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Topic: Parthian language


In the News (Wed 24 Apr 19)

  
  Parthia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Parthians were a member of the Parni tribe (a name whose relation to the word Parthian is much debated, or according to Armenian sources, of White Hun origins), a nomadic people who are thought to have spoken an Iranian language, and who arrived at the Iranian plateau from Central Asia.
By 129 BCE the Parthians were in control of all the lands right to the Tigris River, and established their winter encampment at Ctesiphon on the banks of the Tigris downstream from modern Baghdad.
The Parthians were apparently very intent on maintaining good relations with China and also sent their own embassies, starting around 110 BC: "When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi (Parthia), the king of Anxi dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom...
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Parthia   (2967 words)

  
 IL&S: Parthian Language & Scripts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
It became the language of the whole of Parthian empire with the rise of the Arsacid dynasty.
The documents remaining in Parthian language are mostly inscriptions from the later Arsacid and early Sasanian periods.
Parthian is categorized as a northwestern (non-Persian) Iranian language.
www.iranianlanguages.com /midiranian/parthian.htm   (425 words)

  
 Parthian empire
The Parphians, however, were troubled by nomad attacks on their northeastern borders, as well as attacks by the Scythians.
The confusion came to an end about 76/75 BC, when the octogenarian king Sanatruces was set on the Parthian throne by the central Asian tribe of the Sacaraucae.Yet it was not untill Sanatruces son and successor, Phraates III (r.70-58 BC), that the empire was again in a fairly settled state.
Parthian language is a Middle Iranian language originated in Parthia (mainly the northeastern corner of modern,Iran and central-western south of Turkmenistan),and became the oficial language of Arsacid period.
www.geocities.com /Athens/5246/Parthia.html   (105 words)

  
 Fabricius Flavius/Parthia
In the army of Xerxes, there was a contingent of Parthians under the command of a certain Artabazus son of Pharnaces, probably the satrap of Parthia.
The Parthians fought on the side of the Achaemenids against Alexander at Arbela and Darius' satrap of Parthia, Phrataphernes, surrendered to Alexander in Hyrcania.
In reality the Parthians sought to establish themselves as the direct heirs of the Achaemenian Empire, and Mithridates II (123-87 B.C.) was the first Parthian ruler to use the old Achaemenian title "King of Kings" on his coins.
www.magellannarfe.com /Parthia   (1574 words)

  
 Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part IV   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The languages of the former inhabitants of Europe, except the Basque (a non-Indo-European language), were displaced by the Indo-European dialects.
Zend language is considered to be born from a Northern dialect with respect to the ancient Persian language, but both of them are really joined together and belong to the Western Iranian group.
The language used in these texts, which are sometimes erroneously named Chaldean-Parsee, is a form of Parthian language which was not utilized in the official epigraphy (written in Aramaic or Greek languages).
www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar /english/linguistics/origin4.html   (2070 words)

  
 Iran Zamin
The median language is one of the Old Iranian languages.This was the language of the mads,which was spoken in Central and Western Iran around 835 BCE.
Parthian Pahlavi was the language of the Parthian who lived in the North East of Iran and have left behind some stone tablets in Parthian script, which is derived from the Aarami script.
Aasee Language is a Caucasian language and is connected to the Sogdian and Karazmian language.
dooroodiran.blogspot.com /2003_10_19_dooroodiran_archive.html   (1751 words)

  
 Interfaith forums - View Single Post - And the Whole Earth Was of One Language
Lost languages of significance were those of the Sumerians, Elamites, Medes, Scythians, Hittites (Hattians), Phrygians, Lydians, Trojans, Etruscans and Arameans, great nations of their times, some creating the civilization itself and some making contributions to the arts and cultures that established the foundations of the Greek Renaissance, and through it, made possible our present civilizations.
Even the border-line languages such as the Hungarian language and the Finnish language which have apparently borrowed large amounts of foreign words from neighbouring nations to swell their vocabulary, have preserved the character, the structure and the grammar, all undoubtedly Turkish, of their basic languages.
Here, it is shown that ancient Greek language was most likely first built on the language of the Pelasgians who inhabited Greece before the Greeks, and that the majority of the names of the Greek gods and goddesses can be explained in Turkish dialects.
www.comparative-religion.com /forum/showpost.php?p=15801&postcount=1   (998 words)

  
 Culture of My Country
Persian Language, also known as Farsi, is the most widely spoken member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European languages.
It is the language of Iran (formerly Persia) and is also widely spoken in Afghanistan and, in an archaic form, in Tajikistan and the Pamir Mountain region.
Parthian was the language of the Arsacid or Parthian Empire (circa 250 BC-AD 226).
kasraie.tripod.com /culture.html   (586 words)

  
 Iranian Language Family   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Parthian was the eastern most of the Western Iranian languages, a feature that in many cases resulted in the preservation of archaisms.
Middle Persian was initially the language of the province of Pars (Persia), and a development of the Old Persian of the Achaemenid royal inscriptions or one of its close dialects.
It was also taken as the language of artistic expression and science by the population of Central Asia and Muslim inhabitants of China, as well as the aristocratic classes of Ottoman Turkey.
www.iranologie.com /history/ilf.html   (2828 words)

  
 Art & Culture
Parthian exhibits "split ergativity", transitive verbs agreeing with the patient in person and number in tenses involving the past stem (which is derived from the Old Iranian perfect participle in -ta-).
Parthian architecture was characterized by the use of sun-dried or kiln-baked bricks, with vaults to roof the buildings.
In addition, the Parthian king of kings was called the "brother of the sun and the moon," perhaps indicating the importance of astrology to the Parthians.
www.parthia.com /parthia_arts.htm   (2373 words)

  
 Iranica.com - DARÈ
Among the languages of the people of Khorasan and the east, the language of the people of Balkò is predominant." This notice has given rise to considerable discussion.
Dar^ was thus the language of the court and of the capital, Ctesiphon (q.v.).
Ebn al-Moqaffa¿'s account clearly indicates that dar^ was a spoken language, and it is obviously as a spoken language that it spread to the east.
www.iranica.com /articles/v7f1/v7f131.html   (1124 words)

  
 History of Iran: India's Parthian Colony
Revealing the ancient Pallava Dynasty of Dravidia to be of the Iranic race, and as constituting a branch of the Pahlavas, Parthavas or Parthians of Persia.
Thus, the Persians, Parthians, Pashtos, Panis and Perizzites are all offhoots of the ancient proto-Persians.
According to this school, the Pallavas were a northern tribe of Parthian origin constituting a clan of the nomads having come to India from Persia.
www.iranchamber.com /history/articles/india_parthian_colony1.php   (4438 words)

  
 [No title]
This lends support to the view that the Avestic language was spoken in the north-eastern regions of the Iranian plateau in the seventh century B. The Avesta is a massive work, a major portion of which has been destroyed and forgotten owing to the vicissitudes of time and the domination of Iran by foreign nations.
The language of the coins and inscriptions of the Achaemenians, ever since they came to power in the middle of the sixth century B.C., is distinctly Aryan in character and is known as Old Persian.
The Semitic languages made an inroad into the country and their influence was so strong that the Aramaic language and script were officially adopted by the Iranians.
www.muslimphilosophy.com /hmp/chp53.doc   (6682 words)

  
 Farsi, the most widely spoken Persian Language, a Farsi Dictionary, Farsi English Dictionary, The spoken language in ...
Avestan, probably spoken in the northeast of ancient Persia, is the language of the Avesta, the sacred scriptures of Zoroastrianism.
Farsi is a member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family; it is the official language of Iran.
Middle Iranian is represented not only by Middle Persian and the closely related Parthian language but also by several Central Asian tongues.
www.farsinet.com /farsi   (1092 words)

  
 Language
The official language in the areas of Gwadar (occupied by Sultanate of Oman until 1958) was Arabic.
The western Balochi dialect is spoken between Karachi (Pakistan) and Kirman (Iran), among the Baloch of U.S.S.R and Turkmenistan, the Sultanate of Oman, the Khorasan province of Iran and Seistan (Iran-Afghanistan).
Discussing the relation of the Balochi language with Persian or Pashto (the national language of Iran and Afghanistan), Harrison writes, Balochi is a distinct language and is closely related only to one of the members of Iranian language, Kurdish, but it retains striking peculiarities of its own.
members.fortunecity.com /balochistan/baloch/id15.html   (617 words)

  
 Persian Language & Literature
From early Persian Language to revolutionary poets of 20th century.
Language of the Armies (Urdu: A Derivative of Persian and Avestan)
He integrated wisdom and language in the form of mystical poetry.
www.iranchamber.com /literature/literature.php   (383 words)

  
 FToI: A Brief History of the Iranics
Modern Persian language, which is the official language of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been heavily influenced by Arabic and, to a lesser extent by Turkish, but its basic features, both grammatically and lexically, are still mainly Iranic and thereby Indo-European.
Both languages were born and flourished in greater Khorasan and then spread to Iran's interior (the first with Parthians and the second with Samanids).
Parthians were less centralized and had kept some of their tribal traits.
freethoughts.org /bhi3.htm   (11371 words)

  
 Persian language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
It is believed that there must have been a fair level of mutual intelligibility between the Iranian languages of this period, and more than there would be in later periods.
Middle Persian was a contemporary of Parthian, and during the Arsacid period, Persian was strongly influenced by Parthian.
Modern Persian, the language of Iran today, was developed as early as in the 9th century.
i-cias.com /e.o/persian_l.htm   (387 words)

  
 Iransaga - Parthian and Middle Persian Written Literatures
The remains of Parthian writings, mostly inscriptions from the early Sassanian period and Manichaean hymns, are few, but renderings into other languages from Parthian testify to the existence of genres other than epic.
The Manichaean hymns in the Parthian language are valuable remains from pre-Islamic Iran and give us an idea of the religious poetry of this Middle Iranian language.
The bulk of the material, however, consists of religious books which were revised and edited in the ninth and tenth centuries, when the mobads of the diminished and enfeebled Zoroastrian community made an effort to defend their religion and instruct the faithful in the face of Islamic inroads.
www.art-arena.com /parthlit.htm   (635 words)

  
 Persian and Iranian scripts
Language is a main and precise means of communication, expressing feeling, will and ideas, passing information.
Old Persian language was a one of four official languages of Achaemenian Empire but wasn’t used in administration because on the first place was Aramaic.
Aramaic language was used in XI and X B.C. in small, numerous states, for example in Alleppo or Damascus.
iran.krakow.pl /scripts.htm   (1000 words)

  
 The Ecole Initiative: Edessa in the Parthian Period
Formally, the city was a vassal of the Parthian Empire although the grip of the Arsacids' hand was never strong.
Another part of population must have been of Aramean origin since the spoken language of the city for the larger part of its history was the Syriac dialect of Aramaic.
Before this date according to the general practice during the Hellenistic period, we should assume that Greek was the language of literate Edessans in their official communications.
www2.evansville.edu /ecoleweb/articles/pedessa.html   (3447 words)

  
 Culture of Iran
Parthian kings followed the Greek example and declared themselves of divine descent.
It was in Parthian time that southeastern Iran known as Drangiana, acquired the name of ‘Sakastan’ (Seistan) due to the settlement of Sakas people (Iranian origin) in the area.
Other major developments of the Parthian period included the establishment of an artificial date for Zoroaster (see calendar section) and appropriation by the magi of the whole Avestan tradition for their own homeland of Northern Media (modern Azerbaijan or the ancient Iranian province of Atropatene).
www.cultureofiran.com /zoroastrianism.php   (5611 words)

  
 And the Whole Earth Was of One Language
Promise has been shown with this gorilla, named Koko, in using sign language to convey "real time" wants and needs.6 While this is a wonderful attempt in cross-species communication, still it does not demonstrate abstract conceptualization required for conveying a thought to another (in or out of species) by written or artistic means.
The earliest forms of written language were based on crude and simple forms of very real things from the known environment.13 Humans moved from pictorial representation like the cave paintings, to crude symbolism, a kind of shorthand.
The name of the language is derived from akkad├╗ which was used in the Old Babylonian period to denote the Semitic version of a Sumerian text.
www.comparative-religion.com /forum/showthread.php?t=1610&page=1   (4569 words)

  
 THE IRANIAN: Pallava empire of Dravidia, Samar Abbas
This paper reveals the ancient Pallava Dynasty of Dravidia to be of the Iranic race, and as constituting a branch of the Pahlavas, Parthavas or Parthians of Persia.
The Parthian origin of the Pallavas was eagerly adopted by virtually all schools of Dravidologists from the very beginning.
The Parthian theory of the origin of Pallavas has thus helped a large number of people to be rehabilitated in Dravidian society.
www.iranian.com /History/2003/May/Pallava   (6382 words)

  
 Farsi/Persian
Avestan, probably spoken in the northeast of ancient Persia, is the language of the
Parthian was the language of the Arsacid or Parthian Empire (250?
The language of the Sassanian Empire (AD 224-641) was Middle Persian, often called Pahlavi (a term more strictly reserved for a form of the language used in certain Zoroastrian writings).
thor.prohosting.com /~linguist/farsi.htm   (462 words)

  
 News Reports about Parthia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Pahlavi was the formal language of the Parthian and Sassanid era.
Phraaspa, an ancient castle of the Parthian province of Atropatene, was discovered during the archaeological studies near Zahak Castle in Hashtrud, in Iran's northwestern province of East Azarbaijan.
During the second century, the Parthians were able to extend their rule to Bactria, Babylonia, Susiana, and Media, and, under Mithradates II (123-87 B.C.), Parthian conquests stretched from India to Armenia.
www.parthia.com /parthia_news.htm   (15333 words)

  
 Parthian. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.
Of or relating to Parthia or its people, language, or culture.
Delivered in or as if in retreat: “a Parthian volley of expletives from Uncle Billy” (Bret Harte).
www.bartleby.com /61/58/P0085800.html   (92 words)

  
 Parthian script
The Parthian script developed from the Aramaic script around the 2nd century BC and was used during the Parthian and Sassanian periods of the Persian empire.
The letters marked in red were used to write loan words from Aramaic.
Parthian, a Middle Iranian language which originated in the ancient province of Parthia (in the northeast of modern day Iran).
www.omniglot.com /writing/parthian.htm   (129 words)

  
 Find in a Library: A word-list of Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian
Find in a Library: A word-list of Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian
A word-list of Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian
WorldCat is provided by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. on behalf of its member libraries.
www.worldcatlibraries.org /wcpa/ow/c00daee80cddc38f.html   (61 words)

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