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Topic: Parasitoid

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  Ockhams Razor - 7/27/1997: Behaviour, Evolutionary Games and .... Aliens
There are parasitoids that have lost their wings and burrow through leaf litter, that drill holes through the bark of pine trees, that attach themselves to grasshoppers and ride with the swarm until it lands, that submerge themselves with a bubble of air and swim underwater...
The secret weapon of earth-based parasitoids is a device known as an ovipositor, a razor sharp needle at the tip of the abdomen, similar to the sting of a honeybee.
And parasitoids are something of a model organism for foraging studies, because the host that they forage for are usually food for their offspring, rather than themselves, so foraging decisions translate directly into fitness units.
www.abc.net.au /rn/science/ockham/stories/s223.htm   (2182 words)

 Genome Biology | Full text | Genome-wide gene expression in response to parasitoid attack in Drosophila
Parasitoids are insects whose larvae develop by destructively feeding in (endoparasitoids) or on (ectoparasitoids) the bodies of other insects, eventually killing their hosts.
Parasitoid attack involves wounding and penetration, and it is possible that the production of antimicrobial peptides is associated with damage to the exoskeleton and low-level exposure to microbial factors on the surface of the fly larvae or ovipositor of the wasp.
Parasitoid attack induced strong upregulation of a gene encoding a C-type lectin (lectin-24A) and the slight downregulation of a leucine-rich repeat gene (Pxn).
genomebiology.com /2005/6/11/R94   (8800 words)

 A Wasp Parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
A Wasp Parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Cocoon of Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson), a wasp parasitoid.
Laboratory biology of Meteorus autographae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an indigenous parasitoid of soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae.
edis.ifas.ufl.edu /BODY_IN280   (880 words)

 The Loom: The Loom's Celebrity Edition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Parasitoids are a particularly gruesome kind of parasite that invariably kills its host by the time it becomes an adult and is ready to leave the host's body.
Some parasitoids lay their eggs in the neighborhood of their particular host, and when the egg hatches, the larva may crawl, skitter, or squirm around for weeks until it finds one.
Parasitoids achieve all this with cocktail of hormones, proteins, and genes that take over the workings of their host's body.
www.corante.com /loom/archives/001093.html   (1686 words)

 Parasitoids Introduction
Insect parasitoids have an immature life stage that develops on or within a single insect host, ultimately killing the host, hence the value of parasitoids as natural enemies.
Parasitoids can be the dominant and most effective natural enemies of some pest insects, but their presence may not be obvious.
Immature parasitoids, especially if protected within the egg of their host or in their own cocoon, may tolerate pesticides better than adults, but immature parasitoids will usually die if their host is killed.
www.nysaes.cornell.edu /ent/biocontrol/parasitoids/parasintro.html   (481 words)

 Parasitoid Survey - project methods and results
Due to needed revisions in several large taxonomic groups of parasitoids and poorly known groups, not all parasitoids were identifiable to the species level.
Defoliator larvae collected and reared for identification and parasitoid analysis in WSDA surveys represented a cross section of larval sampling from many plants, although the majority were from apple trees.
Parasitoids reared from historically introduced exotic and native defoliator species were also identified in this survey to detect exotic parasitoid species possibly introduced with the exotic defoliators.
whatcom.wsu.edu /pestsurvey/parasitoid/methods.htm   (809 words)

 Host-Parasitoid Models
Parasitoids are insect species which larvae develop as parasites on other insect species.
Parasitoid larvae usually kill its host (some times the host is paralyzed by ovipositing parasitoid female) whereas adult parasitoids are free-living insects (see images of parasitoids).
Parasitoids and their hosts often have synchronized life-cycles, e.g., both have one generation per year (monovoltinous).
www.gypsymoth.ento.vt.edu /~sharov/PopEcol/lec10/paras.html   (733 words)

A parasitoid is an insect that develops inside another living organisms and in the course of that development kills the host organism.
observed parasitoids that “…were actually receiving and storing information about their semiochemical environment and adopting behavior consistent with that information.” (5) Wasps are able to learn (usually by association); they can collect a positive oviposition experience with one or more multi-sensory cues and store it for future use.
The idea for using parasitoid wasps as a means of control versus insecticide application provides an alternative to spraying toxic chemicals on all the inhabitants of a particular plant complex.
www.colostate.edu /Depts/Entomology/courses/en507/papers_1999/bott.htm   (2737 words)

 King, B. H. Sex ratio response to conspecifics in a parasitoid wasp
in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).
parasitoid wasps Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in a poultry house.
Parasitoids of growing hosts which are expected to have evolved host- size-dependent sex ratios include parasitoids which utilize a narrow size range of host species, parasitoids which can distinguish among host species by some criterion other than size, and parasitoids which utilize host species whose susceptible instars do not overlap in size.
www.bios.niu.edu /bking/abstracts.html   (8326 words)

 FILE: <BC-3
The test for distinguishing parasitoids from predators is whether they reach maturity  by consuming but a single host or several host individuals during the course of their development.
Parasitoid activity as a parameter in population dynamics resembles that of predators rather than true parasites.
Indirect Hyperparasitism is that type of hyperparasitism in which a parasitoid attacks a host insect upon which it itself is incapable of developing with the purpose of encountering the primary parasitoid which the secondary host may contain.
faculty.ucr.edu /~legneref/biotact/bc-3.htm   (1900 words)

 JIS: Tschinkel 2.12.2002
Upon the initiation of parasitoid penetration, host epidermal cells are stimulated to undergo mitosis and eventually a capsule is formed around the parasitoid (Gerling et al., 1990; 1991).
Also, as parasitoid penetration begins, cells that are rounded in appearance and resemble hemocytes and/or oenocytes are present in the whitefly epidermis in the area that is in contact with the penetrating parasitoid (Fig.
It is likely that when the parasitoid probes the nymph with its stylets it can determine the developmental state of the host, and since, as mentioned earlier, a non-penetrating parasitoid almost always induces permanent developmental arrest in its host, the parasitoid could be injecting a material that prevents the whitefly from completing development.
www.insectscience.org /5.46   (6999 words)

 A Wasp Parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson) (Insecta: Hymenotera: Ichneumonidae)
Male Diadegma insulare (Cresson), a parasitoid wasp, and mature larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus).
Mature larva of Diadegma insulare (Cresson), a parasitoid wasp.
Cocoon of Diadegma insulare (Cresson), a parasitoid wasp.
edis.ifas.ufl.edu /IN281   (871 words)

 Poisonous partnership: parasitoid wasps use viruses as a weapon Science News - Find Articles
The distinction is that parasitoids kill their hosts, whereas parasites usually don't.
Parasitoid wasps aren't familiar to most people because the creatures tend to be small and they lack the flashy stripes of their better-known wasp and bee cousins.
But scientists estimate that there are hundreds of thousands of parasitoid wasp species, more than all the species of ants, bees, and nonparasitoid wasps put together.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1200/is_9_167/ai_n13595711   (840 words)

 Largest Parasitoid Brood
A parasitoid brood consists of the individuals that hatch from a single egg or clutch of eggs laid by one parasitoid in a single host.
Parasitoids reported to have the largest broods belong to the family Encyrtidae.
Polymorphic precocious larvae in the polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosomopsis tanytmemus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).
ufbir.ifas.ufl.edu /chap26.htm   (1292 words)

 brown citrus aphid parasitoid - Lipolexis scutellaris Mackauer
Stary (1989) termed this behavior (parasitoid does not complete its development and dies prior to emergence) as 'incomplete parasitization.' Stary (1989) indicated incomplete parasitization could be the result of a new parasitoid-aphid association following movement of either the host or parasitoid into a new area.
Aphidiids are hyperparasitized (when a parasitoid is parasitized by a different wasp species, which results in the death of the primary parasitoid) by Chalcididae, Aphelinidae, Ceraphronidae and Cynipidae (Stary 1988).
Evans and Stange (1997) prepared a key to parasitoids and hyperparasitoids associated with the brown citrus aphid in Florida and included Lipolexis scutellaris in the key because it was expected to be introduced into Florida "...in the near future".
creatures.ifas.ufl.edu /beneficial/bca_parasitoid.htm   (5290 words)

 Exploring the Lotka-Volterra Competition Model using Two Species of Parasitoid Wasps (Description)
Although competition can affect parasitoid community structure, spatial and temporal variation in host resources may be even more important in determining parasitoid species richness, even in the presence of interspecific competition among parasitoids (Hawkins 2000).
Parasitoids whose hosts are important pests on crops or forest trees are sometimes intentionally released as biological controls on pest populations.
If the different parasitoid species are capable of co-existing by means of resource partitioning, control of the pest host may be best achieved by introducing some or all of the parasitoid species.
tiee.ecoed.net /vol/v2/experiments/wasps/description.html   (3583 words)

 Chapter 3. Interactions between a predator, a parasitoid, and a fungus: consequences on greenhouse whitefly populations
Emergence of parasitoids was reduced and infection of parasitoid larvae by B.
Predators, parasitoids and pathogens have been previously considered to have parallel and largely independent effects on herbivore populations, and potentially significant interactions between these natural enemies were neglected (Brodeur and Rosenheim, 2000).
Furlong, M.J. Infection of the immature stages of Diadegma semiclausum, an endolarval parasitoid of the diamondback moth, by Beauveria bassiana.
www.theses.ulaval.ca /2005/22512/ch03.html   (5991 words)

 Department of Natural Resources: Gypsy Parasitoid (A. Samarensis) Trial   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
samarensis (Villeneuve) is a parasitoid that attacks low-level populations of GM in Europe.
The parasitoid attacks second and third instar GM larvae; and active larval feeding on the foliage is a cue that aids in bringing gravid females to their hosts.
The original objective of this work was to establish this parasitoid in the Province to add to the other natural bio-control factors already acting to keep GM populations from irrupting to outbreak levels.
www.gnb.ca /0078/FPM/GypsyParasitoid.asp   (568 words)

 Parasitoid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Most biologists use the term parasitoids to refer only to insects with this type of life history, but some argue the term should be used more embrasively to include parasitic nematodes, seed weevils, and certain bacteria and viruses (e.g.
Outside of the Parasitica there are many other Hymenopteran lineages which include parasitoids, such as most of the Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea, and the rare Symphytan family Orussidae.
The other two orders are the "twisted-wing parasites" (order Strepsiptera), which is a small group consisting entirely of parasitoids, and the beetles (order Coleoptera), which includes at least families, Ripiphoridae and Rhipiceridae, that are largely parasitoids, and rove beetles (family Staphylinidae) of the genus Aleochara.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Parasitoid   (713 words)

 Midwest Biological Control News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
This parasitoid is commonly found (entering from the outside) in greenhouses or conservatories that are unsprayed or avoid the use of conventional pest control materials.
The parasitoid has a noticeable constriction between the head and the thorax, and the thorax and the abdomen.
The parasitoid has a potential maximum rate of population increase that is higher than fungus gnats at 23°C; however, the parasitized fungus gnat larvae may still cause plant damage during the interval between parasitization and death.
www.entomology.wisc.edu /mbcn/kyf702.html   (339 words)

 Continuous-Time Models of Host-Parasitoid Interactions -- from Mathematica Information Center
Although there is a large literature about the effects of spatial heterogeneity and parasitoid aggregation on the population dynamics of model host-parasitoid systems, most studies deal only with hosts and parasitoids that have discrete, nonoverlapping generations.
These models are similar in structure to metapopulation models of predator-prey systems, and their stability properties can be explained in terms of asynchrony in the population fluctuations of each of the constituent patches.
The influence of spatial heterogeneity and parasitoid aggregation on population dynamics is different for each model, which thus demonstrates the complexity of predicting population dynamics in continuous-time models of host-parasitoid systems.
library.wolfram.com /infocenter/Articles/1385   (210 words)

 Phaser Module: Nicholson-Bailey MAP
Ecological: When it is assumed that host density is limited only by the parasitoid, and that the parasitoid is confined only to one host species, host-parasitoid relations result in large amplitude oscillations.
The description of the distribution obtained by placing objects (parasitoid eggs) into boxes (hosts) is the Poisson Distribution.
When host versus parasitoid are plotted on the phase plane, a typical orbit spirals away from an unstable fixed point (source).
www.phaser.com /modules/ecology/nicholson   (830 words)

 1999 Western Washington Exotic Defoliator Parasitoid Survey
Many of these new species were reared to adult from field collected larvae during several CAPS surveys and any parasitoids present were kept for future analysis.
This survey is largely an analysis of that compiled parasitoid material.
Parasitoid predation is a key factor in determining whether introduced exotic species become significant economic pests here.
whatcom.wsu.edu /pestsurvey/defoliator.htm   (382 words)

 Parasitoid aggregation and the stabilization of a salt marsh host-parasitoid system
We first determine if there is sufficient parasitoid aggregation to potentially stabilize the Prokelisia-Anagrus interactions, using methods that infer parasitoid behavior from the spatial pattern of parasitism.
We then test a basic assumption implicit in theory, that the degree of parasitoid aggregation is invariant with respect to changes in overall host and parasitoid density, and through time.
Using field experiments, and direct sampling of the spatial distribution of parasitoids, we then try to determine if parasitoid aggregation is in fact responsible for the heterogeneous pattern of parasitism observed in the field.
www.srs.fs.usda.gov /pubs/576   (396 words)

 Dispersal of whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus
We are interested in movement by Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich, a parasitoid of the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius).
Eighty-seven percent of the 4,153 parasitoids captured in replicated trials were males.
If we can explain why whiteflies and these parasitoids are not the best candidates for inoculative releases will lead us to examine other, more effective, methods of deploying biological control agents.
www.inhs.uiuc.edu /cee/movement/2KAZ.html   (821 words)

 Hochberg, M.E. and Ives, A.R., eds.: Parasitoid Population Biology.
Extraordinary in the diversity of their lifestyles, insect parasitoids have become extremely important study organisms in the field of population biology, and they are the most frequently used agents in the biological control of insect pests.
Parasitoid Population Biology will likely be an important influence on research well into the twenty-first century and will provoke discussion amongst parasitoid biologists and population biologists.
The editors and contributors are recognized experts at the international level, and are at the cutting edge of parasitoid population biology research.
press.princeton.edu /titles/7009.html   (502 words)

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