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Topic: Paraprotein

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  Paraprotein - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A paraprotein is an abnormal protein in the urine or blood, most often associated with benign MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) and multiple myeloma.
Paraproteins form a narrow band, or 'spike' in protein electrophoresis as they are all exactly the same protein.
Paraproteins allowed the detailed study of immunoglobulins, which eventually led to the production of monoclonal antibodies in 1975.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Paraprotein   (170 words)

 SAS Centre : Assays : Protein Reference Units : Paraprotein Typing
The term 'paraprotein' was introduced by Apitz in 1940 to describe the proteins in blood, urine or tissues that are produced by myeloma cells.
Paraproteins are thus the earliest described tumour markers and remain an important diagnostic feature in multiple myeloma.
Unless the isotype of the paraprotein is known the concentration cannot be interpreted in terms of tumour bulk.
www.sas-centre.org /assays/protein_reference_units/paraprotyp.html   (1311 words)

 SPE Interpretations
The previously identified paraprotein is unchanged from the value of ___ g/dl measured on mm/dd/yy.
The level of paraprotein is to low to be measured by densitometry against the background of polyclonal immunoglobulins.
The low level of this paraprotein and the absence of suppression of polyclonal immunoglobulins are evidence for a monoclonal protein of undetermined significance which may be a benign process.
home.houston.rr.com /pathways/SpeINT.html   (1755 words)

 Multiple myeloma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Headache, visual changes and retinopathy may be the result of hyperviscosity of the blood depending on the properties of the paraprotein.
Quantitative measurements of the paraprotein are necessary to establish a diagnosis and to monitor the disease.
The paraprotein is an abnormal immunoglobulin produced by the tumor clone.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Multiple_myeloma   (2124 words)

A distinct band is present in the slow gamma region that could be a paraprotein It measures ___% of the total urinary protein.
Electrophoresis of a concentrated urine specimen demonstrates a paraprotein in the mid gamma region and other proteins in a pattern of mild glomerular proteinuria.
To calculate the amount of paraprotein, enter the % protein in the specimen from the denistometer and the total protein.
home.houston.rr.com /pathways/Urineint.html   (588 words)

 Multiple myeloma - WrongDiagnosis.com - WrongDiagnosis.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
A doctor will then order protein electrophoresis of the blood and urine, on which a paraprotein (monoclonal protein, or M protein) band may be noticed.
Quantitative measurements of the paraprotein are necessary to determine the severity of the disease.
The paraprotein is a deviant immunoglobulin produced by the tumor clone.
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /wikipedia/Multiple_myeloma.html   (1491 words)

 UKMF: Paraproteins
Paraproteins are the earliest described tumour markers and remain an essential part of the investigation, diagnosis and monitoring of patients with B cell dyscrasias.
The term paraprotein was introduced by Apitz in 1940 to describe the abnormal proteins in blood, urine and tissues that are produced by myeloma cells.
Paraprotein bands may be 'missed' if they are at low serum concentration (<5.0 g/l) and or where their mobility coincides with other bands such as β globulins.
www.ukmf.org.uk /paraproteins.html   (3456 words)

 HAPS - Education Information - Myeloma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Multiple myeloma results from the uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells, and diagnosis is based on the triad of increased and abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow, osteolytic lesions on skeletal x-ray, and detection of a paraprotein on EPG of serum and/or urine.
The paraprotein is characterised by identification of the heavy and light chain isotype of the immunoglobulin clone, which has prognostic significance.
Paraprotein typing is the diagnostic criterion for the rare "Heavy Chain Disease", where the clone produces only heavy chains.
www.haps.nsw.gov.au /edrsrch/edinfo/myeloma.html   (1064 words)

 Multiple myeloma
If the paraprotein produced by the plasma cells is of a smaller molecular size it may get through the first part of the kidney's filtering mechanism and then silt up the rest of the fine network of tubes (tubules) within the kidney, leading to kidney failure.
Paraprotein binding to nerves causes sensory problems (numbness, tingling) or, more rarely, motor problems (inability to move a muscle or group of muscles).
AL amyloidosis is often associated with a low level paraprotein, tissue infiltration (leading to enlargement of liver and spleen and abnormalities of the heart and other organs).
www.tiscali.co.uk /lifestyle/healthfitness/health_advice/netdoctor/archive/000535_2.html   (4276 words)

 What is PDN? continued.
Most monoclonal gammopathies are non-malignant but when paraprotein is found in the serum along with a neuropathy, then there should be tests for any suspected, potentially serious malignant conditions, in order to exclude them from the diagnosis.
However in 2-3rds of patients with paraprotein and a neuropathy no underlying malignant disorder is found to explain the presence of the monoclonal gammopathy/paraprotein.
There is a smaller amount of paraprotein in the serum of MGUS bearers than in the serum of those with the malignant disorders.
www.pdn-info.co.uk /What_is_PDN_continued.html   (566 words)

 On-line Archives of Rheumatology
The paraprotein, usually an IgG with lamda light chains, is found in the majority of patients with SMX (23 of 26 in Dinneen et al's series) although some cases with k light chains have been reported.
Nonetheless, the paraprotein found in SMX is quite unlike mieloma-produced proteins: fewer than 10% of mieloma-produced proteins migrate towards the cathode (most of them remain at the point of application or move slowly towards the anode and therefore fall within the gamma or beta zone) and no more than one third have lambda chains.
A pathogenetic role of the paraprotein has been proposed to explain the various neurologic manifestations in SMX: it was thought to cause an increased blood viscosity or increased tendency of leukocytes to aggregate with sludging of the CNS microcirculation [River et al].
www.archrheumatol.net /1999/0013.html   (3992 words)

 What is PDN?
Paraprotein is the presence in the blood/serum of an abnormal amount of any single type of protein/antibody/immunoglobulin.
Paraprotein is present in a very small percentage of people, especially as they get older.
About 0.1% in the 3rd decade have paraprotein but it rises to 1% of healthy people over 50 and then to some 3- 5% of people in the 70 plus age group.
www.pdn-info.co.uk /What_is_PDN.html   (459 words)

 High titer anti-HIV antibody reactivity associated with a paraprotein spike in a homosexual male with AIDS related ...
Because paraproteins in the past have been shown to be directed against specific antigens, we purified this patient's paraprotein using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-hydroxylapatite procedure and tested the purified paraprotein for anti-HIV antibody activity.
The purified paraprotein retained anti-HIV antibody activity to a final dilution of 1:100,000, and recognized p66pol, p55gag, p53pol, p41gag, and p24gag.
We conclude that this patient's paraprotein accounted for most of the anti-HIV activity present in whole serum, and that this paraprotein was not monoclonal in origin.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1988/aug/M8880195.html   (524 words)

 Multiple myeloma
This is important because in the latter there is no abnormal paraprotein in the blood, and the diagnosis can be made only if the urine is checked for the presence of light chains.
The rate of fall is much higher in myeloma because the paraprotein causes the red cells to clump together and so fall more rapidly.
The abnormal paraprotein is usually at a lower level (less than 10g/l of IgG but can be as high as 20-25g/l) and the overall immunoglobulin levels are usually normal.
www.netdoctor.co.uk /diseases/facts/multiplemyeloma.htm   (5355 words)

 Final Diagnosis -- Case 241
The condition is diagnosed in approximately 1,500 individuals annually in the U.S., and is usually not detected until either the paraprotein level exceeds 3.0 g/dL (1,2), or until the blood viscosity is at least four times that of normal serum (2).
The serum IgM paraprotein, although decreased, was still present after 21 months of chemotherapy; and the patient still had residual hematuria suggestive of persistent glomerular damage.
In cases with hyperviscosity syndrome, chemotherapy is recommended to aid in rapidly decreasing the paraprotein level, and to target and control the underlying lymphoproliferative disorder.
path.upmc.edu /cases/case241/dx.html   (1191 words)

 Multiple myeloma
Measuring the amount of paraprotein in the blood or urine is of value in the diagnosis of myeloma and in monitoring the response to treatment.
The presence of paraprotein is sometimes referred to as a peak or a band to distinguish it from the normal pattern.
The abnormal paraproteins may be deposited in the kidney and block tubules in the kidney.
www.lrf.org.uk /en/1/infdispatmul.html   (5498 words)

 NeuroCAST - A Current Perspective on Anti-MAG Neuropathy
Anti-MAG neuropathy is marked by three distinguishing abnormalities: a length dependent phenotype presenting with sensory loss in the distal lower extremities; demyelinating nerve conduction abnormalities with uniform slowing that is maximal in the terminal segments of the nerve; and the presence of an IgM paraprotein on serum protein electrophoresis.
CIDP may be associated with a paraprotein, but in cases with the typical motor presentation of CIDP, it is usually IgG.
However, in all other conditions associated with a paraprotein, anti-MAG antibodies are normal, and binding to nerve has not been shown to be the cause of the neuropathy in these other conditions.
www.neurocast.com /site/content/sessions_08_2002.asp   (1636 words)

This included complete responses in four patients, and maximum paraprotein responses by at least 90% in 18 patients, by 75% in 14 patients, by 50% in 16 patients, and by 25% in 13 patients.
Minimal levels of response were observed in 36% of the patients, at a median time to response of 1 month; at least 50% paraprotein response (achieved in 30%) was noted at 2 months median.
Paraprotein responses were associated with resolution of bone marrow plasmacytosis in 60% of patients who had at least a 90% paraprotein reduction; only 34% of patients achieving a lesser paraprotein response had resolution of plasmacytosis (P =.03).
www.cancernetwork.com /journals/oncnews/n0002sup1aa.htm   (1052 words)

 Canine Multiple Myeloma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Overabundant production of paraprotein, consisting of any of the immunoglobulin classes, will appear as a sharp, well-defined peak or monoclonal gammopathy on serum electrophoresis.
Light chain disease is caused by plasma cell overproduction of the light chain segment of the immunoglobulin complex, consisting of either the lambda or kappa light chain.
Osteolysis is also induced secondary to paraprotein binding of ionized calcium, which initiates secretion of parathormone (PTH) from the parathyroid gland.
www.vet.uga.edu /vpp/clerk/Maczuzak/index.htm   (2567 words)

 [No title]
It may consist of whole immunoglobulin, or only the light chain: in the latter case, most or all of the paraprotein is in the urine, because of the low molecular weight.
Diseases: several diseases are associated with the presence of a paraprotein.
Paraprotein is small then make a provisional diagnosis of MGUS, and arrange to recheck the paraprotein concentration after a few months.
meds.queensu.ca /medicine/deptmed/hemonc/dload/pprot.doc   (477 words)

 Cancer Immunity 1:11 (2001)
Since the recognition that human myeloma-associated paraproteins are structurally normal immunoglobulins with functional antibody activity, several target structures of the paraproteins associated with myeloma and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia have been reported.
The antigenic targets of the respective paraproteins were discovered under three circumstances: (i) accidentally, due to clinical symptoms caused by the paraprotein, e.g.
There have been previous reports of myeloma paraproteins directed against a wide variety of infectious agents, including bacteria (3,6,11,12) and the p24 antigen of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (5).
www.cancerimmunity.org /v1p11/011211.htm   (2582 words)

 Multiple Myeloma STEPS program - Thalidomide
Among patients with urine and serum paraprotein, response was judged on the basis of the paraprotein showing the smaller decline.
Declines of >20% and >50% in paraprotein levels were observed in 58% and 42% of all patients, respectively, and in 67% and 50% of the 18 patients treated for at least 2 months.
Among the 7 patients with >50-75% decline in the paraprotein, 5 patients underwent repeat marrow evaluation revealing normalization of marrow in 2 patients, at least 50% reduction in marrow plasmacytosis in 2 patients, and stable plasmacytosis in 1 patient.
www.theblackriver.net /mmsteps.html   (1529 words)

 PersonalMD.com Health Encyclopedia
During the study, the researchers measured blood and urine levels of a substance called paraprotein, which is produced by a tumor.
A drop in these levels may signal that the cancer is beginning to weaken, Barlogie said in the interview with Reuters Health.
In the interview with Reuters Health, Barlogie warned that a drop in paraprotein levels is not a guarantee that a tumor is decreasing in size.
www.personalmd.com /encnews.jsp?f=n1118102005.html   (489 words)

 Multiple myeloma tumor progression in the 5T2MM murine model is a multistage and dynamic process of differentiation, ...
Evolution of serum paraprotein concentration during disease progression and correlation between serum paraprotein concentration and 5T2MM myeloma tumor load in bone marrow.
Paraprotein concentrations were measured as described in Figure 2A legend.
Data are illustrated as a function of the corresponding paraprotein concentration, which is an indicator of the tumor stage.
www.bloodjournal.org /cgi/content/full/101/8/3136   (4002 words)

 ASH: Thalomid Reduces Tumor Burden In Patients With Advanced Multiple Myeloma
Eighteen patients achieved paraprotein response of greater than, or equal to, 90 percent, 14 patients achieved a greater than, or equal to, 75 percent paraprotein response and 16 patients achieved a greater than, or equal to, 50 percent paraprotein response.
Paraprotein is the myeloma protein in serum or Bence Jones protein in urine.
To be considered a response, these paraprotein reductions must have been observed on two occasions at least six weeks apart.
www.docguide.com /dg.nsf/PrintPrint/3642CE0A5287D3DA8525683F00735FAD   (878 words)

 Artifactual Undetectable HDL-Cholesterol with the Beckman Synchron LX and Vitros 950 Assays Temporally Associated with ...
Artifactual Undetectable HDL-Cholesterol with the Beckman Synchron LX and Vitros 950 Assays Temporally Associated with a Paraprotein -- Baca et al.
The frequency and magnitude of paraprotein interference was
Paraproteins are a well-recognized cause of lipoprotein abnormalities,
www.clinchem.org /cgi/content/full/50/1/255   (895 words)

 Microscopic Description -- Case 193
The acute renal failure was felt to be primarily related to the blastic IgD myeloma, as indicated by the 1.2 g/dL IgD paraprotein level, a 60 mg/dL lambda light chain proteinuria, uric acid nephropathy, and the tubular pattern of injury seen on urinary protein electrophoresis.
However, it did show an estimated 1.2 g/dL serum paraprotein level, which is very similar to a median level of 1.1 g/dL seen in a number of patients from a large Western-based case series (1).
This high paraprotein level suggests a tremendous load on the kidneys, and likely contributed a great deal to the renal failure observed clinically in the current case.
path.upmc.edu /cases/case193/dx.html   (1432 words)

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