Factbites
 Where results make sense
About us   |   Why use us?   |   Reviews   |   PR   |   Contact us  

Topic: Particle shower


Related Topics

In the News (Thu 21 Mar 19)

  
  The CYGNUS Air Shower Detector
The shower direction and, hence, the direction of the primary particle which initiated the shower are determined by the relative arrival times of particles at the various detectors and the primary energy can be inferred from the total number of detected particles.
The resolution of the detector is also improved by the detection of more particles from each shower because of the inclusion of more counters in the reconstruction and because of the increased likelyhood of detecting prompt particles in the shower in addition to those which have been slowed down by multiple scattering.
Shower size is the number of detectable particles crossing the array rather than the number of particles actually detected[38].
ww2.lafayette.edu /%7Estarkm/thesis/detector.html   (3538 words)

  
 Process for making tissue-absorbent particle laminates - Patent 4851069
This caused the particles to tend to clot and string when it was attempted to shower a uniform layer of them on the tissue.
The shower of dry absorbent particles of step b is centered on the highest point of the roller path and extends a short distance to either side thereof, so that the base tissue is substantially horizontally disposed while it receives the showered particles.
With these adjustments made to suit a particular type and amount of absorbent particles to be applied, control of the shower S to keep the applied particle layer within close limits of the target value is accomplished by varying the speed of rotation of the brush, as hereinafter described.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4851069.html   (4848 words)

  
 Cosmic ray detection
The particles in these showers are of such high energy that they can travel all the way from the top of the atmosphere (about 20 kilometres up) down to the ground where they can be detected directly with particle detectors.
By adding up the number of particles recorded by each of the detectors we can estimate how many particles were in the shower and from that we can make a good guess as to the energy of the cosmic ray that started the shower.
The air showers recorded by the SPASE-2 array at the South Pole have diameters of 10's of metres at ground level and so the detectors in these arrays are spaced between 30 and 50 metres apart.
ast.leeds.ac.uk /haverah/dets.shtml   (800 words)

  
 Electromagnetic Calorimetry
Shower detectors, on the other hand, degrade the energy of the particle, sharing it among a very large number of shower products, which are measured or sampled to determine information about the primary particle.
The number of particles therefore rapidly increases until the average energy of the products drops below the critical energy, at which point energy loss is primarily by ionisation (by the charged particles) and the shower decays away.
The number of charged particles in the shower (or the track length of these particles) is proportional to the energy of the primary particle.
www.shef.ac.uk /~phys/teaching/phy311/emcal.html   (534 words)

  
 Shower simulation
This is a detailed four dimensional program in which cascade particles are generated and tracked as they move through the atmosphere towards ground level, undergoing interactions and decays.
Normally all particles are followed down to an energy called the thinning threshold, defined as a fraction of the primary energy.
To predict the performance of a widely spaced ground array it is necessary to consider the nature of the shower particles at large core distances (>1 km).
aupc1.uchicago.edu /~pryke/auger/documents/GAP-97-005/node3.html   (456 words)

  
 Detector Element: Liquid Argon Calorimeter
Electronics attached to the module records the shower size (a measure of the particles energy) and its shape (a way to distinguish between certain types of particles).
The amount of charge deposited in the calorimeter in a single shower and the depth to which the shower develops are proportional to the total energy of the particle that initiated the shower.
The showers from charged particles are identified by the relationship between the location of the shower and the direction of a track seen in the inner layers.
www2.slac.stanford.edu /VVC/detectors/calorimeters.html   (350 words)

  
 muon on Encyclopedia.com
The muon was first observed in cosmic rays by Carl D. Anderson and Seth Neddermeyer in 1936, the year after the existence of a particle of about the same mass had been predicted by Hideki Yukawa.
However, the muon's behavior did not conform to that of Yukawa's meson theory (which actually describes the pion, discovered more than 10 years later), and the muon is now classed as a lepton rather than a meson.
Each particle is negatively charged and has a positively charged antiparticle ; each has half-integer spin and participates in the weak nuclear force but not in the strong force; and each has an associated neutrino and antineutrino.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/m1/muon.asp   (527 words)

  
 Anomalous Shower
In addition to these events, the existence of massive long-lived particle is suggested by the cloud chamber experiment at Yunnan and by the arrival time analysis in the air shower particles[3].
During the observation, about 100,000 showers were recorded and basic characters of air showers from recorded showers were reportd various places[5].b Through the re-analysis, we find the existence of air showers with very steep lateral distribution which are large scale of Narrow Showers observed in the Baksan air shower array.
We selected the showers of maximum density detector which was in the central part of array (in the laboratory), and fundamental parameters could not be determined by the computer.
www.kwjc.kobe-wu.ac.jp /asakimori/cosmic/anomaly/aeas.html   (1274 words)

  
 Particle Shower   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
A Cosmic Ray Shower is initiated by the interaction of a primary cosmic ray with nucleus of atoms in the atmosphere.
Therefore the particle production front, or the shower front, develops at near speed of light.The maximum of particle production, also known as shower max is reached at different atmosphere depth for primary cosmic rays of different energies.
By comparing the measured particle density to detailed computer simulations the energy of the primary cosmic ray is assigned.
www.cosmicray.bnl.gov /particleshower.html   (396 words)

  
 Pythia7: Pythia7::Shower Namespace Reference
This class hold a partonic event, which is to shower (on input) or has showered (on output).
The Shower class administrates initial- and final-state radiation, by one call to SpaceShower and repeated calls to TimeShower.
Given the mass squared, a, of a decaying particle return the magnitude of the three-momentum of the two daughters with squared masses b and c in the rest system of the decay.
www.thep.lu.se /Pythia7/Doc/refman-html/namespacePythia7_1_1Shower.html   (234 words)

  
 CERN Courier - Bookshelf - IOP Publishing - article
This collection acknowledges the contributions of Antonino Zichichi and his colleagues in the development of experimental techniques that have contributed to the discovery of new particles and phenomena in the field of high-energy physics.
This foresight was vindicated with the discovery in 1974 of the J/Ψ particle.
The evolution of particle physics as seen from Brookhaven is a little like the British view of Europeanism - interesting but distorted because of evolved isolation.
www.cerncourier.com /main/article/43/9/19   (1770 words)

  
 Pierre Auger Observatory
By detecting and studying these rare particles, the Auger Observatory is tackling the enigmas of their origin and existence.
The secondary particles subsequently collide with other nuclei in the atmosphere, creating a new generation of energetic particles that continue the process, multiplying the total number of particles.
The resulting particle cascade, called "an extensive air shower," arrives at ground level with billions of energetic particles extending over an area as large as 10 square.
www.auger.org   (199 words)

  
 Shelton, Frank Harvey (1953-01-01) V-particle production. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05092003-162924
By a study of the multiplicity of the stars containing V[...]-particles, the average momentum of the particles producing V[...]-particles is found by several methods to be about 10 Bev/c.
In order that the cross-section for V[...]particle production be checked, an interaction length for penetrating shower particles is found to be 340 [plus or minus] 40 gr/[square centimeter], and is a value that is consistent with the results obtained in other cloud chamber experiments.
About 2 percent of all of the shower particles produced in penetrating-shower particle interactions are V[...]-particles.
resolver.caltech.edu /CaltechETD:etd-05092003-162924   (276 words)

  
 STATHIS STEFANIDIS' home page
During this process, the particle interacts with the electromagnetic (Coulomb) field of a nucleus and, as a result, emmits a photon, which is also of a high energy.
The shower will stop developing when the energy of the particle becomes lower than a threshold (critical energy Eo) so that the dominant process for lossing energy is now the ionization.
This is achieved by measuring the multiplicity of a particle shower that develop due to interactions with inactive material, mainly at the Inner Detector.
www.hep.ucl.ac.uk /~sstef/EMCalo.html   (957 words)

  
 [No title]
Some cosmic ray detectors measure the direction of the incoming particles, and from that information are able to reconstruct the direction of the original cosmic ray.
To clean up the shower, you may want to erase all the angle bisection arcs and the portions of the lines which extend past the intersection point.
In this manner the cosmic ray generated a particle shower which eventually reaches the ground and is measurable in a detector.
www.chicos.caltech.edu /classroom/shower/reconstruct1.html   (771 words)

  
 Internet Art Facade at the House of Communication
Extreme views from astronomy and particle physics created a visual trip to the pixeling edges of the universe but as well to the edges of technical perception.
The spectators perception is challenged by a pixel shower, that can’t be distinguished formally hardly in closely and distant.
The flights paths of the particle shower of one the first full energy collision of gold ions, received through the STAR collider on Long Island.
www.photograms.net /kunstfassade2003/tor/index_e.html   (753 words)

  
 Longitudinal Shower Development   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Note that the lateral extent of this diagram is for clarity of presentation and is not an accurate representation of the lateral development of a γ-ray shower.
And the first allows us to adopt a simple doubling scheme, where the energy of each particle is divided equally between its two daughter particles as the shower evolves from generation to generation.
Of particular note, the decay of charged pions gives rise to a substantial muon population which is typical of hadronic showers.
parsnip.wooster.edu /thesis/html/node23.html   (502 words)

  
 Particle Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The purpose of high-energy particle physics is to understand the properties and states of the basic building blocks of matter.
At these energies, the particles cannot be observed directly, but only by measuring the huge particle cascade ("air shower") they induce in the Earth's atmosphere.
The fluorescence light is emitted isotropically and its intensity is proportional to the number of charged particles in the shower.
columbia-physics.net /research/particle_phys.htm   (3018 words)

  
 Blank Document with Fermi logo   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The objective of this detector is to detect the maximum of the density in particle showers.
The data collected from both the central and plug portions allows the center of the particle shower to be detected.
An event is caused by the interaction of the particles in the detector.
sist.fnal.gov /archive/1998-topics/Mapp/Html/Paper.htm   (1745 words)

  
 [SEASA] - Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array
The net result is a shower of particles which move towards the earth's surface.
By intercepting the particles as they hit the ground the properties of the original cosmic ray proton hitting the top of the atmosphere can be determined.
The size of the air shower footprint on the ground is related to the energy of the initial proton.
www.particle.kth.se /SEASA   (802 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The surviving particle emitted a force-carrying particle called a pomeron, which struck the other one and shattered it.
The pomeron is made up of pointlike particles with measureable distribution.
Electron energy-loss psectroscopy on individual tubes yielded B:N ratios of approximately 1, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of stable BN tube structures.
www.interzone.com /~cheung/SciNew.dir/Science8.18.95.html   (133 words)

  
 Cosmic Particle Shower Could Have Killed Off Dinosaurs
A shower of matter from space millions of years ago could have led to drastic changes in the Earth's climate, followed by the extinction of life on a massive scale -- which also killed off the dinosaurs.
Whereas the solar wind normally protects the Earth from a hail of interstellar particles like a huge bullet-proof vest, there are then suddenly up to a hundred times more particles raining down into the earth's atmosphere at enormous speeds.
Experts call the electrically charged particles which our sun emits "solar wind." These winds race through our solar system at a velocity of up to 800 kilometers per second, with a range extending a hundred times as far as the distance between the Earth and the sun.
unisci.com /stories/20022/0606021.htm   (760 words)

  
 Particle Showers
The characteristic signal from a particle in a detector at a high energy particle experiment is a particle shower.
The showers arise when an incoming particle interacts with the material through some of the processes mentioned above and the secondary particles produced interact further, with a cascade of particles as a result.
Finally the particle energy is low enough to allow the particles to be absorbed through ionization in the detector material and the showering process stops.
spider.chemphys.lu.se /~per/exjobb/node17.html   (198 words)

  
 GEANT v. GISMO
When a shower is broken into SLD established sub-sections, energy deposition readout by GISMO is ~10% of GEANT values.
It produced nearly the same shower particles whether conducted by GISMO or by GEANT.
The shower particle momenta, and track ids were nearly identical.
www-sldnt.slac.stanford.edu /nld/studies/GEANT.htm   (509 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The angular resolution for such small showers according to simulations is ~3.2 degrees.
Obviously with only one particle per shower it is not possible to reconstruct the arrival direction nor the energy of the primaries and a GRB is observable only as a short duration counting excess over the cosmic ray all sky background, possibly in coincidence with a GRB satellite detection.
Details on the Single Particle technique are in Vernetto S., Astroparticle Physics, 13 (2000) (postscript file).
www.to.infn.it /argo/torino/grb_det.html   (186 words)

  
 Particle Characteristic far from the Shower Core   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Additionally each has been normalized to have the same area -- the objective is to compare the distribution shapes -- the absolute numbers having been compared above.
The particles which arrive at the ground far from the shower core are the product of low energy processes; ie.
Therefore we might expect mocspl and mocsibto be similar, and corsib and corqgs to be similar.
aupc1.uchicago.edu /~pryke/auger/documents/GAP-98-036/node6.html   (105 words)

  
 INCA Single particle technique   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Cerenkov Telescopes detect the Cerenkov photons emitted by the shower particles in the high atmosphere, while Air Shower Arrays detect the charged particles (mainly electrons and positrons) reaching the ground level.
On the contrary, Air Shower Arrays have a much larger field of view (about 1/4 of the sky) and their duty cycle, not limited by darkness or weather conditions, can be ~100%.
This technique, suitable to observe transient events as GRBs, consists in recording all the particles hitting the detector, not requiring any coincidence among the particles arrival times, as it is usually done to detect air showers.
www.to.infn.it /argo/inca/grb_spt.html   (528 words)

  
 The Antarctic Sun - Particle researchers learn from sun's fury - 113003 Issue   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
A professor at the university's Bartol Research Institute, Bieber is the principal investigator for a project called Spaceship Earth, a network of neutron monitors that detect particle showers from cosmic rays and solar events.
He said the shower would have continued much longer except the ejection reached Earth and swept away the stream of particles.
These primary particles arrive at Earth and many of them collide with molecules in the atmosphere to release what are called secondary particles, including protons, neutrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons.
www.polar.org /antsun/oldissues2003-2004/Sun113003/sunsFury.htm   (1015 words)

  
 Air Shower Simulations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Kalmykov and Ostapchenko1993] to simulate hadronic interactions, although the typical energy of the primary particle is often too low to invoke this model except when simulating protons.
When an interaction results in particles that are below a specified fraction of the energy of the shower's primary particle, only one of those particles is followed, but its simulation weight is adjusted to compensate for the lost particles.
There is also a cap on the weight of any given particle called the maximum weight.
parsnip.wooster.edu /thesis/html/node37.html   (185 words)

Try your search on: Qwika (all wikis)

Factbites
  About us   |   Why use us?   |   Reviews   |   Press   |   Contact us  
Copyright © 2005-2007 www.factbites.com Usage implies agreement with terms.