.
encyclopedia.codeboy.net /wikipedia/p/pa/paradox.html   (1050 words)

  
 Paradox - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A paradox is an apparently true statement or group of statements that seems to lead to a contradiction or to a situation that defies intuition.
The word paradox is often used interchangeably with contradiction; but where a contradiction by definition cannot be true, many paradoxes do allow of resolution, though many remain unresolved or only contentiously resolved (such as Curry's paradox).
Unexpected hanging paradox: The day of the hanging will be a surprise, so it can't happen at all, so it will be a surprise.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Paradox   (2365 words)

  
 Paradox   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A paradox is an apparently true statement that seems to lead to illogical contradiction or to a situation that contradicts intuition.
Put simply a paradox is 'the of what one thinks to be true.' identification of a paradox based on seemingly and reasonable concepts has often led to advances in science philosophy and mathematics.
Thus paradox of Frederic's birthday in The Pirates of Penzance establishes the surprising fact that a may be more than N years old his Nth birthday.
www.freeglossary.com /Paradox   (2113 words)

  
 Paradox - TheBestLinks.com - Ambiguity, Axiom, Antinomy, Borland, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Elevator paradox: Elevators can seem to be mostly going in one direction, as if they were being manufactured on the roof, and disassembled in the basement.
Epicurean paradox: The existence of evil is incompatible with the existence of an omnipotent and caring God.
Olbers' paradox: If the universe is infinite, with infinitely many luminous stars uniformly distributed, the sky should be entirely bright because there's a star in every direction.
www.thebestlinks.com /Paradox.html   (1931 words)

  
 Paradox - Gurupedia
Hausdorff paradox: The exists a countable subset C of the sphere S such that S\C is equidecomposable with with two copies of itself.
Abilene paradox: People take actions in contradiction to what they really want to do, and therefore defeat the very purposes of what they were trying to accomplish.
Epicurian paradox: The existence of evil is incompatible with the existence of an omnipotent and caring God.
www.gurupedia.com /p/pa/paradox.htm   (1570 words)

  
 Logic -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The boldest attempt to apply logic to mathematics was undoubtedly the logicism pioneered by philosopher-logicians such as Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell: the idea was that mathematical theories were logical tautologies, and the programme was to show this by means to a reduction of mathematics to logic.
The first class of paradoxes involves counterfactuals, such as "If the moon is made of green cheese, then 2+2=5", which are puzzling because natural language does not support the principle of explosion.
The second class of paradoxes involves redundant premises, falsely suggesting that we know the succedent because of the antecedent: thus "if that man gets elected, granny will die" is materially true if granny happens to be in the last stages of a terminal illness, regardless of the man's election prospects.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Logic   (4067 words)

  
 Sorites Paradox   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The sorites paradox is the name given to a class of paradoxical arguments, also known as little-by-little arguments, which arise as a result of the indeterminacy surrounding limits of application of the predicates involved.
The key feature of soritical predicates which drives the paradox, constraint (iii), is described in Wright (1975) as “tolerance” and is thought to arise as a result of the vagueness of the predicate involved.
The vagueness or indeterminacy that underwrites this sorites paradox is, on this approach, not a result of epistemic limitations, nor a result of indeterminacy in Everest itself but, rather, arises as a result of indeterminacy surrounding what to count as the referent of the term.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/sorites-paradox   (8363 words)

  
 Paradox of entailment: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A paradox is an apparently true statement or group of statements that seems to lead to a contradiction or to a situation that defies intuition, such as "this...
The paradox known as buridans ass was not originated by buridan himself....
The envelope paradox is a paradox of probability....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/p/pa/paradox_of_entailment.htm   (1071 words)

  
 Curry's Paradox
Curry's paradox, so named for its discoverer, namely Haskell B. Curry, is a paradox within the family of so-called paradoxes of self-reference (or paradoxes of circularity).
Like the liar paradox (e.g., ‘this sentence is false’) and Russell's paradox, Curry's paradox challenges familiar naive theories, including naive truth theory (unrestricted T-schema) and naive set theory (unrestricted axiom of abstraction), respectively.
Unlike the liar and Russell paradoxes Curry's paradox is negation-free; it may be generated irrespective of one's theory of negation.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/curry-paradox   (2130 words)

  
 Logic Information - logic problems
Due to its fundamental role in philosophy, the nature of logic has been the object of intense disputation, and it is not possible to give a clear delineation logic puzzle of the bounds of logic in terms acceptable to all rival viewpoints.
The first class of paradoxes are those nature of logic that involve counterfactuals, such as "If the moon is made of green cheese, then 2+2=4", puzzling because natural language does not support the principle of explosion.
Again, relevance logic and dialetheism are the most important approaches here, though the concerns are different: the key issue that classical logic and some of its rivals, such as intuitionistic logic have is that they respect the principle of explosion, which means that the logic collapses if it is capable of deriving a contradiction.
www.inanot.com /Ina-Electronics_Topics_L_-_Ma-/Logic.html   (3619 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
An example of this is the paradox">Banach????????Tarski paradox which says in effect that it is possible to "carve up" the 3-dimensional solid unit ball into finitely many pieces and, using only rotation and translation, reassemble the pieces into two balls each with the same volume as the original.
The paradox can be solved by mass transfer: when the more massive star became a subgiant, it filled...
His father-in-law was a paradoxer, and his wife a paradoxer; and in the opinion of the physical philosophers De Morgan himself scarcely escaped.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/p/paradox.htm   (1134 words)

  
 NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Philosophical logic
In general, a reference is something that refers or points to something else, or acts as a connection or a link between two things.
Look up Definition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For alternative meanings see definition (disambiguation) A nipple may be a statement of the essential properties of a certain thing, or a statement of equivalence between a term and that terms meaning.
Implication or entailment is used in propositional logic and predicate logic to describe a relationship between two sentences or sets of sentences.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Philosophical-logic   (889 words)

  
 Paradox - ExampleProblems.com
For instance, an ethical admonition to "love thy neighbour" is not just in contrast with, but in contradiction to an armed neighbour actively trying to kill you: if he or she succeeds, you will not be able to love him or her.
Zeus' paradox: If a hound exists which always catches its intended prey, and a deer exists which always eludes its pursuer, what occurs when the hound hunts the deer?
ACIM’s paradox: Although we are timeless, deathless, eternal beings (created by God), we also get hungry and want to feed our bodies.
www.exampleproblems.com /wiki/index.php/Paradox   (2329 words)

  
 paradox - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about paradox
The Bible is a rich source of paradox: ‘Love your enemies’; ‘The first shall be last and the last shall be first.’
Not the world,' but the 'one wise man,' is still the paradox of Socrates in his last hours.
He destroys birth and death, and dissipates to mist the paradox of being, until his victim cries out, as in "The City of Dreadful Night": "Our life's a cheat, our death a fl abyss.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /paradox   (219 words)

  
 Definition of Paradox
A paradox is an apparently true statement or group of statements that seems to lead to a contradiction or to a situation that defies intuition, such as "This statement is false".
The word paradox is often used indifferently with contradiction; but where a contradiction by definition cannot be true, many paradoxes do allow of resolution, though many remain unresolved or only contentiously resolved (such as Curry's paradox).
Bertrand's paradox (probability): Different common-sense defintions of randomness give quite different results.
www.wordiq.com /definition/Paradox   (2078 words)

  
 DTTF: another summary from Jeremy Carroll on 2002-05-03 (www-webont-wg@w3.org from May 2002)
I believe we have three live proposals: - comprehensive entailments: Jeremy [1] - dark owl: Peter [2], [3] - dark lists: Pat [4] We are agreed that the first does not use dark triples and that the second and third do.
Comprehension + Paradox ======================= The comprehension rules are shared between the comprehensive entailments and the dark lists proposal [6].
Hence whenever we are talking about X there is often miscommunication because the advocates of dark X think we are discussing the syntax and its semantics, whereas the opponenets assume we are talking at only a semantic level.
lists.w3.org /Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002May/0060.html   (959 words)

  
 apex*
The paradox is that, if we are to go by what philosophers say in other contexts, such bashfulness is quite unnecessary.
It appears to be this combination, truth-dependence without aboutness, that makes for the paradoxical result; it appears, in other words, that with all platonic objects, abstract or not, there is going to the possibility of an overeasy existence proof.
Just as functions can be deduced from the premise that I have as many left hands as right ones, events can be conjured a priori out of the fact that Jones buttered the toast slowly, and worlds out of the fact that she could have done it quickly.
www.mit.edu /~yablo/apex.html   (15021 words)

  
 Paradox of entailment: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The paradox of entailment is an apparent paradox ((logic) a self-contradiction)
The paradox of entailment is perfectly true; it is what Quine has called a "veridical" paradox, Exception Handler: No article summary found.
Quine's paradox (Quines paradox is a paradox concerning truth values, Exception Handler: No article summary found.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /ref/paradox_of_entailment   (1142 words)

  
 Paradoxes from A to Z -- Michael Clark
Paradoxes from A to Z -- Michael Clark
This essential guide to paradoxes takes the reader on a lively tour of puzzles that have taxed thinkers from Zeno to Galileo and Lewis Carroll to Bertrand Russell.
Clark discusses each paradox in non-technical terms, considering its significance and looking at likely solutions.
www.frontlist.com /detail/0415228093   (93 words)

  
 E
education, effect, embedded, emergent, empirical, entailment, epiphany, epiphenomenal, essentialist, ethnicity, eulogistic, event, evidence, explanation, exposition, expression
In defining any substance, for example, we necessarily place it in its context, its scene, which is to define it in terms of what it is not, leading to the "paradox of substance": "every positive is negative".
Before we know it, Burke has moved through statements like "any tendency to do something is...a tendency not to do it" (32) to a series of paradoxes and oxymorons and "ambiguities of substance" that stagger the literal-minded'.
www.sil.org /~radneyr/humanities/E.htm   (7253 words)

  
 CiteULike: greg_restall's paradox   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Recent papers added to greg_restall's library classified by the tag paradox.
The Knower Paradox in the Light of Provability Interpretations of Modal Logic
posted to consistency inconsistency kant paradox philosophy theology by greg_restall as
www.citeulike.org /user/greg_restall/tag/paradox   (115 words)

  
 Category:Paradoxes - All About All   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Everything you wanted to know - online encyclopedia
For more information, see the article about Paradox.
Also helps finding: paradoxe, paradoxs, pardoxes, paradoxed, aradoxes, pradoxes, paadoxes, pardoxes, paraoxes, paradxes, paradoes, paradoxs, paradoxe, oaradoxes, laradoxes
www.answers-zone.com /article/Category:Paradoxes   (85 words)

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