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Topic: Peptide hormone

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In the News (Wed 24 Jul 19)

  Peptide Hormones
The principal hormones of the posterior pituitary are the nonapeptides oxytocin and vasopressin.
Its signal peptide is removed in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum and it is packaged into secretory vesicles in the Golgi, folded to its native structure, and locked in this conformation by the formation of 2 disulfide bonds.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is derived from a 153-amino acid proprotein encoded by the GIP gene and circulates as a biologically active 42-amino acid peptide.
web.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/peptide-hormones.html   (6475 words)

  Peptide Summary
Two peptides, made by bacteria, with antibiotic activity, include gramicidin, which inhibits oxidative phosphorylation (the synthesis of ATP that obtains energy from electron transport occurring as a result of aerobic respiration), and bacitracin, used for treatment of bacterial infections of the eye.
Nonribosomal peptides and are confined primarily to unicellular organisms, plants, and fungi.
A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.
www.bookrags.com /Peptide   (1558 words)

  Peptide hormone - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals.
Peptide hormone precursors (pre-prohormones) are then processed in several stages, typically in the endoplasmic reticulum, including removal of the N-terminal signal sequence and sometimes glycosylation, resulting in prohormones.
Mature peptide hormones then diffuse through the blood to all of the cells of the body, where they interact with specific receptors on the surface of their target cells.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Peptide_hormone   (222 words)

Insects often elaborate a diuretic hormone and an antidiuretic hormone that are involved in homeostasis of salt and water balance and also in increased fluid cycling to enhance filtration.
Peptides, prostaglandins and a few other classes of signal molecules share the physiological feature that their actions are mediated by way of specific receptor cites located on cell surfaces.
The first issue in the physiology of peptide hormone action is that their specific receptor proteins are located on the outside of target cell membranes.
entomology.unl.edu /ent801/Signal1.html   (1724 words)

 Hormone Information : by Ray Sahelian, M.D.
Insulin - this hormone is released by the pancreas.
Prolactin hormone is one of the reproductive hormones
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) aims to replace hormones diminished by menopause and is prescribed to women to relieve menopause symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats and mood swings.
www.raysahelian.com /hormone.html   (4322 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for peptide
Secretion of the hormone is initiated as a result of the taste, smell, and thought of food, as well as by mechanical stimulation following the entry of food into the stomach.
A peptide hormone that inhibits the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary and insulin by the pancreas.
Peptides are back, bigger and better: advances in drug delivery technology have spurred renewed interest in peptides and greater opportunity for manufacturers.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=peptide&StartAt=21   (685 words)

 XXX Peptide Hormones
Little is known about the structure of peptide hormone/ receptor complexes, and structure determination of such complexes is still a challenge in structural biology.
From structure determination of isolated peptide hormones together with biochemical and biophysical data, however, indirect information about the mode of receptor interaction and the receptor bound structural state of the hormone can be deduced.
Therefore, functional and structural studies of peptide hormones are expected to shed further light on the pathology and possible therapy of several endocrine diseases.
www.bp.uni-bayreuth.de /RESEARCH/peptides.html   (1267 words)

 Peptide at AllExperts
One convention is that those peptide chains that are short enough to be made synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called peptides rather than proteins.
Nonribosomal peptides and are confined primarily to unicellular organisms, plants, and fungi.
Another reason is that peptides have become instrumental in mass spectrometry, allowing the identification of proteins of interest based on peptide masses and sequence.
en.allexperts.com /e/p/pe/peptide.htm   (872 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Peptide hormone
Peptide hormones are produced by many different organs and tissues, however, including the heart (atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)) and pancreas (insulin and somatostatin), the gastrointestinal tract (cholecystokinin, gastrin), and fat stores (leptin).
Many neurotransmitters are secreted and released in a similar fashion to peptide hormones, and some 'neuropeptides' may be used as neurotransmitters in the nervous system in addition to acting as hormones when released into the blood.
When a peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of the cell, a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm which triggers intracellular responses.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Peptide_hormone   (404 words)

 Ghrelin the Peptide Hormone
Ghrelin was discovered as the peptide hormone that potently stimulates release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary.
An interesting and unique modification is imposed on the hormone during synthesis in the form of an n-octanoic acid bound to one of its amino acids; this modification is necessary for biologic activity.
Overall, ghrelin seems to be one of several hormonal signals that communicates the state of energy balance in the body to the brain.
www.21stcenturyhgh.com /hgh-research-ghrelin.htm   (555 words)

 Peptide hormones
Hormones are accumulated in secretory granules at axonal terminals in the median eminence and are then released into the primary capillary plexus of the pituitary portal system for transport to the pars distalis of the anterior pituitary.
Each peptide hormone or analog which evades enzyme degradation leads to a compound with a longer duration of action than would otherwise be expected.
Leutinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone [GnRH/FSH-RH] causes the release of LH (Leutinizing Hormone) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) from the anterior pituitary.
www.neurosci.pharm.utoledo.edu /MBC3320/TRH.htm   (1911 words)

 Human Endocrinology
These hydrophilic (and mostly large) hormone molecules bind to receptors on the surface of "target" cells; that is, cells able to respond to the presence of the hormone.
Hormone secretion is increased (or decreased) by the same substance whose level is decreased (or increased) by the hormone.
Although a few hormones circulate simply dissolved in the blood, most are carried in the blood bound to plasma proteins.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/H/Hormones.html   (640 words)

 peptide hormones
The trivial names proposed for peptide hormones are given in the "Appendix." Abbreviations of the new names are not proposed, and the use of currently fashionable abbreviations is discouraged.
Since peptide hormones show species variation in their amino-acid sequence, their names are essentially "generic names", and are insufficient to specify a single chemical compound.
The committee has created the missing names for follicle-stimulating hormone, "follitropin," and for luteinizing hormone, "lutropin." It is recommended that pituitary hormones discovered in the future also be named with the ending -tropin, This suffix should be restricted to pituitary and similar hormones and should not be used for, e.g.
www.chem.qmul.ac.uk /iubmb/misc/phorm.html   (1062 words)

 Novel salmon cardiac peptide hormone is released from the ventricle by regulated secretory pathway -- Kokkonen et al. ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Novel salmon cardiac peptide hormone is released from the ventricle by regulated secretory pathway -- Kokkonen et al.
Novel salmon cardiac peptide hormone is released from the ventricle by regulated secretory pathway
Endothelin is a potent secretagogue for atrial natriuretic peptide in cultured rat atrial myocytes.
ajpendo.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/278/2/E285   (4153 words)

Hormones are chemical messengers which interact with target cells by means of specific receptor molecules located either on the plasma membrane or within the target cell's cytoplasm.
In contrast to peptide hormones, steroids are lipid soluble compounds synthesized from cholesterol.
Three requirements must be satisfied in order for a peptide hormone to exert an effect on a target cell: (1) receptors must exist on the plasma membrane, (2) a transducer system must be present for information transfer, and (3) there must be a cellular response mechanism.
core.ecu.edu /biol/singhasc/HormoneMechanisms.htm   (950 words)

 Note: Pituitary Hormones
This hormone is a glycoprotein, rather than a simple peptide, which accounts for the PAS+ reaction in the cells that make it.
Some authorities believe that there are two subcategories of gonadotropes, one for each hormone; but labeled antibody studies have localized both hormones in the same cell, and the question of whether there are two populations is not settled.
This is a large peptide, which governs the nutrition and growth of the adrenal cortex.
education.vetmed.vt.edu /Curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab24/NOTES/HORMONES.HTM   (809 words)

 Peptide Synthesis
Peptides synthesis is performed by combining the carboxyl group of one amino acid with the amino group of another.
Synthetic peptides are synthesized from the C-terminus (Carboxyl) to the N-terminus (Amine), similar to peptides in biological organisms.
Peptide synthesis is not as easy as mixing amino acids together to form amides.
www.peptidestation.com /peptide-synthesis   (284 words)

 Steroid Hormones
The particular steroid hormone class synthesized by a given cell type depends upon its complement of peptide hormone receptors, its response to peptide hormone stimulation and its genetically expressed complement of enzymes.
Unlike peptide hormone receptors, that span the plasma membrane and bind ligand outside the cell, steroid hormone receptors are found in the cytosol and the nucleus.
The steroid hormone receptors belong to the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor super-family of proteins, that includes receptors for steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D and vitamin A (retinoic acid).
www.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/steroid-hormones.html   (2517 words)

 Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin)
Injection of small amounts of antidiuretic hormone into a person or animal results in antidiuresis or decreased formation of urine, and the hormone was named for this effect.
Secretion of antidiuretic hormone is also simulated by decreases in blood pressure and volume, conditions sensed by stretch receptors in the heart and large arteries.
Another potent stimulus of antidiuretic hormone is nausea and vomiting, both of which are controlled by regions in the brain with links to the hypothalamus.
arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu /hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/adh.html   (792 words)

 Peptide Hormones
With the exception of the thyroid hormone receptor, the receptors for amino acid--derived and peptide hormones are located in the plasma membrane.
A second class of peptide hormones induces the transduction of 2 second messengers, DAG and IP Hormone binding is followed by interaction with a stimulatory G-protein which is followed in turn by G-protein activation of membrane-localized phospholipase C- g
The principal hormones of the posterior pituitary are the nonapeptides
www.med.unibs.it /~marchesi/pephorm.html   (5872 words)

 [No title]
The activity of the first peptide hormone was identified in 1902 by scientists William Bayliss and Ernest Starling.
The peptide, called secretin, is produced by the gut and causes the pancreas to release bicarbonate into the gut to neutralize acid from the stomach.
Peptides have been used therapeutically since Frederick Banting and Charles Best in 1922 discovered that insulin, a peptide hormone, could be extracted from animal tissue and injected into humans to control diabetes.
bif1.creighton.edu /creigh_mag.html   (2105 words)

 Parathyroid hormone−related peptide is a naturally occurring, protein kinase A−dependent angiogenesis ...
Here, we show that parathyroid hormone−related peptide, a peptide hormone derived from normal and tumor cells that regulates bone metabolism and vascular tone, is a naturally occurring angiogenesis inhibitor.
Parathyroid hormone−related peptide or a ten-amino-acid peptide from its N terminus inhibits endothelial cell migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo by activating endothelial cell protein kinase A. Activation of protein kinase A inhibits cell migration and angiogenesis by inhibiting the small GTPase Rac.
Expression cloning of a common receptor for parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone related peptide from rat osteoblasts-like cells: a single receptor stimulates intracellular accumulation of both cAMP and inositol triphosphates and increases intracellular free calcium.
www.nature.com /uidfinder/10.1038/nm753   (5395 words)

 HGH Spray - Human Growth Hormone - Frequently Asked Questions
A: The level of growth hormones in men and women start to decline around the age 25.
By age 30 that level is decreasing at a rapid pace and by the late 50's a minor trace of HGH is being released Young and old alike can testify to increase energy, muscle mass (body builders), weight loss and looking and feeling better dm they have in a long time.
A: Diabetes is often helped with the use of hormone releasers, however, blood / sugar levels should be closely monitored and the care of a physician is essential.
www.hgh-formula.com /hgh-faq.htm   (1046 words)

 Human Hormones » Peptide Hormones
HGH is a synthetic human growth hormone that can be used to return a person’s GH levels to those of their youth.
Its primary actions are to inhibit the release of the many hormones, including somatotropin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin, motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, enteroglucagon, insulin, and glucagon.
In females, relaxin is produced in and secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary and, during pregnancy, the placenta, chorion, and decidua.
www.humanhormones.com /category/amino-acid-hormones/peptide-hormones   (2431 words)

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