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Topic: Parental investment

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In the News (Wed 19 Jun 19)

  Evolution, Sexuality, Mate-Selection, and Begging Methodological Questions | Science Blog   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Parental investment refers to the differential caretaking responsibilities each parent incurs as a result of producing offspring.
From a parental investment lens, this makes sense in that a woman impregnated through an affair will impact the amount of investment required from a long term male partner, who may be deceived into believing the offspring was his.
A woman’s parental investment would not be effected by her mate having a sexual affair, but would suffer if her mate developed affection toward another female, resulting in dissolution of the original pair bond.
www.scienceblog.com /cms/evolution-sexuality-mate-selection-and-begging-methodological-questions-13471.html   (1765 words)

 Insect Behavior Review Articles 1997
Trivers (1972) defined parental investment as "any investment by the parent in an individual offspring that increases the offspring's chance of surviving (and hence reproductive success) at the cost of the parent's ability to invest in other offspring." E.O. Wilson described some ecology factors that are responsible for the evolution of parental care.
However, this investment may still be considered parental investment because the amount of energy used in rearing the offspring is done for the fitness of the colony that can be translated into the fitness of the individual.
Parental care or sibling care may not be directly related individual fitness per se, but it increases the fitness of many thousands of individuals of a very similar genetic constitution.
www.colostate.edu /Depts/Entomology/courses/en507/papers_1997/gerace.html   (3707 words)

  Elephant Seal Pups Weigh in on Parental Investment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The commitment of time and resources by parents is a critical variable in their offspring's survival, but a difficult one to measure.
The authors weighed 121 elephant seal pups at birth and at weaning to determine their weight increase, the most reliable measure of parental investment, and compared that to several behavioral measures in the same pups.
Parental investment is a valuable indicator of the health of any population because it stems directly from the condition of breeding females, the availability of food resources, and other environmental conditions.
www.earthwatch.org /pubaffairs/news/galimberti.html   (654 words)

 Simulating Parental Investment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
For example, Becker (1991) provides an economic analysis of how rational parents should distribute investment among their children, assuming that parents are trying to maximize total child quality as defined by the sum of all the children's wealth as adults.
This type of analysis is of limited use in making predictions about actual parental behavior in specific situations, because it assumes that parents have some means of calculating the effects of each unit of investment on the future payoff they expect to gain from a child.
Much of the research on parental investment decisions that has been carried out in the field of behavioral ecology has taken it as a given that parents could not possibly solve such complex equations.
www-abc.mpib-berlin.mpg.de /sim/Parental   (496 words)

 The signal function of early infant crying
Parent and offspring interests diverge most dramatically when parents of a species are prone to withdraw parental investment entirely, or to commit infanticide outright (Daly and Wilson 1988; Daly 1990; Hrdy 1999).
Parental neglect, abandonment, killing and sometimes consuming of newborn offspring is known to occur in several animal species when the condition of the offspring is poor, or the conditions for rearing offspring are unfavorable.
Consider the situation in which parents are prone to cut their losses and abandon infants when their condition is so poor that they are unlikely to survive, but that parents cannot observe all aspects of infant condition directly.
www.bbsonline.org /Preprints/Soltis-11072002/Referees   (16166 words)

 Study Examines Gender Bias and Parental Investment in Children
Investment in the marketable skills of male and female children by their parents is not an accurate indicator of gender preference, says a U of T economist.
"Many researchers use parental investment in the skills of their offspring to measure preference for one gender or another," says Professor Aloysius Siow, who is examining anthropological and economic theories used in measuring parental bias.
Parents will act to reduce the mortality risk of the child they value more, so differences in child mortality rates by gender will partially reflect the fact that parents prefer children of one gender over another.
www.newsandevents.utoronto.ca /bin/19980527c.asp   (204 words)

 Brown University Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Traditionally, parental investment is viewed as a nearly universal characteristic of females that makes them limited in their rate of reproduction relative to males.
It is differential parental investment and the resulting competition and choice that are the supposed root of male-female conflicts of interest over reproduction.
Male-female conflicts of interest arose not from present-day parental investment patterns, but from the source of those patterns, the origin and maintenance of differential amounts and kinds of contribution to future generations, and of female control over reproduction.
www.brown.edu /Departments/EEB/waage/abstracts.htm   (1624 words)

 The KLI Theory Lab - keywords - parental investment
Keywords: heuristics • parental investment • simple decision rules.
Dawkins, R. /Carlisle, T.R. Parental investment, mate desertion and a fallacy.
Kaplan, H. A theory of fertility and parental investment in traditional and modern human societies.
www.kli.ac.at /theorylab/Keyword/P/ParentalInvestm.html   (201 words)

 Parental Care
That is in agreement with predictions of parental investment theory, based on the growing reproductive value of the young, due to an increase in expected fitness benefits for the adults.
Parents may benefit by decreasing the length of the nestling period and conserving energy for future reproductive attempts and/or migration, while offspring may benefit by extending the nestling period and decreasing their thermoregulatory and activity costs.
Indeed, parental behaviors that stimulate fledging might be adaptive if the optimum fledging time for parents is before that of their young.
www.biology.eku.edu /RITCHISO/parentalcare.html   (3896 words)

 The Evolution of Human Mating: Trade-Offs and Strategic Pluralism
Individuals who engage in parental effort (the sum total of parental investment in all offspring; Low, 1978) could be doing things with their limited time and energy, such as devoting greater effort to mating (e.g., attempting to attract additional mates).
The one component of investment that symmetrical men provided more of was physical protection, particularly their reported ability (as opposed to their reported willingness) to provide their current partner with greater physical protection.
Insufficient parental responsiveness to their needs as infants (possibly due to harsh, demanding environments) should lead individuals to adopt short-term mating tactics better suited for future environments in which stable pair-bonds are not needed or anticipated.
www.bbsonline.org /documents/a/00/00/05/56/bbs00000556-00/bbs.gangestad.html   (15535 words)

 Bio Hum Nat. 1 (00)
When the female's parental investment is much more extensive than the male's, the female is potentially capable of contributing genes to fewer offspring than the male is. Under these conditions, females are, for males, a resource," and selection tends to favor patterns of reproduction in which males attempt to inseminate many females.
Even when the parental investment of the male is large, for example in guarding territory or in feeding young, there is still some potential gain to be had by 'philandering," even short of deserting.
The theory of parental investment is supported by cases in which the roles of males and females are to some extent reversed.19 In a family of fish that includes the little sea horse, the female transfers her eggs to a pouch on the male, who then gestates and nourishes the developing young.
www.bethel.edu /~johgre/bio114d/BioHumNat00.html   (15191 words)

 Sexual Selection
Parental investment is the investment of resources that increases in the probability offspring will survive (a benefit) while decreasing the parent's ability to produce more offspring (a cost).
One important component of parental investment is the investment in gametes.
Examples of sex role reversal: male has higher parental care, is the high investment sex and should choose among females; females are the showy sex, males are the cryptic sex (another bird example = phalaropes, female is showy).
biomed.brown.edu /Courses/BIO48/18.Sexual.Selection.HTML   (1102 words)

 The Human Behavioral Ecology Bibliography
The Evolutionary ecology of parental investment in urban South India: A class-based analysis of differential investment in sons and daughters.
Parental investment and age at weaning in a Caribbean village.
Matrilateral biases in the investment of aunts and uncles: Replication in a population presumed to have high paternity certainty.
faculty-staff.ou.edu /A/Kermyt.G.Anderson-1/HBE   (8375 words)

 Parental Investment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
"Parents are classically assumed to allocate investment in their young in such a way as to maximize the number surviving, while offspring are assumed to be passive vessels into which parents pour the appropriate care.
If the parents were to go along with the ideal allocation of resources desired by the child, it would take away from other channels through which the parents might be reproductively successful.
All three sets of parents were determined to allocate an equal amount of their resources (love, care, attention, time and money) to each of their children, and they supported each child until it was 19 years old.
salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk /year3/psy364parental-investment/psy364parental-investment.htm   (5066 words)

 [No title]
We find that first-born sons, who receive greatest parental investment, have higher reproductive sucess than their later born brothers.
Daughter-biased investment is adaptive if the additional benefit of wealth to sons (compared to daughters) does not outweigh the risk of non-paternity in sons' offspring.
parental investment is high) then optimal wealth inheritance per child is high and also the average household in the population is wealthier at equilibrium.
www.ucl.ac.uk /heeg/matriliny.htm   (996 words)

 Parental Investment Lecture – Gurven
Parental care = any form of parental behavior that appears likely to increase fitness of parent’s offspring, e.g.
it is parental care that increases offspring fitness at a cost to the parent.
parental effort is the sum investments in all offspring.
www.unm.edu /~hkaplan/LECT28.htm   (353 words)

 Why Parents Matter — www.greenwood.com
Teachers and counselors, as well as parents and parental figures who want to help children lead healthy, creative, and balanced lives will find this an informative book.
Parents must see that the paramount role they play can improve their children's lives and, by extension, create a better community and society.
This book offers guidance to parents and parental figures who wish to explore why it is that our youth are in danger and how we can help to inspire them to learn the elements necessary to lead healthy, creative, and balanced lives.
www.greenwood.com /catalog/H725.aspx   (382 words)

 Distraction Displays   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Since the timing of maximum parental investment differs between altricial and precocial species, so too does the point in the breeding cycle when the adults give their most daring displays.
At that point, parental investment is at its peak and the opportunity for renesting may already have been lost.
For precocial birds, displays are most conspicuous and risky just at hatching, when the adults have made their maximum investment in the young.
www.stanfordalumni.org /birdsite/text/essays/Distraction_Displays.html   (472 words)

Parental Investment (PI) -- Any form of parental behavior that increases an individual offspring's fitness at the cost of the parent's ability to invest in future offspring.
The more energy she spends in parental care, the less time she may have to feed, leading to an energy expenditure that may impede growth and ability to make more eggs.
Level of investment should be greater and period of investment should be longer as parental age increases because of declining residual reproductive value of parent (likelihood of having and successfully raising future offspring
www.wam.umd.edu /~blohr/parent.htm   (1468 words)

 Sex Ratio of Parental Investment in Colonies of the Social Wasp Polistes fuscatus -- NOONAN 199 (4335): 1354 -- Science
Sex Ratio of Parental Investment in Colonies of the Social Wasp Polistes fuscatus -- NOONAN 199 (4335): 1354 -- Science
Sex Ratio of Parental Investment in Colonies of the Social Wasp Polistes fuscatus
investment ratio was not significantly different from 1:1.
www.sciencemag.org /cgi/content/abstract/199/4335/1354   (279 words)

 Activities of the National Institutes of Health in Support of the Fatherhood Initiative Through September 2000   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
One of the variables that researchers are examining is the amount of parenting responsibility for children in a new relationship that is required of the non-residential father.
Researchers are examining 1) the emotional and financial contributions of men to their children, 2) factors that inhibit or facilitate their involvement in parenting, 3) the male role in parenting children outside of marriage, and 4) racial differences in family formation behavior and parenting.
Some of these disorders also appeared to have cross-gender parental effects; alcoholism in the mother significantly influenced the rate of affective disorder in males, whereas alcoholism in the father was associated with increased rates of affective disorder in females.
www.fatherhood.hhs.gov /on-going/NIH-FY00.htm   (4167 words)

 Linda A. Whittingham - Biological Sciences - UWM
Paternity (the proportion of young in the brood sired by the resident male) is expected to influence male parental behavior because selection is expected to favor males that do not provide care to unrelated young.
I am using DNA sequences from mitochondrial genes to estimate the swallow phylogeny which will be used to examine evolutionary patterns of the different forms of male parental investment in relation to ecological changes such as nest structure.
Parental allocation of food to nestling tree swallows: the influence of nestling behavior, sex, and paternity.
www.uwm.edu /Dept/Biology/Docs/Faculty/whittingham.html   (577 words)

 Parental Investment Cartoons
Parental Investment cartoon 1 - catalog reference jkn0055
Related topics: investment, investments, university, universities, college, colleges, graduate, graduates, brat, brats, spoilt, spoiled, parent, parents, parental investment, parental investments,
Copyright in this image is owned by the original artist, rights to reproduce or use the image may be obtained from www.CartoonStock.com.
www.cartoonstock.com /directory/p/parental_investment.asp   (142 words)

 Quantification of role reversal in relative parental investment in a bush cricket
Quantification of role reversal in relative parental investment in a bush cricket
Cases of male investment exceeding female investment in role-reversed species have not been found.
Here I report the measurement of male and female investment in reproduction for a nutrient-provisioning bush cricket (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and demonstrate that reversals in relative parental investment underlie courtship role reversals seen in this species
www.nature.com /doifinder/10.1038/358061a0   (316 words)

 Egg Components and Hatchling Lipid Reserves: Parental Investment in Kinosternid Turtles from the Southeastern United ...
We measured egg components and pre-ovulatory parental investment in kinosternid turtles (Kinosternon baurii, Kinosternon subrubrum, Sternotherus minor, and Sternotherus odoratus) from the southeastern USA.
Pre-ovulatory parental investment in care (proportion of hatchling NPL to egg NPL) was 40, 50, and 55% for K.
Egg components and hatchling lipid reserves: parental investment in kinosternid turtles from the southeastern United States.
www.uga.edu /~srel/Reprint/2290.htm   (369 words)

 Please go to: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~kruger/
It is also possible that women with a parentally investing mate would have extra-pair copulations with a cad in order to benefit from his genetic contribution.
Cross-culturally, men from father-absent households favor a sexually promiscuous mating strategy and are misogynistic and reluctant to engage in parental investment; they are also violent, aggressive, rebellious, high in risk-taking, and at high risk of incarceration.
Women in these societies may be able to distinguish cad and dad types, but they may have a stronger preference for relationships with cads because of the relative degrees of beneficial effects in their local environment.
www-personal.umich.edu /~kruger/dads-cads.html   (3924 words)

 Human Evolutionary Ecology Group: people
By incorporating models from both reproductive ecology and evolutionary biology she is currently examining the impact of a recent development initiative in southern Ethiopia on reproductive scheduling and parental investment strategies.
She is also interested in sex-biased parental investment and matriliny.
She has also worked on a comparison of parental investment strategies in matrilineal and patrilineal populations.
www.ucl.ac.uk /heeg/people.htm   (408 words)

 Behavioral Ecology - Lecture 20, Parental Investment
Parents care only until benefit to survivorship is overtaken by costs to future reproduction
Some parents may care for young that are not their own
Parents in colonial populations will invest more in kin recognition than those that nest singly
life.bio.sunysb.edu /bio359/4_15_02.html   (209 words)

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