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Topic: Penicillin

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  How Penicillin Kills Bacteria
Penicillin kills bacteria by interfering with the ability to synthesize cell wall.
In this sequence, Escherichia coli were incubated in penicillin for 30 minutes.
To learn more about how penicillin works be sure to check out " What the Heck is Penicillin" at Jack's "Bugs in the News".
www.cellsalive.com /pen.htm   (206 words)

  Penicillin - Fleming's mold
The accidental discovery of penicillin in the twentieth century may be one of the greatest milestones in medical history.
Penicillin in World War II Trials of the drug on humans were so successful that great quantities of penicillin were used to treat infections suffered by wounded and ill soldiers during World War II (1939-1945).
Because the discovery and uevelopment of penicillin is rightly regarded as one of the greatest achievements in medical history, many of the scientists who worked on it have been highly honored.
www.discoveriesinmedicine.com /Ni-Ra/Penicillin.html   (847 words)

  Penicillin - MSN Encarta
The action of natural penicillin was first observed in 1928 by British bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming, but another ten years passed before penicillin was concentrated and studied by German-British biochemist Ernst Chain, Australian pathologist Sir Howard Florey, and other scientists.
Penicillin is effective against a wide range of disease-bearing microorganisms, including pneumococci, streptococci, gonococci, meningococci, the clostridium that cause tetanus, and the syphilis spirochete.
Despite the effectiveness of penicillin in curing a wide range of diseases, infections caused by certain strains of staphylococci cannot be cured by the antibiotic because the organism produces an enzyme, penicillinase, capable of destroying the antibiotic.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761561064   (473 words)

  Penicillin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fleming was convinced after conducting some more experiments that penicillin could not last long enough in the human body to kill pathogenic bacteria and stopped studying penicillin after 1931, but restarted some clinical trials in 1934 and continued to try to get someone to purify it until 1940.
The beta-lactam moiety of penicillin binds to the enzyme (transpeptidase) that links the peptidoglycan molecules in bacteria, and this weakens the cell wall of the bacterium when it multiplies (in other words, the antibiotic causes cell cytolysis or death when the bacterium tries to divide).
Penicillin G is typically given by a parenteral route of administration because it is unstable to the hydrochloric acid of the stomach.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Penicillin   (1469 words)

 Penicillin Information from Drugs.com
Penicillin V is used to treat many different types of infections, such as tonsillitis, pneumonia, strep throat, bronchitis, and infections of the skin.
Penicillin V is in the FDA pregnancy category B. This means that it is unlikely to harm an unborn baby.
Penicillin V should be taken at evenly spaced intervals throughout the day and night to keep the level in your blood high enough to treat the infection.
www.drugs.com /penicillin.html   (1383 words)

 Alexander Fleming - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
His most well know achievements are the discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1922 and isolation of the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared a Nobel Prize with Florey and Chain.
He cautioned not to use penicillin unless there was a properly diagnosed reason for it to be used, and that if it were used, never to use too little, or for too short a period, since these are the circumstances under which Antibiotic resistance to bacteria develop.
His discovery of penicillin had changed the world of modern medicines by introducing the age of useful antibiotics and his discovery of the penicillin has saved and is still saving millions of people.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Alexander_Fleming   (1872 words)

 penicillin. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Although he recognized the therapeutic potential of penicillin, it was not until 1941 that a group of biologists working in England, including Oxford’s Sir H. Florey and E. Chain, purified the substance and established its effectiveness against infectious organisms and its lack of toxicity to humans.
Penicillin is effective against many gram-positive bacteria (see Gram’s stain), including those that cause syphilis, meningococcal meningitis, gas gangrene, pneumococcal pneumonia, and some staphylococcal and streptococcal infections.
Synthetically produced penicillins such as methicillin and oxacillin have been developed that are not degraded by the penicillinase enzyme, but these new penicillins have no effect on bacteria that have developed resistance by other means, e.g., by altered cell wall structure.
www.bartleby.com /65/pe/penicill.html   (533 words)

 Penicillin and other antibiotics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Penicillin has an interesting mode of action: it prevents the cross-linking of small peptide chains in peptidoglycan, the main wall polymer of bacteria.
Although the penicillins are still used clinically, their value has been diminished by the widespread development of resistance among target microorganisms and also by some people's allergic reaction to penicillin.
Apart from penicillin, the most important antibiotics from fungi are the cephalosporins (beta-lactams with similar mode of action to penicillin, but with less allergenicity) and griseofulvin (from Penicillium griseofulvum and related species) which is used to treat althlete's foot and related fungal infections of the skin.
helios.bto.ed.ac.uk /bto/microbes/penicill.htm   (2125 words)

 Routine Penicillin Skin Testing in Hospitalized Patients with a History of Penicillin Allergy
Pregnant women with a history of penicillin allergy and positive cultures for group B streptococcus or pediatric patients are commonly tested as outpatients in the allergy department and are tested as inpatients only if specifically requested by their attending physicians.
One penicillin, one cephalosporin, one quinolone, two macrolides, and one unspecified antibiotic reaction were coded for five (1.2%) patients among 58 adverse drug reactions coded for 42 (9.9%) patients from the cohort of 423.
At the Cleveland Clinic, a pilot study of prospective penicillin skin testing for patients with a history of penicillin allergy who were admitted to the medical ICU resulted in change in antibiotic use by ten (48%) of 21 patients tested.
xnet.kp.org /permanentejournal/sum04/penicill.html   (2695 words)

 Does This Patient Really Have a Penicillin Allergy? American Family Physician - Find Articles
Penicillin is withheld from many patients who could safely take the drug or its derivatives, causing increased health care costs and suboptimal prescribing.
Patients with a history of penicillin allergy and a positive skin test are more likely to also be allergic to cephalosporin antibiotics than patients with a history of penicillin allergy and a negative skin test (5.6 versus 1.7 percent, respectively).
Penicillin is well-tolerated in 98 percent of patients with a positive history of a penicillin allergy and a negative skin test result.
findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m3225/is_1_65/ai_82035752   (668 words)

 Penicillin VK - FLORIDA RX - Online prescriptions source for Florida   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Penicillins (except bacampicillin tablets, amoxicillin, penicillin V, pivampicillin, and pivmecillinam) are best taken with a full glass (8 ounces) of water on an empty stomach (either 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals) unless otherwise directed by your doctor.
Penicillins are used to treat infections caused by bacteria.
Children-Many penicillins have been used in children and, in effective doses, are not expected to cause different side effects or problems in children than they do in adults.
www.florida-rx.com /penicillin-vk.html   (4300 words)

 MedlinePlus Drug Information: Penicillin G Potassium or Sodium Injection
Penicillin eliminates bacteria that cause many kinds of infections, including pneumonia; meningitis; and skin, bone, joint, stomach, blood, and heart valve infections.
If you are told to store additional penicillin in the freezer, always move a 24-hour supply to the refrigerator for the next day's use.
If you are receiving penicillin in your vein or under your skin, you need to know the symptoms of a catheter-related infection (an infection where the needle enters your vein or skin).
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a685013.html   (830 words)

The reaction of the guinea-pig to penicillin was first described in a scientific paper in 1943.
This is the conclusion of a study7 which showed that bacteria normally present in the guinea-pig intestine are sensitive to penicillin.
Penicillin is toxic to the brain and spinal cord and is never administered by this route today.
www.rds-online.org.uk /pages/page.asp?i_PageID=1069&i_ToolbarID=2   (658 words)

 Penicillin, The Wonder Drug
The idea of using fungal products, such as penicillin, to produce medicine is a relatively new one, but the use of fungi in many folk remedies have been utilized for a long period of time, even though the incorporation of fungi into the remedy was not specifically known.
The discovery of penicillin has often been described as a miracle drug, and that is exactly what it is. Prior to the discovery of medicine, death could occur in what would seem to be very trivial injuries and diseases.
In the case of of penicillin, it was based upon historical records that had originated as early as 1500 B.C. There was already records describing the use of molds and fermented materials in the treatment of diseases.
dwb.unl.edu /Teacher/NSF/C10/C10Links/www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/Lect21b.htm   (5180 words)

 Discovery, Chance and the Scientific Method
One of the greatest problems faced by these scientists during their studies was the contamination of "pure" cultures by invading microorganisms (see graphic), especially fungi or bacteria - a problem which still plagues the modern day microbiologist.
(Penicillin was so scarce that the patient's urine was collected and the excreted penicillin was recrystallized to be used again.) Despite the sad ending to this initial penicillin treatment, the therapeutic efficacy of penicillin was accepted.
Penicillin's therapeutic applications in the later stages of World War II was credited with saving tens of thousands of wounded that would otherwise have succumbed to bacterial infections.
www.accessexcellence.org /AE/AEC/CC/chance.html   (1673 words)

 Antibiotic Can Cause Reaction in Penicillin-Sensitive Patients
Penicillin was discovered in 1928, and the antibiotic Cephalosporin C was isolated in 1953.
The study noted, however, that while physicians routinely avoid prescribing penicillin to patients with penicillin allergy, the approach to prescribing cephalosporin is less clear.
Zacharisen said that there are about 50 deaths from penicillin anaphylaxis in the US each year, while between 4% and 5% of all persons may be penicillin sensitive and exhibit the milder symptoms.
healthlink.mcw.edu /article/1031002290.html   (899 words)

 Penicillin Allergy
He has had a penicillin allergy test that came back negative, however we read that it is possible to be allergic to amoxicillin but not to penicillin.
If a child tests positive, then he or she is considered allergic to penicillin and should not be given penicillin the future.
It is not uncommon for children to react to the amino part of the amoxicillin molecule and not the penicillin (beta-lactam) part.
www.drpaul.com /library/PENALLERGY.html   (576 words)

 Penicillin   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Penicillin is the first naturally occuring antibiotic discovered and the first to be used therapeutically.
Penicillin is not something that you would necesarilly connect with having an impact on Technology.
How Penicillin works is that it cannot effect an already formed cell wall, but it prevents the cell from making more of that wall and inhibits the cell from multiplying.
www.warroad.k12.mn.us /moredocs/stdnt_work2000/rorvis/chem1.html   (1091 words)

 Physiology or Medicine 1945 - Presentation Speech
In this respect penicillin differs decisively from other substances which had been produced earlier from micro-organisms, and which were certainly found to be noxious to bacteria, but at the same time at least equally noxious to the cells of the higher animals.
Penicillin would undoubtedly still have remained a fairly unknown substance, interesting to the bacteriologist but of no great practical importance, if it had not been taken up at the Pathological Institute at the venerable University of Oxford.
The first experiments in which penicillin was given to sick persons were published in August 1941 and appeared promising, but owing to the insufficient supplies of the drug, the treatment in some cases had to be discontinued prematurely.
nobelprize.org /nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/press.html   (2461 words)

 SHiPS Resource Center || Penicillin & Chance
He found that penicillin was not toxic to animals and that it did not harm white blood cells (leucocytes), yet he also found that penicillin would not be absorbed if taken orally.
Penicillin taken by injection, alternatively, was excreted in the urine in a matter of hours--well before it could have its effects.
Penicillin suppressed the growth of certain bacterial species, allowing one to selectively culture certain others (such as those causing influenza, acne and whooping cough).
www1.umn.edu /ships/updates/fleming.htm   (1878 words)

 Penicillin Allergy
Although the exact prevalence of allergic reactions to penicillin is unknown, allergic reactions are estimated to occur in approximately 2% of patients treated with penicillin courses.
Penicillin is a chemical hapten with a low molecular weight of 300 d that needs to bind to a tissue macromolecule, usually a protein, to become immunogenic.
Some authors suggest that the penicillin skin test needs to be repeated before each course of penicillin, especially for patients with history of IgE-mediated reaction who received intravenous penicillin, because of the risk of resensitization.
www.clevelandclinicmeded.com /diseasemanagement/allergy/penallergy/penallergy.htm   (2226 words)

 PENICILLIN - BEST ONLINE PHARMACY OFFERINGS !!!   (Site not responding. Last check: )
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www.20mbweb.com /World/onlinepoker777/penicillin.html   (1737 words)

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