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Topic: Parliamentarism


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  October 30
The alignment of incentives, through copartisanship, along the chain of delegation, means that members of the parliamentary majority have no meaningful incentive to scrutinize the behavior of their fellow party members in the executive branch.
Under parliamentarism, policy initiative does indeed rest with the executive because the cabinet is the agent of the parliamentary majority.
Second, parliamentarism fosters administrative efficiency in the sense that agents are subjected to only one principal and thus are unlikely to face mutually contradictory or ambiguous demands.
dss.ucsd.edu /~kstrom/Agency.htm   (16548 words)

  
  Parliamentary system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence.
Parliamentarism is praised, relative to presidentialism, for its flexibility and responsiveness to the public.
Parliamentarism may also be heeded for governance in local governments.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Parliamentarism   (2307 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Parliamentarism
The executive is typically a cabinet, and headed by a prime minister who is considered the head of government, but parliamentarism has also been practised with privy councils and the Senate of Finland.
The prime minister and the ministers of the cabinet typically have their background in the parliament and may remain members thereof while serving in cabinet.
It is faulted for its tendency to sometimes lead to unstable governments, as in the German Weimar Republic, the French Fourth Republic, Italy, and Israel.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Parliamentarism   (926 words)

  
 History of Parliamentarism - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Democracy and Parliamentarism became increasingly prevalent in Europe in the years after World War I, partly imposed by the democratic victors, France and England, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably Germany's Weimar Republik and the new Austrian Republic.
The resulting "Minority-Parliamentarism" led to frequent defeats in votes of confidence and almost perpetual political crisis which further diminished the standing of democracy and parliamentarism in the eyes of the electorate.
Finland is sometimes given as a counter-example, where a presidential democracy was established after a failed revolution and the more than three months of bitter Civil War in Finland (1918).
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /history_of_parliamentarism.htm   (515 words)

  
 R. Luxemburg Social Democracy and Parliamentarism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Instead, parliamentarism has been founded on the opposite method, one which correspond with the special Prussian-German wretchedness: every bourgeois party that achieves power in the Reichstag becomes, eo ipso, the governing party, that is, the instrument of feudal reaction.
If parliamentarism has lost all significance for capitalist society, it is for the rising working class one of the most powerful and indispensable means of carrying on the class struggle.
These then are the beautiful fruits of Jaurès’s attempts to rescue parliamentarism: an increasing popular aversion to every parliamentary action and a revision to anarchism – which, in a word, is the greatest real danger to the existence of parliament and even of the republic in general.
www.sozialistische-klassiker.org /Luxemb/Luxmbe07.html   (2267 words)

  
 Parliamentary system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the legeslative branch, or parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence.
Hence, there is no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legeslative branches, leading to criticism from some that they lack checks and balances found in a presidential republic.
On the other hand, parliamentarism can also display characteristics of dominant party systems, that is, while the nation is democratic, only one party has a realistic chance of winning.
www.newlenox.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Parliamentarism   (1747 words)

  
 History of Parliamentarism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Parliamentarism in France differed from parliamentarism in the United Kingdom in several ways.
During cohabitation, when the National Assembly and presidency are controlled by opposite parties, the French president is rather weak.
Parliamentarism was (re-)introduced by Svinhufvud's successor Kyösti Kallio in 1937.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_Parliamentarism   (665 words)

  
 Learn more about Sweden in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War Parliamentarism was introduced in 1719, followed by three different flavours of Constitutional Monarchy in 1772, 1789 and 1809, the latter granting several civil liberties.
Parliamentarism was re-introduced in 1917 as king Gustaf V, after decades of struggle, accepted appointing Cabinets supported by majorities in the Parliament, followed by common and equal suffrage enacted 1918-21.
Parliamentarism was upheld by his successor Gustav VI Adolf until a new constitution in 1975 abolished the monarch's political power.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /s/sw/sweden.html   (1709 words)

  
 ttsum2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The starting point of parliamentarism being the constitutioning of use of power in a state as political, the question arises, how does it constitute itself and how is it to be used.
On the level of 'realisation' of Locke's doctrine, parliamentarism is, as for its starting point, a part of the general history of the state.
With the latter relationship in mind, the starting point of parliamentarism lies in the situation where institutions or practises are formed which in the perspective of the process of history of parliamentarism we recognise as parliamentary.
www.jyu.fi /yhtfil/polcont/ttsumma.html   (1080 words)

  
 Debates within the Communist International: Theses on Parliamentarism | International Communist Current
We are publishing here the theses on parliamentarism, drawn up by Amadeo Bordiga on behalf of the communist abstentionist fraction of the Socialist Party of Italy, the nucleus of the Communist Party of Italy, formed in 1921.
But precisely because the pseudo-revolutionaries of today use the errors of the past workers’ movement to justify their bourgeois politics, the theses of the left communists remain as relevant today as they were in 1920.
Parliamentarism is the form of political representation peculiar to the capitalist order.
en.internationalism.org /wr/243_theses.htm   (1117 words)

  
 Ministry of Justice, Finland - Entry page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Thus, political diffusion has been supplanted by a strong sense of consensus; indeed, the Finnish sort of parliamentarism is the most stable among the Nordic countries, at least in its external aspects.
But, of course, the stability of the current Government is counterbalanced by the increasing numbers of migratory voters and the likelihood of a change of Government after a general election.
The Parliament, for its part, has modernised its internal functions and intensified its supervision of the administration; contrary to previous practice, it has begun to hold debates also on issues of current interest, and its dialogue with the Government is at a completely new level of intensity.
www.om.fi /3414.htm   (1658 words)

  
 RevolutionaryLeft.com -> Social Democracy and Parliamentarism - Rosa LUXEMBURG
Parliamentarism is far from being an absolute product of democratic development, of the progress of the human species, and of such nice things.
Instead, parliamentarism has been founded on the opposite method, one which correspond with the special Prussian-German wretchedness: every bourgeois party that achieves power in the Reichstag becomes, eo ipso, the governing party, that is, the instrument of feudal reaction.
If parliamentarism has lost all significance for capitalist society, it is for the rising working class one of the most powerful and indispensable means of carrying on the class struggle.
www.revolutionaryleft.com /index.php?showtopic=5911   (2635 words)

  
 PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive_branch_of_government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote_of_confidence.
Hence, there is no clear-cut separation_of_powers between the executive and legislative branches, leading to criticism from some that they lack checks and balances found in a presidential republic.
The executive is typically a cabinet, and headed by a prime minister who is considered the ''head of government,'' but parliamentarism has also been practised with privy_councils and the Senate_of_Finland.
www.palfacts.com /parliamentary_system   (2187 words)

  
 October 30
The alignment of incentives, through copartisanship, along the chain of delegation, means that members of the parliamentary majority have no meaningful incentive to scrutinize the behavior of their fellow party members in the executive branch.
Under parliamentarism, policy initiative does indeed rest with the executive because the cabinet is the agent of the parliamentary majority.
Second, parliamentarism fosters administrative efficiency in the sense that agents are subjected to only one principal and thus are unlikely to face mutually contradictory or ambiguous demands.
weber.ucsd.edu /~kstrom/Agency.htm   (16548 words)

  
 HELLENIC PARLIAMENT - Parliament History - Crisis of Parliamentarism
The confrontation between Eleftherios Venizelos (picture left) and King Constantine (picture right) proved to be the apex of the occasional tensions between the Crown and Parliamentary majorities up to that point.
The adventures of parliamentarism in the inter-War period
According to these, in order to regulate matters of extreme urgency while Parliament was absent or in recess, the Executive was empowered, pursuant an opinion of a special parliamentary committee, to issue legislative decrees that did not need ratification by the Parliament.
www.hri.org /MPA/voulh/eng/istoria/1915.html   (904 words)

  
 [No title]
Parliamentarism is a common name for modern, democratic forms of government where legislative power is exercised by the parliament.
Parliamentarism has a centuries-long tradition: the first examples may be traced back in ancient times: the Council of Athens, the Council of Rome.
The development of the parliamentary system was closely related to the growing role of the middle class, the assertion of fundamental human rights, and the wish to limit the powers of the Sovereign.
www.dz-rs.si /index.php?id=244&type=98   (523 words)

  
 Parliamentarism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the head of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support ofthe parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence.
Also, relations between the central government and local governments vary in parliamentarysystems, they may be federal or unitary states.
Parliamentarism may also be heeded for governance in localgovernments.
www.therfcc.org /parliamentarism-33548.html   (438 words)

  
 Parliamentarism, history   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
For a definition of Parliamentarism see: Parliamentarysystem of government.
The resulting "Minority-Parliamentarism" led to frequent defeats in votes of confidence and almost perpetual political crisis whichfurther diminished the standing of democracy and parliamentarism in the eyes of the electorate.
Many early twentieth century regimes failed through political instability and/or the interventions of heads of state, notablyKing Victor Emmanuel III of Italy 's failureto back his government when facing the threat posed by BenitoMussolini in 1922, or the support given by King AlfonsoXIII of Spain to a prime minister using dictatorial powers in the 1930s.
www.therfcc.org /parliamentarism%2C-history-92894.html   (537 words)

  
 Gorter, the question of Parliamentarism, Open letter to Lenin, 1920
"Parliamentarism is the typical form of the kind of fight carried out by means of leaders, in which the masses themselves play but a minor part.
Today, since parliamentarism acts in a more honest way, the argument is heard that the representatives may do great things in parliament for communist propaganda.
I herewith believe to have proved that your second argument for parliamentarism is for the most part an opportunistic fraud, and that in this respect parliamentarism must now be replaced by another method of fighting, one that lacks its drawbacks and possesses greater advantages.
www.left-dis.nl /uk/open3.htm   (10239 words)

  
 Polity, Contingency & Conceptual Change   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In this paper Weber's relationship to parliamentarism is discussed in a broader perspective than what is customary in the Weber scholarship.
The point of departure is the view on parliamentarism as a paradigmatic historical example of a rhetorical culture of politics, based on the acceptance and revaluation of controversy, of speaking for and against.
The key theses in Weber's defence of parliamentarism in his various pamphlets in 1917-1918 and in Politik als Beruf become better intelligible, if they are considered in this wider rhetorical perspective of a project that aims at the revaluation of a political culture of controversy.
www.jyu.fi /yhtfil/polcont/abstpalo.html   (201 words)

  
 At heart, the difference between the parliamentary and presidential government structures is minute
  The key to the difference between parliamentarism and presidentialism is in the type of relationship the executive and legislative share and the degree to which they are linked.
Under parliamentarism, the executive is subordinate to the majority in the legislature.
Mainwaring and Shugart question Linz's theory that parliamentarism is a good way to sustain democracy, or that it is a better way than presidentialism.
members.shaw.ca /eclough/essays/parliamentary.htm   (2003 words)

  
 parliamentarism - Definition and Meaning of parliamentarism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
important episode in the history of the bourgeois parliamentarism in general, and it is entirely in the...
Parliamentarism is praised, relative to presidentialism, for its...
Parliamentarism, as it has slowly developed in England and in some of her colonies since the seventeenth century, and on...
www.wordiq.com /reference/parliamentarism   (402 words)

  
 'Communist Left' - No 14 - Autumn 2000
In principle we are all anti-parliamentarian, it declared, because we are against parliamentarism as a means of the emancipation of the proletariat, and as a political form of the proletarian state.
If the question of parliamentarism is secondary for the communist movement, this is not the case with the trade union question.
However the question of parliamentarism should not be the cause of a split in the communist movement and, therefore, the Abstentionist Fraction would submit to the Communist International's decisions and not attempt to bring about the failure of its work.
perso.wanadoo.fr /italian.left/CommLeft/CL14.htm   (17297 words)

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