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Topic: Persian Constitutional Revolution


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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  
  Persian Constitutional Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911.
It led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia.
The movement, however, did not end with the Revolution and was followed by the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Persian_Constitutional_Revolution   (124 words)

  
 Iranica.com - GREAT BRITAIN
After the outbreak of the Constitutional Revolution in Persia, the British desire for cooperation with Russia placed the Foreign Office in London on a collision course with the Persian nationalist and constitutionalist reformers, many of whom initially looked to Britain for diplomatic assistance in countering overt Russian support for the Persian autocracy.
Groups within the Persian opposition, still regarding Britain as Russia's traditional regional foe, were turning to British diplomatic staff in that country for support, particularly in light of the Russian legation's overt encouragement of the shah to resist the opposition's demands.
The society was co-founded by the president of the Persia Committee, the Conservative Lord Lamington, and the Persian representative in London, Mehdi Khan Moæir-al-Molk.
www.iranica.com /articles/v11f2/v11f2086d.html   (4958 words)

  
 hoora yavari
Persian post-revolutionary fiction writers fall into two categories: those who had already established themselves as writers before 1979, and those who started their literary career chiefly after the revolution.
Persian fiction is not limited to works written in the Persian language, or to works written within the geographical boundaries of Persia herself.
Persian words are employed in their original forms in the text with no footnotes or translation.
www.rezaghassemi.org /fiction_modern.htm   (16801 words)

  
 Iran - The Constitutional Revolution
According to scholar Ann K.S. Lambton, the Constitutional Revolution marked the end of the medieval period in Iran.
In July 1909, constitutional forces marched from Rasht and Esfahan to Tehran, deposed the shah, and reestablished the constitution.
The Russians were to enjoy exclusive right to pursue their interests in the northern sphere, the British in the south and east; both powers would be free to compete for economic and political advantage in a neutral sphere in the center.
countrystudies.us /iran/13.htm   (603 words)

  
 Iranica.com - v. ADMINISTRATIVE AND MILITARY CONTACTS WITH PERSIA
The motives for Franco-Persian administrative and military contacts between the French Revolution of 1789 and the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, their implementation and their impact on Persia will be examined here.
As a result, the Persians were able to recruit a third team of French experts, and the Persian ambassador in Paris, M^rza@ Farrokò Khan GÚaffa@r^, Am^n-al-Molk, later Am^n-al-Dawla (q.v.), used the opportunity to convince the commanders of the French army to choose the members of the mission themselves.
The second was the noninterference of the French in Persian political and economic affairs, in contrast to the interventions of the British and Russians, which caused resentment among the Persians.
www.iranica.com /articles/v10f2/v10f216d.html   (2114 words)

  
 Browne, Edward Granville
It may be that criticism of his concentration on what was considered an obscure Iranian sect was at least partially responsible for this change, as well as his disappointment at the non-partisan attitude that the Bahá'ís took in the Constitutional Revolution.
It was published at the instigation of Mirza Muh@ammad Qazvini, a well-known Iranian literary critic and Azali sympathizer, who wrote the Persian Introduction to this volume.
His other works included several books and tracts on the Persian Constitutional Revolution, of which Browne was an ardent supporter.
bahai-library.com /?file=momen_encyclopedia_browne.html   (1771 words)

  
 THE IRANIAN: Histoey, Constitutional Revolution, Janet Afary
Chapter 1 explores the background to the revolution and the destabilizing ramifications of greater political and economic interaction with the capitalist world-economy in the late nineteenth-century Iran.
Chapter 2 begins with a discussion of the 1905 Russian Revolution and its impact on the East and continues with the description of secret and semisecret prerevolutionary societies that were formed in Iran in 1904-1905.
The December 1906 constitution reduced the powers of the shah and his ministers, gave administrative autonomy to the provinces, granted limited suffrage to adult men, established the groundwork for a new secular legislature, and guaranteed freedom of the press.
www.iranian.com /Books/2000/October/Afary   (2181 words)

  
 Why Turkey Is the only Muslim Democracy - Middle East Quarterly - March 1994
Democracy in its Western form, that is, constitutional and representative government, is becoming popular again after a long period of relative unpopularity, and many people in nondemocratic countries are beginning to see in the Western form of democracy the best if not the only solution to their problems.
By the outbreak of war in 1914, both constitutional regimes had degenerated into autocracies that were in many ways more repressive and more destructive than the traditional--and therefore in some degree limited--authoritarian regimes that they had replaced.
The meaning of the French Revolution, as Lord Acton pointed out a long time ago, and as is true of others that followed the French model, is not the limitation of the sovereign power, but the abrogation of intermediate powers--in other words, a step not towards, but away from the civil society.
www.meforum.org /article/216   (5630 words)

  
 Persian Dancing: An exquisite art
Persian classical dance is very similar to the Tehrani-style recreational dance, but the execution is more refined and sophisticated, so as to be suitable for presentation to an audience.
After the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, Persia became increasingly influenced by the West, largely as a result of political intrigues with Russia, England, and Germany.
She provides an example that Persian classical dance is not a dead art, frozen in time and endlessly repeated, but one that is both rich in heritage, and capable of adapting and incorporating elements from outside its tradition.
home.earthlink.net /~rcfriend/exquis.htm   (1805 words)

  
 Annual Faculty Lecture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
This is the type of monarchy against which revolutions were fought, and it is also the type of monarchy that was responsible for the strengthening of the arguments in favor of democracy and the republican form of government.
Constitutional monarchy differs from its older sibling in that it limits the power of the monarch and allows for democratic institutions to exist side by side with the institution of monarchy, each complementing the other, rather than canceling each other out.
It is thus the form of monarchy, capetian and hereditary, that the Constitution of the Fifth Republic achieves by elevating the president to a level that allows him to transcend even the contingencies of a presidential majority.
www.4sbccfaculty.org /lecture/90s/lectures/Manoutchehr_Eskandari.html   (11395 words)

  
 Iran
Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia.
It borders Pakistan (909km of border) and Afghanistan (936km) to the east, Turkmenistan (1000km) to the northeast, the Caspian Sea to the north, Azerbaijan (500km) and Armenia (35km) to the northwest, Turkey (500km) and Iraq (1458km) to the west, and finally the waters of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south.
Since the revolution of 1979 the Supreme Leader is the rahbar, or in absence of a single leader a council of religious leaders.
www.aaaah.org /wiki/en/ir/Iran.htm   (1364 words)

  
 Iran - Crystalinks
The term Persia is the name used for this country by European countries since the Persian Empire of the Achaemenids in the 6th century BC.
By the 20th century Iranians were longing for a change and thus followed the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905/1911.
In 1953 Iran's prime minister Mohammed Mossadeq, who had been elected to parliament in 1923 and again in 1944 and who had been prime minister since 1951, was removed from power in a complex plot orchestrated by British and US intelligence agencies ("Operation Ajax").
www.crystalinks.com /iran.html   (504 words)

  
 Iran - Psychology Central   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The Iranian Revolution of 1979 ultimately led to the establishment of a theocratic Islamic Republic and the country retained its name, while its political title was changed to the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The majority of Iran's population speak one of the Iranian languages, though Persian is the official language.
Persian cuisine has gained the reputation throughout the world as one of the richest, healthiest and finest.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Iran   (4005 words)

  
 Politics and Society in Iran
Lambton, A. "The Tobacco Regie: A Prelude to Revolution," and "The Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905-6," in Idem, Qajar Persia.  London: I. Taurus, 1987: 223-76 and 319-29.
Schirazi, A. The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the State in the Islamic Republic.  London: I.B. Tauris, 1997.
Schirazi, A. The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the State in the Islamic Republic.  London: I. Tauris, 1997.
www.nyu.edu /gsas/dept/politics/undergrad/syllabi/V53.0545_ashraf_s02.html   (1213 words)

  
 Encyclopedia Article: Edward G. Browne
From then on, he was able to meet the Baha'is at every place that he visited and to collect much valuable information and materials.
It may be that criticism of his concentration on what was considered an obscure Iranian sect was at least partially responsible for this change, as well as his disappointment at the non-partisan attitude that the Baha'is took in the Constitutional Revolution.
Additional materials are collected in Momen, Selections from the Writings of E. Browne, including a catalog of his Babi MSS, a previously unpublished abridged translation of the Persian Bayan, and annotated passages that relate to the Baha'is from A Year amongst the Persians.
bahai-library.com /encyclopedia/browne.html   (1721 words)

  
 Iran : search word
Iran borders Pakistan (909km of border) and Afghanistan (936km) to the east, Turkmenistan (1000km) to the northeast, the Caspian Sea to the north, Azerbaijan (500km) and Armenia (35km) to the northwest, Turkey (500km) and Iraq (1458km) to the west, and finally the waters of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south.
Main article: Politics of Iran Since the revolution of 1979 the Supreme Leader is the rahbar, or in the absence of a single leader a council of religious leaders.
They are elected by a clerical establishment, which is elected by popular vote and is called the Assembly of Experts, on the basis of their qualifications and the high popular esteem in which they are held.
www.searchword.org /ir/iran.html   (1720 words)

  
 Iran - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
With the arrival of modernization in the late 19th century, Iranians longed for a change and thus followed the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905/1911.
According to the Constitution, the Supreme Leader of Iran is responsible for the delineation and supervision of "the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran." In the absence of a single leader, a council of religious leaders is appointed.
The President of Iran is responsible for implementing the Constitution and acting as the head of the executive, except in matters directly concerned with (the office of) the Leadership.
www.vacilando.org /_cliextra/baghdadmuseumorg/includepage.php?title=Iran&action=edit   (3261 words)

  
 Mashrouteh
The subject of the Constitutional Revolution and the role of the Qajars (Kadjars) in it, is an extremely
The 33 articles of the Electoral Law and the 51 articles of the Fundamental Law gave the country a bicameral legislature, separation of powers, checks and balances, an executive modeled on the French system with a monarch as head of state, and guarantees of fair representation and political rights for the people of Persia.
These tensions finally resulted in the abolition of monarchy altogether with the theocratically inspired revolution of 1979, replacing rule by kings with rule by priests for the first time in Iran's twenty five century long monarchic history.
www.irannegaar.com /mashrouteh.htm   (444 words)

  
 War by other means - The Boston Globe - Boston.com - Ideas - News
It was as if a virus were spreading - one that led long abused populaces to wake up to their own power, which they could withhold from authorities to stunning effect.
The Iranian revolution of 1979 was by and large nonviolent.
Still, the knowledge is there, and it fits into Persian history, like in the Constitutional Revolution of 1906 and then more recently in the struggle against the shah.
www.boston.com /news/globe/ideas/articles/2005/05/29/war_by_other_means?pg=full   (1757 words)

  
 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Nader Sohrabi, Historicizing Revolutions: Constitutional Revolutions in the Ottoman Empire, Iran, and Russia, 1905-1908, The American Journal of Sociology, Vol.
John Foran, The Strengths and Weaknesses of Iran's Populist Alliance: A Class Analysis of the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1911, Theory and Society, Vol.
Richard Tapper, "Raiding, Reaction and Rivalry: The Shahsevan Tribes in the Constitutional Period," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol.
www.cas.ilstu.edu /history/mtavakol/academic/courses/constrev   (2026 words)

  
 Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Iran / Bibliography
The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution.
McDaniel, R. The Shuster Mission and the Persian Constitutional Revolution.
The Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz.
lcweb2.loc.gov /frd/cs/iran/ir_bibl.html   (3412 words)

  
 meismo Viagra
Indeed, the name Persia is derived from Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905/1911.In 1953 Iran's elected prime minister Mohammad Mosaddeq, was removed from power in a complex plot orchestrated by British and US intelligence agencies (dubbed "Operation Ajax").
Many of the states in Europe took their present form in the aftermath of World War I. From the end of World War II through the end of the Cold War, Europe was divided into two major political and economic blocks: Communist nations in Eastern Europe and capitalist countries in Western Europe.
What constitutes beauty, desirability, morality, modesty and other subjective intangibles varies radically from culture to culture, within different contexts in the same culture, and over time as different fashions rise and fall.Attitudes about the morals and messages perceived to be conveyed by clothing have historically created much controversy between social and cultural groups.
meismo.blogspot.com   (15986 words)

  
 Aspects of Shi'i Thought From The South of Lebanon - Chibli Mallat
This network was in essence constituted by a close circle constituted by his sons Mustafa and Ahmad, and a spate of regular visitors of the holy Shi’i shrines, the ‘Atabat, among whom figure most of the key characters of post-revolutionary Iran.
There is a further complication constituted by the nature of the relation of these two religious figures to the militant groups.
In the case of Iraq and Lebanon, the operation of the mujtahids is therefore constrained by high volatility, and the relation of the muqallids to their mujtahid tends to follow a pattern akin to a Weberian charismatic model.
www.bintjbeil.com /E/shii_mallat.html   (13530 words)

  
 Revisiting Foucault and the Iranian Revolution
From September 1978 to February 1979, in the course of a massive urban revolution with millions of participants, the Iranian people toppled the regime of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (1941-1979), which had pursued a highly authoritarian program of economic and cultural modernization.
This was Foucault's only first-hand experience of revolution and it led to his most extensive set of writings on a non-Western society.
KEVIN B. are the co-authors of Foucault, Gender, and the Iranian Revolution: The Seductions of Islamism (forthcoming).
www.wpunj.edu /~newpol/issue37/Afary37.htm   (4093 words)

  
 Chronology of Persian History - History of Iran - History of Persia - Iran in the Bible
Chronology of Persian History - History of Iran - History of Persia - Iran in the Bible
Composition of the greatest epic poem of the Persian language, the Shahnameh of Ferdausi
Death of the suprme lyrical poet of the Persian language Hafez
www.farsinet.com /iranbibl/chronolg.html   (272 words)

  
 Revolution? What's in it for them? - Los Angeles Times
Iran's 150 years of troubled negotiation with modernity, including the Constitutional Revolution of 1906-11 and the Islamic Revolution of 1978-79, have prepared the nation for democracy.
Ironically, large numbers of women learned to assert their political power during the Islamic Revolution — so they had rudimentary tools of resistance when the revolution's Islamic government promptly ordered sex segregation and mandatory veiling, and lifted restrictions on polygamy.
Many have succeeded in business and the professions, and are now pushing to educate Americans on the complexities of Persian culture.
www.latimes.com /news/opinion/sunday/commentary/la-op-iranwomen31jul31,0,7192154.story?coll=la-home-sunday-opinion   (965 words)

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