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Topic: Paramagnetism


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In the News (Mon 19 Feb 18)

  
  Paramagnetism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paramagnetism is the tendency of the atomic magnetic dipoles to align with an external magnetic field.
Paramagnetism requires that the atoms individually have permanent dipole moments even without an applied field, which typically implies a partially filled electron shell.
Paramagnetic materials in magnetic fields will act like magnets but when the field is removed, thermal motion will quickly disrupt the magnetic alignment.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Paramagnetism   (506 words)

  
 Magnetic Resonance TIP - MRI Database : 'Paramagnetism'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In pure Paramagnetism (without an external magnetic field), these atomic dipoles do not interact with one another and are randomly oriented in the absence of an external field, resulting in zero net moment.
Through interactions between the electron spins of the paramagnetic gadolinium and the water nuclei nearby, the relaxation rates (T1 and T2) of the water protons are increased (T1 and T2 times are decreased), causing an increase in signal on T1 weighted images.
The material behaves in a manner similar to paramagnetism, except that instead of each individual atom being independently influenced by an external magnetic field, the magnetic moment of the entire crystallite tends to align with the magnetic field.
www.mr-tip.com /serv1.php?type=db1&dbs=Paramagnetism   (556 words)

  
 Paramagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Strong paramagnetism (not to be confused with the ferromagnetism of the elements iron, cobalt, nickel, and other alloys) is exhibited by compounds containing iron, palladium, platinum, and the rare-earth elements.
Strong paramagnetism decreases with rising temperature because of the re-alignment produced by the greater random motion of the atomic magnets.
Weak paramagnetism, independent of temperature, is found in many metallic elements in the solid state, such as sodium and the other alkali metals, because an applied magnetic field affects the spin of some of the loosely bound conduction electrons.
www.cartage.org.lb /en/themes/Sciences/Physics/SolidStatePhysics/MagneticProperties/Diamagnetism/Paramagnetism/Paramagnetism.htm   (216 words)

  
 Magnetism and Earnshaw's Theorem
However, even paramagnetism is so weak that it's often not noticed, because the thermal agitation of the atoms (at room temperature) tends to disrupt the alignment.
Many of the early researchers in the science of magnetism thought this was nothing but a strong and persistent form of paramagnetism, but the strength and persistence of ferromagnetism show that it is the result of a fundamentally different mechanism, an effect that is absent in merely paramagnetic substances.
Whereas both diamagnetism and paramagnetism are essentially due to the atomic fields resulting from the orbital motions of the electrons about the nucleus, ferromagnetism is due almost entirely to alignment of the intrinsic spin axes of the individual electrons.
www.mathpages.com /home/kmath240/kmath240.htm   (2933 words)

  
 Mechanisms for Induced Magnetization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Paramagnetism - This is a form of magnetism associated with elements that have an odd number of electrons in their outer electron shells.
Paramagnetism is associated with the alignment of electron spin directions in the presence of an external magnetic field.
Ferromagnetism - This is a special case of paramagnetism in which there is an almost perfect alignment of electron spin directions within large portions of the material referred to as domains.
www.geo.ucalgary.ca /~maillol/goph365/mag/typesmag.html   (408 words)

  
 What is the difference between paramagnetism and ferromagnetism?
Paramagnetism refers to materials like aluminum or platinum which become magnetized in a magnetic field but their magnetism disappears when the field is removed.
In Paramagnetic materials, the electron orbits do not cancel out, but the electron fields don’t reinforce each other as much as those in ferromagnetic materials.
When a paramagnetic material is placed in a strong magnetic field, it becomes a magnet, and as long as the strong magnetic field is present, it will attract and repel other magnets in the usual way.
www.physlink.com /Education/AskExperts/ae595.cfm   (591 words)

  
 Paragmagnetism effects on Plant Growth - DirtDoctor.com - Howard Garrett - The Dirt Doctor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The paramagnetic soil was directly adjacent to the potting soil by virtue of its being buried in it, but no direct contact occurred.
The gradual increase in paramagnetic force between the different canisters, when submerged in the soil, resulted in a proportionate increase in the developing root length, plant mass, and root density of the radishes, shown in Figures 2, 3, and 4.
Once the paramagnetic rock has been discovered in a particular location, removal and distribution of the rock would be most efficiently accomplished by a mining company, since they have the infrastructure already in place.
www.dirtdoctor.com /view_question.php?id=127&set_theme=1   (1723 words)

  
 PCSM - Phil Callahan Soil Meter
Paramagnetism is a low level energy which can exert a tremendous impact upon plants and soil micro-organisms.
Paramagnetic rock dust can be added to soils of non-volcanic origin to boost their fertility.
The unit relies on measuring the paramagnetic ability of the soil but can be influenced by other forces such as electric fields, magnetic fields and electromagnetic emissions.
www.nutri-tech.com.au /products/energydevices/pcsm.htm   (878 words)

  
 Paramagnetism: Compounds
A ruler is used to measure the deflection of the thread from the vertical, which correlates with the number of unpaired electrons.
This compound is not as strongly paramagnetic as the manganese(II) sulfate.
The degree of paramagnetism of these compounds of the transition metals can be correlated with the number of unpaired electrons in their metal ions.
jchemed.chem.wisc.edu /JCESoft/CCA/CCA2/MAIN/PARACOM/CD2R1.HTM   (438 words)

  
 Learning Center for Paramagnetism
In paramagnetism the atoms or molecules of the substance have net orbital or spin magnetic moments that are capable of being aligned in the direction of the applied field - (Dictionary of Chemistry)
The atmosphere, because of the oxygen, is paramagnetic.
We know that the moon, which is highly paramagnetic, has a very strong effect on tides, which are of diamagnetic water.
www.naturesalternatives.com /lc/lcparamagnetism.html   (1351 words)

  
 Learning Center for Magnetite
Magnetite as researched by Philip S. Callahan, Ph.D. is a substance that displays some of the most paramagnetic properties found in all substances of nature.
Paramagnetism is a type of energy experienced in all of nature.
Magnetite is a mineral and common ore of iron having the composition Fe (Fe It occurs as a strong natural magnet known as lodestone and crystallizes in the isometric system, usually in granular masses but frequently in octahedral crystals.
www.naturesalternatives.com /lc/lcmagnetite.html   (375 words)

  
 Atomic Origin of Paramagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Paramagnetism can only happen when there are so-called “unpaired electrons” in the atom or molecules of the material.
The pairing of electrons is a quantum-mechanical effect where electron spins tend to orient themselves with their magnetic moments pointing in opposite directions.
The tendency of the magnetic moments of the electrons to line up with the applied field produces “magnetization,” which simply means a non-zero density of induced magnetic moments.
physics.bgsu.edu /~stoner/P202/ampere/sld009.htm   (182 words)

  
 Experimenting with Magic Energy from Nature: Paramagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Paramagnetism is a low-level energy, physical force that has shown to have beneficial effects on all forms of life.
This indicates that paramagnetic rocks could lose the magnetism with exposure, but I would assume this loss would be an extremely slow process.
Even though the paramagnetism of volcanic zeolite may be very low, even minus on the meter, it still is very valuable in growing plants.
www.malcolmbeck.com /books/gv_method/ExperimentingwithMagicEnergyfromNatureParamagnetism.htm   (2163 words)

  
 ORMUS, Paramagnetism and Soil Health
He postulates that paramagnetic soils facilitate the flow of atmospheric electromagnetic forces from the atmosphere to plants.
Like the paramagnetic elements in soil the ORMUS elements are difficult to identify using conventional spectroscopic or chemical analysis.
I recently spoke with Dr. Callahan and he is quite supportive of the idea that paramagnetic soils get many of their properties from the presence of the ORMUS elements.
www.biodynamics.com /discussion/_disc1/000000a0.htm   (1438 words)

  
 paramagnetism --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Strong paramagnetism (not to be confused with the ferromagnetism of the elements iron, cobalt, nickel, and other alloys) is exhibited by...
Paramagnetism occurs primarily in substances in which some or all of the individual atoms, ions, or molecules possess a permanent magnetic dipole moment.
There are six basic types of magnetization: (1) diamagnetism, (2) paramagnetism, (3) ferromagnetism, (4) antiferromagnetism, (5) ferrimagnetism, and (6) superparamagnetism.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9058400   (369 words)

  
 paramagnetism --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust!
Compounds containing iron, palladium, platinum, and the rare-earth elements exhibit strong paramagnetism because they have atoms with some incomplete inner electron shells.
As the temperature rises, strong paramagnetism decreases because of the greater random motion of the atoms.
Weak paramagnetism, found in many solid metallic elements, is independent of temperature.
www.britannica.com /ebc/article-9374548   (417 words)

  
 Geomantica - geomantic agriculture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Professor Phil Callahan discovered that paramagnetism (that is - a weak attraction to a magnet), whilst only a weak force in nature relative to ferromagnetism (which is well known to have powerful effects on biological processes) has an enhancing effect on the fertility and vitality on lifeforms.
Callahan believes that paramagnetism is as important as nutrients, air and moisture are to soil.
Paramagnetic stone circles and rock mulches around trees are also beneficial in the garden.
www.geomantica.com /geoagri.htm   (344 words)

  
 e anomalous field dependence of paramagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The term of a+bT is the Pauli paramagnetic contribution of Cu dx2-y2 -Op band.
We think this board peak behavior is the Pauli paramagnetic contribution of the Cu dx2-y2 -Op band that is narrower than the p band.
When the electrons in the Cu dx2 upper Hubbard band is moved to the Cu dx2-y2 -Op band, the Pauli paramagnetic contribution will decrease (the term a decreases, refer to Table 1a, 1b, and 1c.) because the Fermi level is near the top of band.
hbar.stanford.edu /gmyu/publish/fe.html   (1978 words)

  
 PIRA 5G30.00 PARAMAGNETISM AND DIAMAGNETISM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Paramagnetic and diamagnetic crystals are inserted between the poles of a large electromagnet.
A small sphere of Pyrothit suspended near one pole of a horseshoe magnet will show paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior in different orientations.
A paramagnetic body is suspended in a paramagnetic solution.
www.physics.ncsu.edu /pira/5eandm/5G30.html   (212 words)

  
 Mechanisms for Induced Magnetization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The temperature above which paramagnetism is no longer observed is called the Currie Temperature.
The susceptabilities of paramagnetic substances is small and positive.
Like paramagnetism, ferromagnetism is observed only at temperatures below the Currie temperature.
gretchen.geo.rpi.edu /roecker/AppGeo96/lectures/mag/typesmag.html   (407 words)

  
 Paramagnetism
Followers of Phil Callahan are familiar with his eclectic blend of disciplines, his lovely prose, his contagious enthusiasm for the science of nature.
Paramagnetism is the culmination of knowledge from all of his previous works, and will certainly be his most popular book to date, and a classic for years to come.
In this one, beautiful little book, Callahan lays out a lifetime of research into low-frequency forces in nature, his discoveries regarding the force of paramagnetism and the amazing effects it has upon soils, plants and people.
www.nutri-tech.com.au /products/education/paramagnetism.htm   (252 words)

  
 Paramagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Paramagnetic materials include oxygen and ions of various metals like Fe, Mg, and Gd.
The figure above illustrates the effect of a paramagnetic material (grey circle) on the magnetic field flux lines (blue).
Gd is used as a in MR contrast agents.
www.mritutor.org /mritutor/paramag.htm   (150 words)

  
 Paramagnetism of Liquid Oxygen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Liquid oxygen condenses on the sides of the cone and drips between the poles of the magnet where it sticks until it evaporates.
Liquid nitrogen can be poured into the magnet gap to show that it is not paramagnetic.
Place a steel ball bearing on one of the magnet poles to reduce the size of the gap.
www.oberlin.edu /physics/catalog/demonstrations/em/lo2.html   (95 words)

  
 Amazon.ca: Paramagnetism: Rediscovering Nature's Secret Force of Growth: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Plants are diamagnetic,when measured on a paramagnetic meter, and require paramagnetic soil to be healthy and strong.
Ultimately, paramagnetic material is usually silica based rock with small amounts of iron oxide (approx.12%).
As explained in many of Callahan's books, paramagnetism is essential for the healthy growth of friendly bacteria and therefore crops.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0911311491   (426 words)

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