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Topic: Parsing

In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

  Parsing Techniques
Parsing a sentence means to compute the structural description (descriptions) of the sentence assigned by a grammar, assuming, of course, that the sentence is well-formed.
Thus in a TAG the real parse of a sentence is the so-called derivation tree, which is a record of how the elementary trees of a TAG are put together by the operations of substitution and adjoining in order to obtain the derived tree whose yield is the string being parsed.
For a CCG the parse of a sentence is the proof tree of the derivation.
cslu.cse.ogi.edu /HLTsurvey/ch11node6.html   (2009 words)

 Parsing - Wikipedia
In computer science, parsing is the process of analyzing an input sequence (read from a file or a keyboard, for example) in order to determine its grammatical structure with respect to a given formal grammar.
Parsing transforms input text into a data structure, usually a tree, which is suitable for later processing and which captures the implied hierarchy of the input.
Parsing is also an earlier term for diagraming of sentences in grammar of the English language, and is still used to digram the grammar of inflected languages, such as the Romance languages or Latin.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Parsing   (1214 words)

 Parsing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In grammar and linguistics parsing is the process by which a makes sense of a sentence usually by it down into words or phrases.
Parsing used to be taught as a activity in schools as part of language
In computer science parsing is the process of splitting up continuous stream of characters (read from a or keyboard input for example) into meaningful and then building a parse tree from those tokens.
www.freeglossary.com /Parse   (567 words)

 Parsing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Parsing involves the procedure of bringing basic morphosyntactic categories into high-level syntactic relationships with one another.
Because automatic parsing (via computer programs) has a lower success rate than part-of-speech annotation, it is often either post-edited by human analysts or carried out by hand (although possibly with the help of parsing software).
The disadvantage of manual parsing, however, is inconsistency, especially where more than one person is parsing or editing the corpus, which can often be the case on large projects.
bowland-files.lancs.ac.uk /monkey/ihe/linguistics/corpus2/2parse.htm   (308 words)

 Parsing Example
The bottom two animations illustrate what is referred to as bottom-up parse because the construction of the tree begins from the terminal nodes (the words of the sentence) of the tree.
A top-down parse is realized by matching the left side of a rule to an appropriate symbol and then replacing that symbol with the symbols on the right side of the rule.
Although these terms were originally defined by the kind of parsing process illustrated here, they have been used in a broader sense; and, it is perhaps better to refer to a bottom-up process as a postdictive process and a top-down process as a predictive process.
www.rci.rutgers.edu /~cfs/305_html/Understanding/Parsing.html   (1155 words)

 Morphological Parsing with a Unification-based Word Grammar
Parsing is a standard technique used in the field of natural language processing.
For instance, to parse the sentence The cat chased the rat, a parser must know that cat is a singular noun, chased is a past tense verb, and so on.
When you parse a sentence, it is normally already tokenized into words (since we put white space between words); but when you parse a word, you must first tokenize it into morphemes.
www.sil.org /pckimmo/ntnlp94.html   (2716 words)

 Parsing - TunesWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Parsing generally depends on the complexity of the grammar or syntax, and in the most general cases can require a Turing-complete program, i.e.
We conclude that current technology may cause problems for the reengineering industry and that modular and/or compositional parsing techniques are a possible solution.
metafront, a tool for specifying syntactic transformations between languages, defined by context-free grammars, which uses specificity parsing, that is designed to support gradual extensions of a grammar.
tunes.org /wiki/Parsing?v=2   (584 words)

 Glossary of Parsing Terms
In a traditional parsing engine there are four actions: the shift action, the reduce action, the accept action, and the error action.
Normally when you are parsing a file, this is inconsequential because you are not going to continue performing semantic actions in the presence of errors.
As a parse progresses, token values are shifted onto the stack, so that in a reduction procedure, the values of the tokens that comprise the grammar rule that is being reduced are available for inspection.
www.parsifalsoft.com /gloss.html   (7372 words)

 Help: Command Parsing
Before it starts, it writes the entire command line (which may contain multiple commands) to the history log file if history logging has been enabled (with the LOG /H command) and the command did not come from a batch file.
During that processing, additional parsing tasks may be triggered as noted and some steps may be repeated multiple times.
When all of the commands in a command line are finished, the next line is read from the current batch file, or if no batch file is active, the prompt is displayed.
www.jpsoft.com /help/parsing.htm   (944 words)

 Parsing C++ at nobugs.org
It also uses a 'hack' to help the parsing -- enough semantic information is fed back to the lexer to allow the lexer to classify identifiers as either plain identifiers or typedef names, which makes parsing a bit easier at the expense of tangling the implementation a bit.
For example, C declarations mimic their use ("int *a;" is a declaration and the type of the expression "*a" is int) but this makes it hard for a parser to decide whether a sequence of tokens is a declaration or an expression.
To do this, Willink doesn't actually parse for C++ in the syntax stage, he parses for a somewhat larger language of which C++ is a subset.
www.nobugs.org /developer/parsingcpp   (2702 words)

In bioinformatics there are open-source packages like Biopython and Bioperl which parse a large number of formats and outputs.
The actual parsing is done with string operations or through regular expressions.
These parse a chunk of text at a time and can be used, for example, in reading from a network connection and displaying partial results as the data comes in.
www.dalkescientific.com /writings/diary/archive/2005/04/22/parsing.html   (690 words)

 Parsing XML in J2ME
To understand why you might want to parse XML on a J2ME device, let's first examine the architecture of a typical multi-tier application.
If that is not possible, you should at least try to show parsed data as soon as it is available.
It is a pull parser, which means our application can process and display information as it is parsed, as it is being downloaded from the server.
developers.sun.com /techtopics/mobility/midp/articles/parsingxml   (2758 words)

 Parsing Questions and Answers
LL(k) parsing uses all of the left context of the sentence being parsed.
In top-down parsing, this can be in the form of parse tables and a driver, or in the form of a recursive-descent program.
An advantage to using a parser generator is that it verifies that the grammar is suitable to the parsing method being used.
home.earthlink.net /~slkpg/parsing.html   (2147 words)

 6.863J/9.611J Parsing Project Ideas
Parallel context-free parsing: using a chart parser, or parallel stacks.
Implement a method to adjudicate between structurally different parses using semantic information on-line – e.g., use the semantic interpreter to rule out certain subtrees as the Earley algorithm tries to build them, much as the way that token lookahead is used, to ‘fix’ examples like “I shot the elephant in my pajamas’.
Build an automatic phrase structure compiler: a system that (i) inputs tree structures that a linguist would build outputs the associated context-free rules to build those trees; and then (ii) given a collection of tree structures, induces a metarule to generate that collection.
www.ai.mit.edu /courses/6.863/parsing.html   (678 words)

 XML.com: Non-Extractive Parsing for XML
One way to look at the "parse once, use many times" property afforded by a non-extractive parsing style is that it can potentially provide a pre-parsed XML that is also backward compatible with XML--in other words, one loses no advantages inherent to XML, e.g.
I wrote my own parse, and mindful of the need to avoid server overheads, came up with the idea of a simple string based XML parser in Javascript, where effectively the XML is retained as a single string, and each "node" you create identifies a start and end point in the string.
The concept of non-extractive parsing is meant to be a general-purpose alternative to extractive parsing; in other words, it is one layer below reg expression and is not tied to any specific language.
www.xml.com /pub/a/2004/05/19/parsing.html   (4299 words)

 Parsing XML Efficiently - Dev xml   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
It is very important to have an efficient way to parse XML data, especially in applications that are intended to handle large volumes.
Document is the root for all the DOM trees, and the root has at least one child node, the root element, which is the catalog element in the sample code.
DOM parsing is appropriate when the application needs to have random access to the XML document.
www.oracle.com /technology/oramag/oracle/03-sep/o53devxml.html   (2381 words)

XML parsing is the process of producing an xml parse tree from an XML document.
As stated earlier, parsing is one of two low-level, basic operations one often performs on an XML document; the other is XSL transformation.
Working with parsed XML documents is greatly simplified by using the JDOM packages.
www.cs.unc.edu /Courses/jbs/lessons/ws/ws_jdom   (638 words)

 Parsing Techniques in COBOL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In particular they parse service orders, which are written in a strange and barbarous tongue peculiar to the telephone industry.
The best way to represent the results of parsing may be to use some combination of various data structures -- linked lists, trees, and the like.
In the context of parsing, an event is usually an input character from the text to be parsed.
home.swbell.net /mck9/cobol/tech/parsing.html   (1095 words)

 BNF and EBNF: What are they and how do they work?
The easiest way of parsing something according to a grammar in use today is called LL parsing (or top-down parsing).
Then, when parsing, you just start with the start symbol and compare the start sets of the different productions against the first piece of input to see which of the productions have been used.
A harder way to parse is the one known as shift-reduce or bottom-up parsing.
www.garshol.priv.no /download/text/bnf.html   (3051 words)

 Parsing using linearly ordered phonological rules
Because not all combinations of ambiguities in the parsed form are compatible, a test phase is used to filter forms found at lexical lookup.
The implication of these two problems is that parsing would appear to require a bifurcation of the search space for each feature value assigned in the output of a phonological rule.
Input words (words to be parsed) and lexical words are usually represented instead in a character-based notation; the translation between this and a segment-based representation is defined below.
www.sil.org /computing/lascruces.html   (5430 words)

 Parsing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
As already mentioned, this is certainly true of parsing: the algorithm given here is just one of many possible variants which differ in their ability to cope efficiently with different types of grammar.
Each time there is a choice of possibilities (maybe the noun phrase starts with a determiner) it makes the first choice and, if that proves incorrect, backs up and tries the next alternative.
During the course of parsing a sentence with a complicated grammar it would eventually get the right answer -- perhaps only after many wrong guesses.
clwww.essex.ac.uk /MTbook/HTML/node27.html   (908 words)

 Packrat Parsing and Parsing Expression Grammars
Parsing expression grammars (PEGs) are an alternative to context free grammars for formally specifying syntax, and packrat parsers are parsers for PEGs that operate in guaranteed linear time through the use of memoization.
The original formal theory behind packrat parsing and parsing expression grammars.
Frisby by John Meacham is a monadic packrat parser library for Haskell that uses advanced Haskell type system features to support dynamic specification of composable parsers.
pdos.csail.mit.edu /~baford/packrat   (444 words)

 Parser Mind-Module for the Breakthrough in Artificial Intelligence of 7 June 2006
Parsing in the AI will be like parsing in human infancy.
A clarifying and instructive approach to parsing is to
parsing by recognition and parsing based on what part of speech is expected.
mind.sourceforge.net /parser.html   (2135 words)

 KXML: A Great Find for XML Parsing in J2ME
In the second method, catching parsing events, the parser traverses the XML data and issues callbacks to a previously registered event listener whenever it encounters particular structures in the data.
In push parsing you would have to maintain the state of the current part of the data you were parsing, and based on the events passed to the listener you would have to take care to restore any previous state variables and save new ones when you were changing to a different state.
Pull parsing makes it easier to deal with state changes because you can pass parser to different functions, which can maintain their own state variables.
www.devx.com /xml/Article/11773   (658 words)

 Amazon.com: Pro Perl Parsing (Pro): Books: Christopher M. Frenz   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
I liked that this introduced and explained parsing related CPAN modules that I otherwise might have been afraid to touch (CPAN is a great resource, but there's so much there that it intimidates those of us who aren't real Perl experts).
The last chapter is a smorgasbord of light descriptions of modules such as Text::Balanced, which have little or nothing to do with parsing, or with pro, and the chapter on XML processing looks like just a filler with little to add to the rest of the book or to the literature on XML+Perl.
Since there's not many books on Perl parsing, I was excited about it, but I was somewhat disappointed by the lack of depth, accuracy, and the filler-style second half of the book.
www.amazon.com /Pro-Perl-Parsing-Christopher-Frenz/dp/1590595041   (1977 words)

 Java(TM) Boutique - Parsing with StAX in JDK 6.0   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Java(TM) Boutique - Parsing with StAX in JDK 6.0
In pull parsing, events are generated by the parsing application, thus providing parsing regulation to the client, rather than the parser.
But pull parsing is regulated by the application—so parse events are generated by the application.
javaboutique.internet.com /tutorials/stax   (675 words)

 Parsing of input
The list of characters to expect, include, or to break at may vary from one invocation of a function to another.
The input stream to parse is specified as a
The input file may also contain `missing' tokens, that is, two consecutive commas or the trailing comma, within the arbitrary whitespace.
okmij.org /ftp/Scheme/parsing.html   (2428 words)

 webel.com.au: Unified Modelling Language (UML) (TM) Parsing Analysis zone   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The recipe also achieves robust model management using UML model and package elements for ownership, while using logical components for convenient graphical grouping of related elements and text without disturbing the "physical" ownership structure, and for easy navigation between logical component diagrams.
Here you will find an explanation of the approach, guidelines for parsing, and examples of its application.
The term "Parsing Analysis" is not a trademark, it merely refers to the particular approach I am refining through evolving guidelines.
www.webel.com.au /uml/parsing   (448 words)

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