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Topic: Peacekeeping

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  Australians and Peacekeeping
In this section, "peacekeeping" and "peacekeeping operation" are used as blanket terms to cover all impartial, multinational, military-based interventions into areas of conflict.
In the early years, Australia's peacekeepers were generally unarmed military observers, promoting peace indirectly by ensuring that neither side in a conflict could violate a ceasefire or commit atrocities without the United Nations and the world community knowing about it.
Today the media can fill a similar role, but military observers with a peacekeeping operation are more impartial and can use their military training to assess a situation more accurately.
www.awm.gov.au /atwar/peacekeeping.htm   (1308 words)

  The United Nations Peacekeeping Forces - Nobel Lecture
The essence of peacekeeping is the use of soldiers as a catalyst for peace rather than as the instruments of war.
Recent changes in Soviet policy on peacekeeping, as well as on other important matters, mean that for the first time there is virtually a unanimous international constituency for promoting the concept of international authority through consensus and joint action, by the non-forceful techniques of peacemaking and peacekeeping.
Peacekeeping operations would be an important visible symbol and monitor of such a system, although, as I have said, we must also preserve some collective capacity to deal with aggression.
nobelprize.org /peace/laureates/1988/un-lecture.html   (3117 words)

 Peacekeeping and the United Nations
Besides the fragmentation of the current UN peacekeeping system (units are often smaller than required, national contingents have little joint experience, etc.), these include problems inherent in peacekeeping efforts that respond to internal rather than cross-border conflicts, peacekeeping in the absence of agreed-upon cease-fires, and the use of force in peacekeeping efforts.
Furthermore, UN peacekeeping is undermined by the uncertain financial and political support of member governments, and the U.S. failure to pay its peacekeeping assessments has worsened the situation.
The UN peacekeeping force there was riven with national rivalries, and other troop contributors were deeply resentful of the privileges claimed by the U.S. in its parallel non-UN command.
www.fpif.org /briefs/vol1/unpeace_body.html   (2248 words)

 Canada and Peace Support Operations
Peacekeeping is an important aspect of Canada's national heritage and a reflection of our fundamental beliefs.
Peacekeeping is also a significant component of Canada's foreign policy and our contribution to the multilateral security system.
Peacekeeping has traditionally been a primarily military activity but Canadian involvement in international peace support operations has expanded in response to the complex emergencies that we now face.
www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /peacekeeping/menu-en.asp   (603 words)

 Peacekeeping - Magazine - Central - British Council - LearnEnglish
The actual definition of peacekeeping is a bit unclear and it was never written into the original UN Charter, but it goes something like 'using military personnel from different countries under the command of the UN to control and resolve armed conflict either between or within states’.
The peacekeeping force must have clear international support and a mandate that shows it is strictly neutral; and it needs adequate resources to do the job.
The typical image of a peacekeeper is a soldier sitting in a watchtower with a pair of binoculars keeping an eye on a border, but they also organise the clearing of mines, supervise elections, monitor human rights and oversee the return of refugees to their homes.
www.britishcouncil.org /learnenglish-central-magazine-peacekeeping.htm   (955 words)

 Air Power and Peacekeeping   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Peacekeeping operations employ voluntary military and diplomatic personnel from one or more countries, either to create the conditions for conflict resolution or to prevent further hostilities through the supervision of an interim or final settlement of conflict.
Peacekeeping forces are impartial and exist only with the consent of all disputing parties; therefore, peacekeeping forces do not interfere with the internal affairs of the host countries or use coercion to enforce agreements--the use of force is limited to self-defense.
Peacekeeping forces rely on a perception among the disputing parties that disputants will be held accountable for compromising the safety of UN forces.
www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil /airchronicles/apj/bash.html   (6513 words)

 [No title]
This reflects the United Nations' view that peacekeeping is an effort to "monitor and observe peace processes that emerge in post-conflict situations and assist ex-combatants to implement the peace agreements they have signed."[5] This includes the deployment of peacekeeping forces, collective security arrangements, and enforcement of ceasefire agreements.
Peacekeeping is of limited use in and of itself in this regards because it is only able to provide aid in weak states that have little say over their sovereign freedom and thus can only help a limited set of ethnic conflicts.
Important to peacekeeping are the the role of third parties and the substantive provisions of the peace agreement itself.
www.beyondintractability.org /m/peacekeeping.jsp   (4983 words)

 UN Peacekeeping Reform
UN Peacekeeping does not enjoy the continuity or esprit de corps of a national army, and so there is much reinvention of the wheel each time a new mission is begun or a new unit rotates into an existing mission.
It is a constant challenge for UN peacekeeping forces to maintain their neutrality and to avoid involvement in the local politics where they are deployed, even as they stand ready to act to protect themselves and, where so mandated, to protect innocent civilians.
We are convinced that the UN can conduct peacekeeping more efficiently, and we are pursuing the details of the structure, manning and equipping of peacekeeping units in the context of the discussions of the Fifth Committee of the General Assembly, which decides on budgetary matters.
www.state.gov /p/io/rls/rm/46522.htm   (1373 words)

The term "peacekeeping" is really a misnoma when applied to the majority of the military humanitarian operations of the new humanitarian era - not least because UN forces are frequently being asked to operate in situations where there is no peace to keep.
The traditional UN peacekeeping of the Cold War era was nowhere defined in the UN charter, but emerged as a pragmatic way in which the international community supported peaceful settlements to international conflicts.
Most agency criticisms of recent UN peacekeeping operations in Africa have focused on the inability of peacekeeping forces to relate to and engage with local populations, and their inability to take the long and complex view.
www.jha.ac /articles/a003.htm   (5340 words)

Peacekeeping will work only within a narrow range of circumstances, and the only type that works is traditional peacekeeping, a mechanism to manage conflict and facilitate and supervise truces, marked by: unarmed or lightly armed multilateral troops deployed with the consent of state-party disputants; impartiality; use of force only in self-defense.
Argues that decline in the number of UN peacekeepers in the field is no proof of marginalization in peacekeeping operations; finds that a new division of labor is emerging in which the UN role centers on authorization, monitoring, civilian support and delegation.
Explores problems peacekeepers can face from situations involving competing notions of good and evil, changes in what constitutes good and evil over the course of a mission, and the fact that things may not be as they appear.
www.au.af.mil /au/aul/bibs/peacekp03/peacekp03.htm   (9348 words)

 Peacekeeping - Overview   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Peacekeeping is a military third-party intervention to assist the transition from violent conflict to stable peace.
Peacekeeping Operations (PKOs) contribute to this goal providing security; supporting and facilitating other non-military initiatives; and making available the tool of military force.
A theoretical analysis of Peacekeeping should go beyond a historical perspective, to define theoretical guidelines that help distinguish between different types of missions.
www.sais-jhu.edu /cmtoolkit/approaches/peacekeeping   (118 words)

 PeaceWomen: Gender and Peacekeeping Index
An understanding of gender issues is critical to peacekeeping activities because of the need for peacekeeping personnel to respond appropriately to the different ways that women, men girls and boys are affected by armed conflict and its aftermath.
Peacekeeping Watch is a project focused on monitoring sexual exploitation and abuse by UN Peacekeepers, and documenting efforts to address such abuse
Among the themes explored were the various roles of women in post-conflict societies and the importance of bringing a gendered approach to the institution of peacekeeping.
www.peacewomen.org /un/pkwatch/pkindex.html   (588 words)

 Peacekeeping in Africa: Special Reports: Publications: U.S. Institute of Peace
The group largely agreed that the report is, as one participant said, "The most important document on peacekeeping ever written." Indeed, while many of the technical weaknesses of past peacekeeping missions are well known, Brahimi represents the first systematic and comprehensive effort to identify and address problems in the DPKO.
An analysis of past UN peacekeeping missions reveals a sharp increase in both the complexity and frequency of missions since the end of the Cold War.
More and more frequently peacekeeping forces were called upon to intervene in hostile (that is, non-consensual) and dangerous situations to protect besieged populations.
www.usip.org /pubs/specialreports/sr66.html   (2271 words)

 UN Peacekeeping - Global Policy Forum - UN Security Council
A link to peacekeeping finance provides further information on the peacekeeping budget, illustrating which countries pay their peacekeeping dues and which countries don't.
Looks at past UN peacekeeping missions, including those that have been accused of being failures, and what lessons can be drawn from them.
Peacekeeping finance is the backbone of UN peacekeeping but it faces perpetual difficulties.
globalpolicy.igc.org /security/peacekpg   (483 words)

 UN Peacekeeping Foreign & Commonwealth Office
The UN’s responsibility for peacekeeping and crisis management continues to be heavy.
It is currently running 17 peacekeeping operations around the world, involving 65,000 troops, military observers and civilian police from 103 countries.
Our forecast expenditure on peacekeeping is around £400 million for the financial year 2004/05.
www.fco.gov.uk /servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029394140   (486 words)

 United Nations (UN) : Peacekeeping Documentation
The concept of peacekeeping is not specifically mentioned as such anywhere in the Charter of the United Nations.
As a rule, peacekeeping operations are established by the Security Council, the organ designated by the Charter as primarily responsible for the maintenance of peace and security; the financial aspects of peacekeeping, on the other hand, are considered by the General Assembly.
The Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations was established by General Assembly resolution 2006 (XIX) of 18 February 1965 with the mandate to conduct a comprehensive review of all issues relating to peacekeeping.
www.un.org /Depts/dhl/resguide/specpk.htm   (3048 words)

 United Nations Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping operations, initiated in the UN Security Council, have tried over the years to meet the needs in numerous crises, but have had little continuity or oversight.
Moving to protect the peacekeepers themselves seemed a justly humane priority inasmuch as they were without any means of enforcing the peacekeeping or even a mandate for them to protect one segment of society from the other.
The term mission-creep was heard, describing the expanded role that peacekeepers have been drawn into during their operations, but this was not seen as a problem so much as a short-sighted vision and an inadequate anticipation of the sometimes inevitable long-range problems.
www.corliss-lamont.org /hsmny/peacekeeping.htm   (2705 words)

This is termed "peacekeeping." Once the shooting has stopped, then political leaders will sit down to try to negotiate a political resolution to the problem--which is generally referred to as "peacemaking." Lastly, efforts will be made to diminish the hostility and the fear among the ordinary people--this is referred to as peacebuilding.
In this case, the sponsoring organization needs to withdraw the peacekeepers, and consider undertaking what is called "an enforcement action" instead, where well-armed troops move in to stop a war.
Peacekeeping, Peacemaking, and Human Rights, by Cedric Thornberry, former Assistant Secretary-General of the UN and Deputy Chief of UNPROFOR in ex-Yugoslavia.
www.colorado.edu /conflict/peace/treatment/pkeeping.htm   (855 words)

 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces - History of Organization
The UN Peacekeeping Forces may only be employed when both parties to a conflict accept their presence.
The Peacekeeping Forces are subordinate to the leadership of the United Nations.
Among other important tasks may be mentioned monitoring the border between India and Pakistan, and maintaining the peacekeeping force that was established on Cyprus on account of the civil war that broke out between the Greek and Turkish populations of the island.
nobelprize.org /peace/laureates/1988/un-history.html   (914 words)

 Peacekeeping Web Links: Library and Links: Jeannette Rankin Library Program: U.S. Institute of Peace
The United Nations web site gives an overview of peacekeeping operations, background information on 50 years of peacekeeping, lists all the completed and ongoing peacekeeping operations, includes maps of all missions, covers demining, rapid deployment, medical support, and describes training and lessons learned.
Provides information for correspondence courses on United Nations peacekeeping, including enrollment information; programs, resources and course details; interactive resources for students (a chat room and daily updates on the UN and peacekeeping through the UN wire), as well as links to additional resources.
The web page describes the UN peacekeeping operation, United Nations Protection Force, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, from February 1992 - March 1995, including the strength of the armed forces, estimated fatalities, and function of the mission.
www.usip.org /library/topics/peacekeeping.html   (1779 words)

 The Partnership for Effective Peacekeeping - PEP Spotlight
They stormed a small African Union garrison in a dusty village, Haskanita, and massacred 10 African peacekeepers, looted their equipment and torched their base.
If anything, Darfur resembles Somalia in the 1990s, when the failure of American-backed United Nations peacekeepers to subdue teenage gunmen in flip-flops ushered in 16 years of chaos that rages on today.
I am new to Washington DC and the USA, having joined Refugees International as head of their peacekeeping program this May. I shall do my best to convey to you the concerns about AFRICOM of RI and the broader humanitarian NGO community.
www.effectivepeacekeeping.org   (1392 words)

 THE THIN BLUE LINE: United Nations Peacekeeping Missions   (Site not responding. Last check: )
And why is it that in the one decade since the end of the cold war there have been more United Nations peacekeeping missions than in the four decades before that.
Between 1993and today, that is not quite all of the last decade, there have been 31 peacekeeping missions, 15 of them still in progress.
When you talk about allowing things to happen in the world without the blessing of the UN Security Council and not through the UN, there is always a possibility that states are going to be exploiting the opportunity to do peacekeeping, peace making, etcetera, in order to build their own influence.
www.uncommonknowledge.org /00fall/516.html   (4008 words)

UN Peacekeeper Killed In Ambush In Eastern DR Of Congo
UN and AU new peace–keeping mission in Burundi
UN Maps Scale Of Humanitarian Crisis In Darfur As Peacekeeping Approaches Debated
www.europaworld.org /peace.htm   (3190 words)

 Peacekeeping Finance - Global Policy Forum - UN Security Council
Japan, which funds about 20 percent of the UN’s peacekeeping budget, reacted to a UN report alleging that the world body lost tens of millions of dollars through irregularities in peacekeeping procurement activities by threatening to reduce Tokyo’s contribution to the peacekeeping budget.
This time it is about the peacekeeping budget which includes the UN missions in Southern Lebanon and on the Ethiopia-Eritrea border, both of which the US supported in the Security Council.
The Ottawa Citizen reports that peacekeeping troops in Sierra Leone are surrendering their weapons with little or no resistance due to the lack of peacekeeping funds.
www.globalpolicy.org /security/peacekpg/finance/finindx.htm   (1905 words)

 Remaking U.N. Peacekeeping
To establish the foundations for a "new peacekeeping paradigm," this report details the deficiencies of the one we have now.
It lays out the costs of an unrestrained arms trade and of the proliferation of unregulated "dual-use technology." And it weighs the costs of peacekeeping against those incurred by the social and economic dislocation of conflict when peacekeeping efforts are foregone.
It distinguishes among peacekeeping functions that in practice have sometimes blurred, and recommends a two-tiered structure of peacekeeping forces to keep them separate, and to help clarify the purpose of the mission from the outset.
www.webcom.com /ncecd/rennersum.html   (1223 words)

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