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Topic: Particle radiation


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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  
  Particle Radiation
A third type, gamma radiation, is not a particle but rather a high-energy form of electromagnetic radiation.
Because neutrino radiation rates may be able to tell us about the nuclear reactions at the core of the Sun, scientists have gone to great lengths to try to devise detectors that sense these elusive particles.
There is a second main type of radiation, which deals with the transfer of energy by waves from vibrating electric and magnetic fields.
www.windows.ucar.edu /physical_science/physics/atom_particle/particle_radiation.html   (621 words)

  
 Particle radiation - TheBestLinks.com - Energy, Mass, Neutron, Nuclear physics, ...
Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of small fast-moving particles that have energy and mass.
Particle radiation can be emitted from an unstable atomic nucleus (radioactive decay) in the form of a positively charged Alpha particle (α), a positively or negatively charged (the latter being more common) Beta particle(β)or a neutron.
Radiation is often separated into two categories, ionizing and non-ionizing, to denote the energy and danger of the radiation.
www.thebestlinks.com /Particle_radiation.html   (212 words)

  
 Nuclear Science Glossary
Cherenkov radiation: Light emitted by particles that move through a medium in which the speed of light is slower than the speed of the particles.
radioactivity: The spontaneous decay or disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus accompanied by the emission of radiation.
An unstable isotope of an element that decays or disintegrates spontaneously, emitting radiation.
www.lbl.gov /abc/wallchart/glossary/glossary.html   (2684 words)

  
 [No title]
Radiation energies outside this range are beyond the scope of this standard.
While measurements in a reference geometry (depth of 0,07 mm at perpendicular incidence in a tissue-equivalent slab phantom) with a reference class extrapolation chamber are dealt with in detail, the use of other measurement systems and measurements in other geometries are also described, although in less detail.
ISO 6980-2:2004 is geared towards organizations wishing to establish reference-class dosimetry capabilities for beta particles, and serves as a guide to the performance of dosimetry with the reference class extrapolation chamber for beta-particle dosimetry in other fields.
www.iso.org /iso/CatalogueDetailPage.CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=31730   (281 words)

  
 Particle Radiation Bursts at Jupiter
These charged particles of the solar wind are repelled by a planet's magnetosphere and they are not able to penetrate it.
HISCALE was equipped to study interplanetary ions and electrons with a wide range of energies, from high energy particles in the solar wind to particles with extremely high energies which are the Sun's equivalent to cosmic rays.
Scientists use HISCALE to understand the mechanisms that release solar flare particles and the dynamic phenomena that are associated with the solar cycle's maximum activity.
www.ku.edu /~kuspace/outreach/bursts.html   (1639 words)

  
 Air and Radiation | US EPA
Integrated Approaches to Climate, Energy, and the Environment.
The Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) develops national programs, technical policies, and regulations for controlling air pollution and radiation exposure.
OAR is concerned with pollution prevention and energy efficiency, indoor and outdoor air quality, industrial air pollution, pollution from vehicles and engines, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, and radiation protection.
www.epa.gov /air   (161 words)

  
  Electric Power eTool: Glossary
Alpha particle: A positively-charged particle from the nucleus of an atom, emitted during radioactive decay.
Alpha particles are helium nuclei, with 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
Beta particle: A particle emitted from an atom during radioactive decay.
www.osha.gov /SLTC/etools/electric_power/glossary.html   (11613 words)

  
  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Radiation (disambiguation)
Alpha radiation, composed of the nuclei of helium-4 atoms.
Epsilon Radiation is tertiary radiation caused by secondary radiation.
Particle radiation, radiation by means of particles that have a rest mass.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Radiation-%28disambiguation%29   (740 words)

  
 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Particle radiation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Particle radiation refers to the radiation of energy by means of small fast moving particles that have energy and mass.
Particle radiation can be emitted from an unstable atomic nucleus (radioactive decay) in the form of a positively charged Alpha particle (α), a negatively charged Beta particle(β),a neutron, or Gamma rays (γ).
Radiation is often separated into two categories, ionizing and non-ionizing, to denote the energy and danger of the radiation.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/pa/Particle_radiation   (219 words)

  
 Radiation - MSN Encarta
Waves and particles have many characteristics in common; usually, however, the radiation is predominantly in one form or the other.
Electromagnetic radiation is independent of matter for its propagation; speed, amount, and direction of energy, however, are influenced by the presence of matter.
Examples of particle radiation are cosmic rays, alpha rays, and beta rays.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761575631/Radiation.html   (457 words)

  
 Radiation Therapy for Cancer: Q & A - National Cancer Institute
Radiation therapy may be used to treat almost every type of solid tumor, including cancers of the brain, breast, cervix, larynx, lung, pancreas, prostate, skin, spine, stomach, uterus, or soft tissue sarcomas.
Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external radiation), may be placed inside the body (internal radiation), or may use unsealed radioactive materials that go throughout the body (systemic radiation therapy).
Particle beams are created by linear accelerators, synchrotrons, and cyclotrons, which produce and accelerate the particles required for this type of radiation therapy.
www.nci.nih.gov /cancertopics/factsheet/Therapy/radiation   (3920 words)

  
 Radiation Therapy for Cancer: Q & A - National Cancer Institute
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy, x-ray therapy, or irradiation) is the use of a certain type of energy (called ionizing radiation) to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.
Radiation therapy may be used to treat almost every type of solid tumor, including cancers of the brain, breast, cervix, larynx, lung, pancreas, prostate, skin, spine, stomach, uterus, or soft tissue sarcomas.
Particle beam therapy uses electrons, which are produced by an x-ray tube (this may be called electron-beam radiation); neutrons, which are produced by radioactive elements and special equipment; heavy ions (such as protons and helium); and pi-mesons (also called pions), which are small, negatively charged particles produced by an accelerator and a system of magnets.
www.cancer.gov /cancertopics/factsheet/Therapy/radiation   (3920 words)

  
 Glossary Test
The produced particles may be any combination allowed by conservation of energy and momentum and of all the charge types.
For most particle types there is another particle type that has exactly the same mass but the opposite value of all other charges.
A negatively charge elementary particle that typically resides outside the nucleus of an atom but is bound to it by electromagnetic forces.
www.cpepweb.org /main_universe/glossary.html   (2139 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Radiation protection
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, which includes both particle radiation and high energy electromagnetic radiation.
Particle radiation consists of a stream of charged or neutral particles, both charged ions and subatomic elementary particles.
Cosmic radiation is not a common concern, as the Earth's atmosphere absorbs it and the magnetosphere acts as a shield, but it poses a problem for satellites and astronauts.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Radiation_protection   (981 words)

  
 ScienceDaily: Ionizing radiation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Ionizing radiation is a type of particle radiation in which an individual particle (for example, a photon, electron, or helium nucleus) carries enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule (that is, to completely remove an electron from its orbit).
Ionizing radiation -- Ionizing radiation is a type of particle radiation in which an individual particle (for example, a photon, electron, or helium nucleus) carries enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule (that is,...
Subatomic particle -- A subatomic particle is a particle smaller than an atom: it may be elementary or composite.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/Ionizing_radiation   (1459 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of fast-moving subatomic particles.
Particle radiation is referred to as a particle beam if the particles are all moving in the same direction, similar to a light beam.
Particle radiation can be emitted by an unstable atomic nucleus (radioactive decay) in the form of a positively charged alpha particle (α), a positively or negatively charged beta particle (β) (the latter being more common), a photon (called a gamma particle, γ), or a neutron.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=particle_radiation   (483 words)

  
 OHSU Health - Promising New Therapies   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Many new radiation modalities are being used and studied to find more effective treatments for cancer and other conditions which may be treated with radiation.
particle radiation therapy - Particle radiation therapy is the use of higher-energy radiation particles in cancer therapy.
Two types of particle radiation therapy are under study: fast neutron therapy and charged particle therapy.
www.ohsuhealth.com /htaz/radiology/radonc/promising_new_therapies.cfm   (741 words)

  
 Position-transmitting electromagnetic quanta and particle radiation detector - Patent 5686721
The electromagnetic radiation quanta or particles impinge on a spatially resolving anode structure through a photoelectron converter layer (in the case of electromagnetic radiation) and directly through an electron multiplier as an electron avalanche (in the case of particle radiation).
A position-transmitting electromagnetic radiation or particle radiation detector, in which, inside a high-vacuum space bounded by a planar substrate spaced therefrom, there are (following one another in a layer-like fashion) on the radiation incidence side, a plate-type electron multiplier arrangement and planar anode.
Unlike conventional detectors for electromagnetic radiation quanta or particle radiation, the invention permits the use of comparatively simple, uniform detector elements or modules whose electronic position readout can be matched individually and in an optimized fashion to different measurement tasks by different structuring of the low-resistance anode layer situated outside the vacuum.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5686721.html   (2665 words)

  
 BIOMEDICAL RESULTS OF APOLLO - RADIATION PROTECTION AND INSTRUMENTATION (Sec.2,Ch.3)
Protection against manmade sources of radiation is a ground support function concerned mainly with the protection of the ground personnel, the general public, and the environment against detrimental effects of radiation.
Radiation doses measured during Apollo were significantly lower than the yearly average of 5 rem[*] set by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission for workers who use radioactive materials in factories and institutions across the United States.
Radiation protection for the Apollo Program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft.
lsda.jsc.nasa.gov /books/apollo/S2ch3.htm   (2300 words)

  
 Solar Particle Radiation | Macmillan Space Sciences
The remaining particles are ions of elements that are common in the solar atmosphere, such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon, and iron, as well as small numbers of even heavier elements.
Because solar energetic particles have been stripped of some or all their electrons, they are positively charged and must follow the magnetic field lines away from the Sun.
The potential for radiation to cause biological damage is called the dose equivalent, which is measured in rems or sieverts, where 1 sievert equals 100 rems.
www.bookrags.com /research/solar-particle-radiation-spsc-02   (1152 words)

  
 Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Synchrotron Radiation
Radiation peculiarities caused by the presence of the solenoid may be considered as a manifestation of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the radiation.
To calculate the impact of AB solenoid on particle radiation in magnetic field, we have found exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equations in the superposition of a constant uniform magnetic field and parallel to it the AB field of the solenoid (such a superposition is called the magnetic-solenoid field).
Peculiarities of the radiation related to the presence of the AB solenoid may be considered as a manifestation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the radiation.
www.sbf1.sbfisica.org.br /eventos/enfpc/xxi/procs/res55   (1555 words)

  
 Future Mars astronauts have radiation on their minds - space - 25 September 2006 - New Scientist
He has been focusing on the effects of heavy particle radiation, which is made up of fast-moving nuclei from heavy elements like iron.
The effects are apparent in rats given as little as 0.5 gray of radiation, which is small enough that the rats live out their normal lifespan.
He notes, however, that the radiation is delivered to the rats in one brief burst, whereas the astronauts' exposure would be spread out over several years — a difference that could potentially affect the results.
www.newscientist.com /article/dn10132-future-mars-astronauts-have-radiation-on-their-minds.html   (808 words)

  
 NS&T : Radiation and Radioactivity
Radiation refers to the propagation of waves and particles through space and includes both electromagnetic radiation and atomic and subatomic particle radiation.
While there are many different sources of radiation, it generally arises from or is produced by radioactive decay, energy change of an atomic electron or nucleus, motion of atoms or molecules, or the interaction between particles or electromagnetic radiation and atoms or nuclei.
Radiation can also be generated to diagnose and treat illness, eliminate or reduce harmful microorganisms to enhance the safety of medical equipment and the food supply, cook food, transmit information (radio, television, cellular phones, etc.), and many other applications addressed on this website.
www.aboutnuclear.org /view.cgi?fC=Radiation_and_Radioactivity   (379 words)

  
 Sealed Source Training
Radiation is energy transmitted through space in the form of electromagnetic waves or energetic particles.
The alpha particle is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom.
The intensity of bremsstrahlung radiation is proportional to the energy of the beta particles and the atomic number of the material through which the betas are passing.
webware.princeton.edu /sites/ehs/ssradtraining/radproperties/radproperties.htm   (1881 words)

  
 Radiation
The radiation spectrum is usually broken down into electromagnetic radiation and ionizing radiation.
The particles can be photons, electrons, protons, and ionized elements, such as helium, iron, etc. The ionized elements have been stripped of their electrons.
If the 5 cm of flesh shielding were to reduce the radiation by a factor of 3, then both your skin and BFO could be at their limits under the same radiation exposure.
spacetethers.com /radiation.html   (2149 words)

  
 Promising New Therapies
Particle radiation therapy is the use of higher-energy radiation particles in cancer therapy.
Two types of particle radiation therapy are under study: fast neutron therapy and charged particle therapy.
Protocols and techniques for 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy are being developed and refined to improve the application and outcomes of radiation therapy.
www.montefiore.org /healthlibrary/adult/radiology/promise   (764 words)

  
 Radiation Properties
A beta particle is an electron emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom.Examples of beta emitters commonly used in biological research are: hydrogen-3 (tritium), carbon-14,phosphorus-32, phosphorus-33, and sulfur-35.
Some energetic beta particles, such as those from P-32, will travel up to several meters in air or tens of mm into the skin, while low energy beta particles, such as those from H-3, are not capable of penetrating the dead layer of the skin.
For the purposes of radiation protection, it is not always useful to describe the potential hazard of a radioactive material in terms of its activity.
web.princeton.edu /sites/ehs/osradtraining/radiationproperties/radiationproperties.htm   (1841 words)

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