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Topic: Partition of India

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  Partition of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The seeds of partition were sown long before independence, in the struggle between various factions of the Indian nationalist movement, and especially of the Indian National Congress, for control of the movement.
India was formed out of the majority Hindu regions of the colony, and Pakistan from the majority Muslim areas.
Two former prime ministers of India, Gulzarilal Nanda and IK Gujaral were born into Hindu Punjabi families in the cities of Sialkot and Jhelum in West Punjab respectively.The recent leader of the opposition BJP, L.K. Advani, is a Sindhi born in Karachi (his family emigrated in 1953).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Partition_of_India   (2797 words)

 Partition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Partition of an interval, used in the theory of the Riemann integral and the Riemann-Stieltjes integral
Partition also refers to an algorithm used in quicksort which separates a list into two sublists, those elements less than or equal to a value and those greater than it.
More generally, in musical set theory partitioning is the division of the domain of pitch class sets into types, such as transpositional type, see equivalence class and cardinality.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Partition   (469 words)

 India Overland
The partition of India and its freedom from colonial rule set a precedent for nations such as Israel, which demanded a separate homeland because of the irreconcilable differences between the Arabs and the Jews.
While there were strong feelings of nationalism in India, by the late 19th century there were also communal conflicts and movements in the country that were based on religious communities rather than class or regional ones.
India and Pakistan have been to war twice since the partition and they are still deadlocked over the issue of possession of Kashmir.
www.indiaoverland.biz /overland/info/partition.html   (1284 words)

 Manas: History and Politics, Partition of India
The partition of India is a signal event in world history, not merely in the history of the Indian subcontinent.
Whatever the "causes" of the partition, the brute facts cannot be belied: down to the present day, the partition remains the single largest episode of the uprooting of people in modern history, as between 12 to 14 million left their home to take up residence across the border.
The psychic wounds of partition are less easily observed, and we have barely begun to fathom the myriad ways in which partition has altered the civilizational histories of South Asia.
www.sscnet.ucla.edu /southasia/History/Independent/partition.html   (633 words)

 The Partition of India
India's independence was inevitable; but preservation of its unity was a prize that, in our plural society, required high statesmanship.
It means a clear partition of India into a Muslim India and a non-Mulsim India." This was 16 years before the League adopted the Pakistan Resolution in Lahore, on March 23, 1940 (emphasis added, throughout).
The Congress was not consistent on the Partition.
www.frontlineonnet.com /fl1826/18260810.htm   (3332 words)

 History Partition Of India - History Of Ancient, Medieval And Modern India.
The partition of India refers to the creation in August 1947 of two sovereign states of India and Pakistan when Britain granted independence to the former British Raj including treaty states.
India has been driven by clashes between Hindus and Muslims; the Hindus remaining in Pakistan have complained of persecution.
India, as the inheritor of a long stretch of the British borders, and the People's Republic of China, as the conqueror of Tibet, eventually clashed, leading to the 1962 Sino-Indian War.
www.bharatadesam.com /history/partition_of_india.php   (1787 words)

 Conflict between India, Pakistan runs deep   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The friction between India and Pakistan is relevant to the rest of the world not only because both are the newest members of the nuclear club; it also affects the stability and economic potential of region that includes more than a billion people, some 950 million in India alone.
India fought an 11-week undeclared battle with what it described as Pakistani army troops who infiltrated the region across snow-bound Himalayan mountains.
Whether India and Pakistan can capitalize on that desire for peace, or whether the long hostilities will destroy any such initiative remains to be seen.
www.cnn.com /WORLD/9708/India97/shared/sibling.rivalry/index.html   (411 words)

World War 2 had been a bitter struggle for life and death of the United Kingdom, India's imperialist masters at the time and their Indian colony was assured of independence as a reward for their support to defeat the AXIS Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan).
India still remained under Congress Party that was committed to the rights of the Muslims as much as to the rights of the Hindus.
The subservient "Indian coolie" media continued to champion the new ideology of make-believe world in which a fragment of India is still called "India", SOUTH Kashmir is still known as "Kashmir" and the small fragment of the original grand province of The Punjab is still known as "Punjab".
www.partitionofindia.com   (1195 words)

 Hindu-Muslim Conflict and the Partition of India
Yet partition of British colonial India into the free nations of India and Pakistan did not solve the problem; Hindus and Muslims are still at loggerheads -- through their nations -- the focal point of the strife being the disputed territory of Kashmir.
India’s treatment of its own remaining Muslims is a tension point that could see bigger developments in the near future.
India is also dealing with a mounting struggle by the Dalits, the oppressed outcastes in the Hindu caste system, to claim their legal rights.
www.hyperhistory.net /apwh/essays/cot/t3w30pakistanindia.htm   (2068 words)

 Partition of India   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
In 1906 the All-India Muslim League formed with favorable relations towards British rule, but by 1913 that changed when the League shifted its focus and began to view Indian self-government as its goal.
Gandhi was very opposed to the idea of partition, and urged Mountbatten to offer Jinnah leadership of a united India instead of the creation of a separate Muslim state.
In July Britain's Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act, which set a deadline of midnight on August 14-15, 1947 for "demarcation of the dominions of India." As a result, at least 10 million Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs fled their homes to seek sanctuary on whichever side of the line was favorable to them.
www.haverford.edu /engl/engl277b/Contexts/partition_of_india.htm   (621 words)

 Partition of India by Anjali Gupta
Lord Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India, was given full power by one of the British leaders to negotiate any agreement he could to help come to some sort of conclusion.
For Indians, the partition was the logical outcome of Britain's policies of dividing and ruling.
"Cracking India", a novel written by Bapsi Sidhwa, is a fascinating account of the violent racial-religious clashes created by the partition of India and Pakistan as seen through the eyes of Lenny, an eight-year-old girl.
www.boloji.com /opinion/0022.htm   (1489 words)

 INDIA RESOURCE:  Partition, Divisions, Indian Subcontinent, Birth, Pakistan, Bangladesh
I firmly feel that Partition was far from being inevitable and politics, not religion, was responsible for it.
The Muslim leaders countered this saying that the Muslims were an all-India minority and that in Punjab, though they were a minority, the Hindus were the dominant minority and unlike Muslims, not the dominated one, at the all-India level.
For another view on partition, see this essay: The 2-Nation Theory and Partition, which offers a more detailed and historical perspective on the subject.
members.tripod.com /INDIA_RESOURCE/Partition.html   (1607 words)

 The 1947 Partition of India   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
On June 3, 1947, Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the viceroy (1947) and governor-general (1947-48), announced plans for partition of the British Indian Empire into the nations of India and Pakistan, which itself was divided into east and west wings on either side of India.
At the dawn of history India started on her unending quest, and trackless centuries are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her success and her failures.
And to India, our much-loved motherland, the ancient, the eternal and the ever-new, we pay our reverent homage and we bind ourselves afresh to her service.
www.indhistory.com /partition-independence.html   (1935 words)

 The Next Partition of India - SlashIndia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
A large section of the muslim population in India and its leadership felt that it would not be possible to safeguard the interests of the muslim minority in the face of an antagonistic Hindu majority.
Government of India is more than willing to talk to naxalites and offer them amnesty but not to to the ordinary members of the upper castes who, under the threat of extermination at the hands of these very naxalites, were forced to take to arms and form their own militias.
Every one knows that Government of India offers VIP treatment to naxalites when they are in jail but members of Ranveer Sena are treated as criminals and their families mercilessly persecuted in spite of the fact that Ranveer Sena, unlike the naxalites, in no way threatens the existence of the Indian state.
www.slashindia.org /the_next_partition_of_india   (2383 words)

 INDOlink - Book Review - The Demand For Partition Of India
Partition happened not because it was waiting to happen but because made to happen.
In the run up to the independence of India, the metamorphosis of the social structure, the rise of the slowly rising "middle class" and the intellectual explosion that followed the educational exposition all contributed in great measure to the events that came after.
Having recapitulated the history of the Muslim reign in India since 1192 AD and the impact of the Islamic ethos on contemporary society, the book makes it a point to clearly enunciate the marginalisation since 1857 AD and the subsequent delineation therefrom.
www.indolink.com /Book/book91.html   (701 words)

 Cripps and India's Partition
Cripps knew that India's plural society was riven with "a perpetual majority and a perpetual minority" on communal, not political, lines.
It lay in a communal compact for a united India in which the minorities were assured of sharing of power.
India would have had a majority, though confined to defence, foreign affairs and communications.
www.flonnet.com /fl1915/19150860.htm   (3427 words)

 Partition of India and the Creation of Pakistan: The account of Maulana Azad in India Wins Freedom   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
In reality, the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan, as presented by Maulana Azad, a staunch opponent of Jinnah and the Pakistan Movement, were the outcomes of an interplay of multiple forces, and not of any one-sided hatred of Pakistan-seeking Muslims, as Dr. Bain erroneously claimed.
The dominion of India officially transitioned from the Mughal to the British India in 1757.
I had declared that if India's political problem was solved, she would not only join the war of her own free will but also adopt conscription and send every able-bodied young man to the war front.
www.globalwebpost.com /farooqm/writings/other/azad/india_wins.htm   (9578 words)

 Ken McMullen PARTITION Filmpage
The joy of freedom was overshadowed by the brutal partition of the country along religious lines.
A couple of years after partition the governments of India and Pakistan decided that the lunatics, like prisoners should be exchanged.
Forty years on, the memory of partition may mean little to Britain's Asians born here, but it is something their parents won't forget.
www.geocities.com /kenmcm_2000/filmpages/partitionreviews.htm   (470 words)

 Online NewsHour -- India-Pakistan Timeline: Partition and the 1940s
Disputes between India and Pakistan stem from the 1947 British partitioning of India -- once a British possession -- into two independent nations.
At the epicenter of the Indian-Pakistan conflict is the Jammu-Kashmir state, which, in 1947, had a predominantly Muslim population and was governed by an Indian ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh.
India deployed troops to the region to protect its borders from armed Pakistani and Kashmiri militias.
www.pbs.org /newshour/bb/asia/india-pakistan/timeline_sec1.html   (316 words)

 Partition of India and Bengal and Some Myths   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The official history of India (as taught to us in our school da ys) outlined a simple story-one where Congress leaders were on the side of the angels and Jinnah and Muslim League were the culprits.
Mob violence unprecedented in the history of India plunged the great city of Calcutta into an orgy of bloodshed, murder and terror....Soon the whole city was in the grip of goondas of both the communities.
It was virtually a vote on the twin issues of the reorganisation of India on a communal and of the province of Assam on a linguistic basis.
finance.commerce.ubc.ca /~bhatta/partition.html   (3709 words)

 South Asian History - Colonial India
India under the British - links to primary sources.
Statistical Information on British India - maintained by the Digital South Asia Library of the University of Chicago.
Missionaries in Northern India - The Budden and Gray Families.
www.lib.berkeley.edu /SSEAL/SouthAsia/india_colonial.html   (736 words)

 Manas: History and Politics, Partition of India Bibliography
Inventing Boundaries: Gender, Politics and the Partition of India.
Sherwani, L. The Partition of India and Mountbatten.
Region and Partition: Bengal, Punjab and the Partition of the Subcontinent.
www.sscnet.ucla.edu /southasia/History/Independent/partition_bibliography.html   (846 words)

It provided for the establishment of a Constitutional Assembly to frame the future Constitution of India, which was to be based on the principle that the center would control only three subjects, viz, Foreign Affairs, Defence and Communications, all other subjects were to be administered by autonomous provinces and states [5].
It was proclaimed by the Secretary of State for India that paramountcy was to lapse after India had achieved independence and that the future relationship of the states with the rest of India was to be decided by the parties themselves through consultations and negotiations [6].
On November 9, 1947, India occupied the state at the invitation of the Prime Minister.
www.kashmir-information.com /Miscellaneous/Bhatt1.html   (1662 words)

The non-acceptance of the Standstill Agreement [7] by India immediately aroused suspicion in the minds of Pakistan and it complained that India's failure to conclude the agreement was indicative of some plan to effect the accession immediately[8].
But it did not change the attitude of Pakistan, and ultimately the Government of Kashmir conveyed to Pakistan that if raids were not stopped and blockade of essential commidities lifted immediately it would be left with no alternative but to seek help from others [17]to protect the life and the property of his subjects.
The Instruement of accession which was signed by the Maharaja and accepted by Lord Mountbatten on behalf of the Government of India, was duly endorsed by the Head of the Emergency Administration Sheikh Abdulla on behalf of the state people and meherchand Mahajan, Premier of the state.
www.kashmir-information.com /Miscellaneous/Bhatt2.html   (1271 words)

 Partition of India, part 1 - List No. 8 - Manohar Books
Ikram, S.M: Modern Muslim India and the Birth of Pakistan.
Singh, Anita Inder: The Origins of the Partition of India, 1936-1947.
Singh, Kewal: Partition and Aftermath: Memoirs of an Ambassador.
www.lib.virginia.edu /area-studies/SouthAsia/Lib/man08par97.html   (450 words)

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