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Topic: Parthian Empire


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In the News (Wed 17 Jul 19)

  
  History of Iran: Parthian Empire
The Parthian empire occupied all of modern Iran, Iraq and Armenia, parts of Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, and -for brief periods- territories in Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine.
After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, Parthia, northeastern Iran, was governed by the Seleucid kings: a Macedonian dynasty that ruled in the Asian territories of the former Persian Empire.
The Parthian monarch was the ruler of his own empire plus some eighteen vassal kings, such as the rulers of the city state Hatra, the port Characene and the ancient kingdom Armenia.
www.iranchamber.com /history/parthians/parthians.php   (1968 words)

  
  Parthian Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE.
The Parthian empire occupied all of Iran proper, as well as the modern countries of Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates.
By 129 BCE the Parthians were in control of all the lands right to the Tigris, and established their winter encampment on its banks at Ctesiphon, downstream from modern Baghdad.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Parthian_Empire   (2920 words)

  
 Parthia: History
The Parthian nobility soon had enough of Phraatakes and deposed him, resulting in another period of anarchy until the Parthians requested the return from Rome of another of Phraates IV's sons, Vonones I, who promptly disenchanted the Parthian nobility with his Roman habits and tastes, resulting in the rise of Artabanus II as a rival.
Artabanus II was a Parthian's Parthian, having been brought up among the Dahae, and after an initial defeat, celebrated by Vonones on his coins, Artabanus succeeded in capturing the throne, still dressed in rags as a nomadic Scythian.
This was a period of rejection of Hellenism in the Parthian empire, as seen in their art, and, in particular, their coins, which show increasing stylization, increasingly fixed coin-types, barbarization of the Greek legends, and the re-introduction of Aramaic script on the coins of some rulers.
americanhistory.si.edu /collections/numismatics/parthia/frames/phisfm.htm   (2182 words)

  
 parthians.html
The Parthian Empire existed in the period of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
The last century of Parthian rule tended to favor native as opposed to foreign beliefs and traditions —a reaction to the almost constant warfare with the Romans on their western flank and the Greeks and Bactrians on their eastern flank, as well as the religious inroads being made by Christian and Buddhist missionaries.
With the division of the Roman Empire in the 4
www.loyno.edu /~seduffy/parthians.html   (833 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
In the first few centuries of their empire, this Parthian ruling class continued to observe many aspects of Hellenistic culture that had characterized the upper levels of society under the Greco-Bactrian kings.
Later, the Parthian kings began to redefine themselves as the direct heirs of the Achaemenian Empire; Mithridates II (123-87 BCE) is believe to be the first Parthian ruler to use the old Achaemenian title "King of Kings" on his coins, rather than the corresponding Greek title.
The Parthians were able to avoid complete defeat and held onto much of the Iranian plateau, but the end of the second century saw a weakening of the central Parthian power base.
depts.washington.edu /uwch/silkroad/exhibit/parthians/essay.html   (693 words)

  
 Parthian empire - WCD (Wiki Classical Dictionary)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The end of this loosely organized empire came in 224, when the last king was defeated by one of their vassals, the Persians of the Sassanid dynasty.
The Parthian kings -Arsaces I, Arsaces II, Phriapathus, Phraates I- recognized the Seleucid king as their superior, especially after the campaign of Antiochus III the Great, who reconquered the lost eastern territories between 209 and 204.
One of the Parthian leaders was named Gondophares, king of Taxila; according to an old and wide-spread Christian tradition, he was baptized by the apostle Thomas.
www.ancientlibrary.com /wcd/Parthian_empire   (1852 words)

  
 IL&S: Parthian Language & Scripts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The city of Ctesiphon on the Tigris river became the capital of the Parthian empire.
It became the language of the whole of Parthian empire with the rise of the Arsacid dynasty.
The documents remaining in Parthian language are mostly inscriptions from the later Arsacid and early Sasanian periods.
iranianlanguages.com /midiranian/parthian.htm   (425 words)

  
 Iran's Sleeping Parthian City to Awaken
It was built during the Parthian empire and was inhabited until the Safavid era (1500-1722).
The Parthian Empire is a fascinating period of Persian history closely connected to Greece and Rome.
Parthian architecture was characterized by the use of sun-dried or kiln-baked bricks, with vaults to roof the buildings.
www.payvand.com /news/04/jul/1111.html   (388 words)

  
 IRANIAN HISTORY: PARTHIANS: Dynasty of Arsacid Empire - (CAIS) ©
It is likely that the term Parthians was applied to the Parni during this period after their occupation of the satrapy of Parthava and subsequently, no doubt, they came to use the designation themselves.
One must also not view Parthian history solely in terms of the struggles against the Seleucids and the Romans, for the Parthian empire was not only aligned against the West, but also occupied a position between the Greco-Roman world to the west and that of Central Asia to the east.
Parthian society from the third century B.C. to the third century A.D. As a result of archeological research, particularly the work carried out by the Russians in Turkmenistan and Chorasmia, it must now be accepted that political entities of some considerable size existed in Parthia and Margiane, i.e.
www.cais-soas.com /CAIS/History/ashkanian/arsacid_dynasty.htm   (7140 words)

  
 Parthia (2): the empire
The end of this loosely organized empire came in 224, when the last king was defeated by one of their vassals, the Persians of the Sasanian dynasty.
The Parthian kings -Arsaces I, Arsaces II, Phriapathus, Phraates I- recognized the Seleucid king as their superiors, especially after the campaign of Antiochus III the Great, who reconquered the lost eastern territories between 209 and 204.
The Parthian monarch was the ruler of his own empire plus some eighteen vassal kings, such as the rulers of the city state Hatra, the port Charax, and the ancient kingdom Armenia.
www.livius.org /pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html   (1908 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Parthia
The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BC and AD The Parthians were an illiterate nomadic people, thought to have spoken an Indo-Iranian languages, who arrived at the Iranian plateau from Central Asia.
Once the Parthians had captured Herat, the movement of trade along the Silk Road to China was effectively choked off, and the post-Alexandrian Hellenistic kingdom in Bactria was doomed.
By 129 BCE the Parthians were in control of all the lands right to the Tigris River, and established their winter encampment at Ctesiphon on the banks of the Tigris downstream from modern Baghdad.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Parthia   (659 words)

  
 Parthians (250 BC - 225 AD) - DBA 51
The decline of the Parthian Empire was due to a combination of factors.
Parthian defeat often came when the ratio of cataphracts to horse archers was too high or when the charge came before the enemy was sufficiently disordered.
Parthian cataphracts wore iron or bronze armour from head to foot and their horses were covered all around by scale armour of iron, bronze or leather.
www.fanaticus.org /DBA/armies/dba51.html   (1361 words)

  
 Parthia on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
BC, this empire extended from the Euphrates across Afghanistan to the Indus and from the Oxus to the Indian Ocean.
Defeating Marcus Licinius Crassus in 53 BC, the Parthians threatened Syria and Asia Minor, but they were turned back by Ventidius in 39-38 BC Under Trajan the Romans advanced (AD 114-16) as far as the Persian Gulf, but they withdrew in the reign of Hadrian and were never again so successful against the Parthians.
Then began the decline of the empire, which in AD 226 was conquered by Ardashir I (Artaxerxes), the founder of the Persian dynasty of the Sassanids.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/P/Parthia.asp   (496 words)

  
 Coins
Parthian silver coins can be a little complicated to sort out when one first starts to study them, as few issues name the king whose portrait they bear, and there are only a few basic styles.
The tetradrachms are the easiest as they often have dates written in Greek letters, but generally, and especially for the drachms, one has to look closely at the exact details of the portraiture and headdress to determine the issue involved.
Most Parthian coins seen by collectors are silver drachms, and the vast majority of Parthian drachms are struck on oval flans with the portrait perpendicular to the long axis.
www.parthia.com /parthia_coins.htm   (587 words)

  
 ASHKÂNIÂN - PARTHIANS; THE EMPIRE OF ARSACID DYNASTY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
ASHKÂNIÂN - PARTHIANS; THE EMPIRE OF ARSACID DYNASTY
During the reign of Phraates IV c.37 BCE Antony mounted a major invasion of the territories of the Parthian Empire.
The former, claiming to be heir to the Achaemenians and the Selucids, aspired to restore the ancient empire with its outlets on the Mediterranean.
www.cais-soas.com /CAIS/History/ashkanian/parthian.htm   (2602 words)

  
 Media, Persia, Parthia, & Iran
It is also unfortunate that when an Arsacid dynast is installed in Armenia, we don't know his relationship to the contemporaneous Parthian King, Vologezes I. The Parthians were famous for their heavy cavalry, called "cataphracts" (Latin cataphractus, Greek katáphraktos, "mail-clad," or Latin clibanarius, from Greek kríbanos or klíbanos, an earthen or iron pot or pan).
The brilliant counter-invasion of Iran, from 623-628, by the Emperor Heraclius, however, undid all of this and resulted in the overthrown of Khusro and a period of anarchy.
Of the two traditional empires that were contemporaneous with the last Shâh -- Ethiopia and Japan -- only the office of Japanese Emperor survives.
www.friesian.com /iran.htm   (2645 words)

  
 Parthia: The Forgotten Ancient Superpower   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The Parthian Empire rose to power as Carthage fell, and the names of Israelite tribes and clans are in evidence within the Parthian Empire.
Secular histories have long acknowledged the Parthians were related to the Scythian tribes, and Scythian "Sacae" tribes often assisted the Parthians in their wars against Greece and Rome.
The Parthian and Roman Empires waged epic wars, had "summit conferences" between their emperors and even had a period of "detente" during which Jesus Christ lived his entire life.
www.israelite.info /books/Collins_bk3_synopsis.htm   (735 words)

  
 PersianDNA™  [THE PARTHIAN EMPIRE] The History of The Parthian Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The Parthian kings referred to themselves on their coins as "Hellenophiles", but this was only true in the sense that they were anti-Roman.
In reality the Parthians sought to establish themselves as the direct heirs of the Achaemenian Empire, and Mithridates II (123-87 B.C.) was the first Parthian ruler to use the old Achaemenian title "King of Kings" on his coins.
Parthian coins are helpful in establishing the succession of kings, they referred to themselves on these coins as "Hellenophiles", but this was only true in that they were anti Roman.
www.persiandna.com /his_parth.htm   (591 words)

  
 PARTHIA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The Parthians were an illiterate nomadic people, thought to have spoken an Indo-Iranian languages, who arrived at the Iranian plateau from Central Asia.
Little is known of the Parthians: they had no literature of their own and consequently their written history consists of biased descriptions of conflicts with Romans, Greeks, Jews and - at the far end of the Silk Road - the Chinese empire.
After their defeat the Parthians, at this point no doubt a thin stratum of nobles, seem to have vanished with few traces.
www.yotor.org /wiki/en/pa/Parthia.htm   (751 words)

  
 Parthian Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
One hundred years later n 223 BC a Parthian chieftain Arsaces, Chief of the Parni led a confederation of Parthian tribes including the Karen and the Suren people into the Seleucid Empire, seeking refuge from the King of Bactria.
Upon the death of Orodes I in 77 BC, the Parthian clans elected the elderly Sanatruces a son of Phraates I who was aged 85 at his accession.
Carmania is a large country, and part of the Parthian Empire but consists mostly of inhospitable desert and only a few cities of dubious size, importance and wealth.
www.donaldhs.vic.edu.au /home/spotter/Parthian_Empire.html   (1951 words)

  
 Archaeology Wordsmith   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The earliest Parthian capital was probably at Dara; two of the later capitals were Nisa and Hecatompylos.
Between 160-140 BC, Mithridates I extended the Parthian state into an empire, incorporating Iran and most of Mesopotamia, which survived 350 years of almost constant conflict with the Seleucids and later the Romans until its overthrow by the Sassanians in the early 3rd century AD.
Their culture and location was an important intermediary between the Near and Far East and they controlled most of the trade routes between Asia and the Greco-Roman world.
www.reference-wordsmith.com /cgi-bin/lookup.cgi?category=&where=headword&terms=Parthian   (160 words)

  
 Parthian Empire, page 1 (Arsaces I - Mithradates II)
The empire began to decline in the 2nd century AD and the rebellion of Ardashir of Persis in 220 AD was its death knell.
The last Parthian king, Artabanos IV, was killed in the battle of Hormuzdagan in 224 AD and Ardashir became the first Sasanian king.
The Parthian Empire reaches its farthest extent, stretching from the Euphrates to the Oxus.
www.grifterrec.com /coins/parthia/parthian.html   (659 words)

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