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Topic: Persian gardens

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  Persians - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The ancient Persians from the province of Pars (Fars) became the rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty (The Persian pronunciation is Ha-Khuh-Manesh-ee-yun) in the sixth century BC.
The Persians of Iran are mainly descended from the Iranian branch of the Aryans, an Indo-European people that migrated to the region between 2000-1000 BCE as well as indigenous populations such as the Elamites.
The Persian Jews are a good example of a population that moved to Iran and assimilated and mixed with the Persians so that today they speak Farsi and are virtually identical to other Persians except for religion.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Persians   (769 words)

 Persian Gardens -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The origin of the Persian gardens have been estimated to go back to 4000 B.C. On the decorated pottery of that time are found the typical cross plan of the Persian gardens.
The Persian style often attempts to integrate that which is "indoors" with the "outdoors" - this is often achieved through the connection of a surrounding garden, with an inner (A yard wholly or partly surrounded by walls or buildings) courtyard.
Traditionally, such gardens would be used in work-related functions for the rich (such as communicating with (A diplomat of the highest rank; accredited as representative from one country to another) ambassadors).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/p/pe/persian_gardens.htm   (1283 words)

 PersianParadise - Photographs, Italian Gardens, Egypt, Japanese Gardens, Chinese Gardens, Islamic Gardens, Farrokh A. ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Persian gardens were built on the slopes and flat areas and continued flowerbeds and water troughs and formal rows of cypress and pines.
In the Persian gardens the most prominent statue was that of Anahita the goddess of water and fertility.
The Garden of Eden with its trees and angles is thus associated with the various visions of the earthly and heavenly paradise." Today in Israeli city of Haifa there exists a Persian Garden in honor of Cyrus the great.
www.persianparadise.com /HistoryGardens/Persian.asp   (1255 words)

 Lanscapes of the Past   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Garden walls, turf benches, fountains, and flowery meads were some of the elements depicted in both religious and secular images in a variety of media such as paintings, tapestries and manuscripts.
This layout appears later in both Islamic and monastic gardens, and seems to be one of the earliest depictions of the hortus conclusus, the enclosed garden.
Several features from Persian gardens, such as the walled garden, the quadripartite plan, and the emphasis on the four essential elements appear later in the European pleasure gardens of the medieval era.
www.stthomas.edu /magazine/showarticle.cfm?ArticleID=1033483753   (1565 words)

 Islamic symbolism
Of all the great gardening traditions preceding the 20th Century, gardens associated with Islamic dominance over several hundred years, in the West as well as the East represent an ideological continuity which is unique in its spread and development over a wide range of geographical and cultural regions.
Towards the lake, the visual link between garden and valley is marked by the flow of water in that direction and the progression of terraces downwards with the grand chenars on either side.
These gardens today are without many of the features which imparted a living vibrancy and character; on looking at them now one has to imagine the presence of these missing elements to appreciate their true genius.
www.hinduonnet.com /folio/fo0006/00060090.htm   (1372 words)

 THE IRANIAN: Hisotry, culture, Persian garden
God was the first gardener, but when man donned his gardening clogs he dared not only defy nature but to reinvent it and give it life through irrigation, distributing scarce and vital water with a lavish hand.
Thus Western gardens represent a battle with surrounding nature, where trees and bushes are given strictly defined shapes, while Persian gardens confront and defy an omnipresent inorganic world.
Centuries apart and in different; latitudes, these sibling gardens are opposites but resemble one another in that they demonstrate a desire to impose order and a conscious design on the disorder of their surroundings.
www.iranian.com /History/Oct98/Garden   (723 words)

Traces of Sultanate period gardens in the Persian style survive around Delhi in the citadel (Ko@tÂla@) of the Tughluqid F^ru@zæa@h III (752-90/1351-88) and at Vasant Vihar (14th Cent.; Siddiqi).
Gardens were laid out in conjunction with palaces, fortresses, and mausoleums, as in the case of the tomb of Homa@yu@n at Delhi, of Akbar at Sikandra, and Ta@j Maháall in Agra (Ruggles, pp.
The Persian garden as it was known under the Timurids seems to have been introduced into the Indian subcontinent by Z®ah^r-al-D^n Moháammad Ba@bor (r.
www.iranica.com /articles/v10f3/v10f390b.html   (1899 words)

 Lecture 41
Gardens are rooted in the desire of humans to surround themselves with beautiful plants, shade, and unique foods.
Gardens became highly ornamented and luxurious (with questionable taste according to present standards); for example, hedges were heavily pruned and clipped.
The concept of gardens as a showplace for plants was a byproduct of botanical studies and the age of exploration.
www.hort.purdue.edu /newcrop/history/lecture41/lec41.html   (1183 words)

 Iranica.com - GARDEN
The original garden consisted of a square enclosure with gate houses on the cross-axes and a square pavilion in the center.
The royal gardens were aligned with the old Timurid garden, Naqæ-e Jaha@n, which became the Meyda@n-e ˆa@h, or with the great avenue, the Ùaha@rba@g@ (q.v.), extending from the entrance to the palace grounds to the bridge over the river and continuing on the hillside gardens of Haza@r Jar^b.
Figure 4); and the gardens at the Golesta@n Palace (1221/1806), the Nega@resta@n (1225/1810), and the castle of the Qajars (Qasár-e Qajar) in Tehran (1214-50/1799-1834).
www.iranica.com /articles/v10f3/v10f390a.html   (4486 words)

 Articles - Persian Gardens   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
During the occupations by the Arabs the aesthetic aspect of the garden increased in importance, overtaking the utility of the garden.
Sun light and its effects were an important factor of structural design in Persian gardens, textures and shapes were specifically chosen by architects to harness the light.
The Persian style often attempts to integrate that which is "indoors" with the "outdoors" - this is often achieved through the connection of a surrounding garden, with an inner courtyard.
www.centralairconditioners.net /articles/Persian_Gardens   (965 words)

 IRVAJ English -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The Persian garden is much more than a symbol of the past, or a national tradition, or the emblem of grace and order.
Each Persian, Javaherian argues, has a private garden in the corner of his or her mind -- and this mystic relation to trees, water, flowers dates back to the dawn of agriculture and desert irrigation.
The garden was everywhere in Persian culture: in poetry and calligraphy, in ceramics, carpets and miniatures.
www.iranvajahan.net /cgi-bin/news.pl?l=en&y=2004&m=09&d=22&a=14   (1523 words)

 Mughal Gardens   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
This concept of garden was instilled in such a manner in the hearts and mind of the people that its manifestation could be seen in almost all forms of art.
In the centre of the garden was the tomb building and from its various facades the water channels radiated in the four directions.
The garden was surrounded by a lofty and broad wall of brick and mortar.
www.ignca.nic.in /agra061.htm   (1996 words)

 I've whetted my appetite for a splashy garden | csmonitor.com
The primitive idea of a garden was that it should be an enclosed paradise, an oasis in an otherwise arid world of desert.
Indeed, the ancient Persians built elaborate underground aqueducts to carry water from melted mountain snow to the plains.
Hobhouse points out, in her consideration of this "Persian legacy," that the Islamic gardens of Spain were less oases in a hostile desert and more reflections of the "fertile lands" of Iberia.
www.csmonitor.com /2004/0315/p18s03-hfes.htm   (1056 words)

 Autonomedia Bookstore   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The other European model of the period was France with its Cartesian clockwork gardens and rented chairs; Olmstead rejected it in favor of the rus in urbe (bring the country into the city) and democratic openness of the British model.
The English word "paradise" comes from an old Persian word for garden (firdaus), and from time out of memory the Persians have been known as the masters of the hortus conclusus, the closed garden of the arid ecocultures of the middle east and central Asia.
Shiraz attained a reputation for the perfection of its gardens, yet even the best of them achieve their effect with an almost monochromatic simplicity, a kind of elegant homeliness, reflected in the poetry of Hafez of Shiraz, who rarely mentions any flower but the rose or any tree but the cypress.
www.autonomedia.org /avantgardening/sample.html   (1767 words)

 Bam and Mahan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
It is a shrine complex commemorating a famous Persian mystic and poet, Nureddin Nematullah, who died in 1431.
It has a watercourse – an essential element of all traditional Persian gardens- lined with magnificent oriental plane trees – the chinar – with pavilions at each end from where one obtains breathtaking vistas of the gardens with the mountains beyond.
Gardens such as this the classic Persian poets wrote about, and this one is perhaps the loveliest that can be found in Iran.
www.iranairiatravel.com /travel/bam.htm   (660 words)

 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004.03.30
As garden history expands from the restrictions of teleology, landscape archaeologists develop better techniques to discover and excavate abandoned gardens, and as historians recognise the cultural importance of environment, gardens are increasingly moving into the mainstream as a topic of academic interest.
When C. mentions the gardens that Sargon II created at Dur-Sharrukin, planted according to his inscription with 'all the spices of the land of the Hittites', there is no mention that this occurs after Sargon's campaign against the Hittites, thus making the garden a physical symbol of his victory (pp.
Chapter 3, 'Orchards, Groves and Parks', is primarily concerned with the role of trees in gardens, both as a design element and as a signifier of the spiritual or expansionist association of gardens, as exemplified by Hatshepsut's importation of incense trees from Punt for her temple at Deir el-Bahari.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/2004/2004-03-30.html   (1868 words)

 Beauty Worlds:The Beauty of Persian and Islamic Gardens
It is a garden carpet woven circa 1700.
Turkey has a coastline and, whereas in Persian gardens the pavilion was centred over streams, in Istanbul in particular it was possible to have a pavilion that looked over the sea and the coastline.
It seems that gardens are an integral part of our experience and that they are intricately bound up with ideas of life and death and man's understanding of his place in the world.
www.beautyworlds.com /gardenspersian.htm   (1741 words)

 Persians   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The Persians became the rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty in the sixth century BC.
According to the 2004 CIA World Factbook, 51% of Iran's current population is ethnically Persian.
The first record of the Persians comes from an Assyrian inscription from the 800s BC which calls them the Parsu and mentions them alongside another Aryan group, the Madai (Medes).
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/P/Persians.htm   (492 words)

 Passionate about History
The Persian word pairidaeza - 'a wall around' - filtered into Greece as paradeisos, which was used to describe the Garden of Eden in the Greek translation of the Bible.
Originally, the gardens 'were fenced around to keep out the wind, or marauders or a desert full of evil spirits - the djinns,' Ms.
The earliest gardens in Mesopotamia, built in the deltas of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, are described on cuneiform tablets from around 4000 B.C. They describe how Enki, the Sumerian god of water, provided fresh water to the dry land of Dilmun, transforming it into fields and fruit trees.
darkwing.uoregon.edu /~mharrsch/2004/02/splendors-of-persian-gardens.html   (251 words)

 Wingard: wines & gardens. Classical and Islamic gardens   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The first gardens of civilization were parks with trees on the slopes of artificial hills in Mesopotamia (now Iraq), erected by the Sumerians in 3000 B.C. to worship the gods of the forest.
The gardens on the roof and the terraces were irrigated with a ingenious irrigation system.
However, the further development of the ornamental garden went on outside of Europe, by the Arabs, who were inspired by the Persian 'pardes' they found on their conquests round 700 A.D. The Persians made rectangular walled-in gardens with small, shallow canals that divided the court in equal parts.
www.geocities.com /aideon2000/wingard6.htm   (503 words)

 History of Pools and Fountains by Holy Mountain
In time these gardens came to be formally laid out around a rectangular fish pond flanked by rows of fruit trees and ornamental plants.
Similar gardens, in which flowers, fruit trees, water, and shade were arranged in a unified composition, were built by the Mughals in 17th- and 18th-century India.
The gardens of most monasteries were surrounded by cloistered walks and had a well or fountain at the center, possibly inspired by Persian gardens, which was intended to enhance meditation.
www.holymtn.com /fountain/history.htm   (938 words)

 Amazon.com: The Persian Garden: Echoes of Paradise: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The Persian Garden: Echoes of Paradise chronicles the history of the Persian garden, from the magnificent sanctuaries and hunting parks of fifth-century b.c.
Gardens, Landscape, and Vision in the Palaces of Islamic Spain by D.
The pictures take you to the gardens that were at the heart of the great residences of kings and leaders...In a time when few get the chance to see the beauty of Iran and the culture that arose from it, this book shows a world of culture, history and color.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0934211469?v=glance   (984 words)

 History of Persian garden design
All the races oppressed by Persian tyrants knew very well that, when a rebellion was at hand, they could not do a greater hurt or better express their desire for revenge than by laying waste his park.
It is only at a much later time that we can get a real view of the evolution of the Persian garden, when poetry is able to tell us of the wonderful love felt by this people for their flowers and their rose-gardens.
The groves about their tombs were very important to the ancient Persians, The grave of Cyrus was enclosed by a grove, and his son Cambyses entrusted the care of it as a hereditary office to a family of Magi; when Alexander the Great saw it, it had grown high but had been neglected.
www.gardenvisit.com /got/2/5.htm   (1581 words)

One phrase commonly repeated is "gardens underneath which rivers flow" or "gardens of Eden, underneath which rivers flow." In Sura 47 four rivers of Paradise are mentioned, reminiscent of the four rivers of the Hebrew Garden of Eden:
Bagh-e Fin, Kashan: a sixteenth century garden which occupies a tract of six and one-half acres; it is surrounded by a high wall whose south facade is pierced by a monumental two-level gateway and which has four towers at its corners.
The garden has several basins located on the axes of its promenades, including a large basin that along with the pavilion occupies the center of the square tract.
www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu /~rviau/islamicgardens.html   (391 words)

 Overview of Islamic Gardens: PERSIA
As a result the Islamic garden, also called the oasis or paradise garden, is an ensemble of Islamic ideals and local traditions and varies according to the historical and geographical context in which each garden is found.
This garden was viewed from a distance in large pavilions rather than expressed through walkways or paths through it.
According to John Brookes in his book Gardens of Paradise “This aspect of the garden, to be viewed rather than used, was a constant factor in Persian layout” (p.32).
www.suite101.com /article.cfm/arabic_islamic_architecture/21567   (532 words)

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