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Topic: Persian and Urdu

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  Urdu language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Urdu developed as a vernacular dialect from the interaction between local Indian Sanskrit-derived Prakrits and the languages that were spoken in the courts of the rulers of The Subcontinent, from the time of the Delhi Sultanate to the Mughal Empire and its succeeding states.
Urdu by itself is the twentieth most popular 'first' language in the world and the national language of Pakistan and one of the 22 national languages of India.
Urdu is written in a derivative of the Persian alphabet which is itself derivative of the Arabic alphabet.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Urdu   (2977 words)

 urdu language tongue
Urdu(اردو) is an Indo-European language which originated in India, most likely in the vicinity of Delhi, from where it spread to the rest of the subcontinent.
Urdu, especially in its less formalized form as it developed from a dialect to a more formal language, has also been referred to as "raikhtha" 1, which literally means "a rough mixture".
Urdu by itself is the twentieth most popular 'first' language in the world and the national language of Pakistan.
urdu.blogspot.com   (507 words)

 Urdu - Hindustani - Hindi - Punjabi - Persian - Arabic - Language - Haryana Online - India
Urdu is a member of the Hindustani group of languages, which is a subgroup of the Indo Aryan group, which is in turn part of the Indo European family of languages.
Urdu is the sole official language of Pakistan, although English is used in most elite circles and Punjabi has plurality of native speakers.
Urdu is one of the official languages of India, and while the government school system emphasizes Hindi, many universities, especially in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, continue to foster Urdu as a language of prestige and learning.
www.haryana-online.com /urdu.htm   (1979 words)

The Persian poetical works of some of them had been adjudged, in their times, to be as good as those of the best poets of Iran itself.
Persian, however, slowly ceased to be the language of the court and of the elite with the eclipse of the Moghuls.
Urdu poetry owes a significant debt to Kashmiri genius, Sir Mohammad Iqbal, a migrant Kashmiri whose family had left Kashmir and settled in Sialkot.
www.koausa.org /Vitasta/8a.html   (1326 words)

 Urdu Qai'Da
It is the seventh letter or the Arabic, the ninth of the Persian and tenth of the Urdu alphabets.
It is the ninth of the Arabic, eleventh of the Persian and thirteenth of the Urdu Alphabets.
It is the eleventh of the Arabic, thirteenth of the Persian and sixteenth of the Urdu alphabets.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Atlantis/3991/alpha.html   (739 words)

 Urdu alphabet, pronunciation and language
Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language with about 104 million speakers, including those who speak it as a second language.
Urdu is also spoken in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Fiji, Germany, Guyana, India, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, the UAE, the UK and Zambia.
Urdu has been written with a version of the Perso-Arabic script since the 12th century and is normally written in Nastaliq style.
www.omniglot.com /writing/urdu.htm   (176 words)

 THE IRANIAN: Urdu and Persian, Samar Abbas
"The birth of Urdu language was the direct result of the synthesis between the invading armies of Mahmud of Ghazni with the civilian population of the Indian cities.
Urdu was thus self-evidently the language of the soldiers of the armies of Mahmud-e-Ghazni, the only militarist sovereign of the era who maintained a large enough army for a considerable period to provide sufficient time for a new language to develop.
For the lay Urdu speaker of today, the traditional descent of the Mughal Empire from the Ghaznavid Dynasty and thence from the Achaemenid Empire is the simplest historical proof of the Iranic origin of his language.
www.iranian.com /Opinion/2002/June/Urdu   (1177 words)

 Urdu Literature
Urdu, by origin, is a dialect of the Western variety of Hindi, spoken for centuries in the neighborhood of Delhi and Meerut, and directly descended from Saur Senic prakrit.
But Urdu literature really took off with the poets of the Deccan and the Muslim courts of Bijapur and Golcunda in the 16th and the 17th centuries.
In 1832, Urdu was substituted for Persian as an official language.
www.goindiago.com /creative/lit/urdulit.htm   (395 words)

 Mehfil-e-Gazal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
His simple, sensuous and melodious poems in Urdu, awakened the Persian loving poets of Delhi to the beauty and capability of "Rekhta" (the old name for Urdu) as a medium of poetic expression.
However, Wali was not immune or ignorant of the vigour and verve of Persian diction and imagery, and combined both into the body of his verse.
He thus became the architect of the modern poetic language, which is a skilful blend of Persian and Urdu vocabulary.
www.urdupoetry.com /meg/meg057.html   (199 words)

 Seasons India :: Indian Literature - Urdu
An aristocrat, courtier at the pre-1857 Mughal court, wit, poet and prose-writer in both Persian and Urdu, Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was the greatest of all the classical Urdu poets, and his Persian verse is of the same high quality.
He was undoubtedly the heavy-weight of Urdu poetry who ruled and continues to rule the hearts of connoiseurs of Urdu literature.
One of the pioneers of Urdu novel in the modern sense of the term, Ruswa was a versatile genius.
www.seasonsindia.com /art_culture/lit_urdu_sea.htm   (2061 words)

 A Brief History of Urdu Poetry
Since Ghalib, undoubtedly the greatest poet of Urdu language, expressed himself mainly through his writings of love sonnets, it is imperative that we examine the art of love sonnets, the language they are written in, and the environs that prompted these writings to understand how Ghalib became a master of this genre.
Urdu poetry, as it is derived from Persian, Turkish and Arabic, acquired many conventions in its poetry that came from these languages.
Urdu poetry is based on a system of measure—it is a quantitative expression and its form is very rigid.
www.niazi.com /Neurons/a_brief_history_of_urdu_poetry.htm   (2817 words)

 Iranica.com - GÚAÚLEB,
His favorite verse-form in Urdu is the @g@azal (q.v.), to which he succeeded in endowing a great depth of feeling, a new expression, and a fresh stock of intellectual imagery.
GÚa@leb's extraordinary fame in Urdu literature has somewhat overshadowed his accomplishment in Persian poetry, but his contribution to the latter is equally important.
Apart from qasá^das, GÚa@leb's Persian poetry is represented mainly by @gazals and matònaw^s.
www.iranica.com /articles/v10f3/v10f339.html   (1138 words)

 CRL Language Resources: Urdu
Urdu is the native language of about 60 million people and spoken by as many as 140 million.
Urdu is an Indo-Iranian (subfamily of Indo-European) language and is mutually intelligible with Hindi.
In 1903, the Anjuman Tarraqi-e Urdu, an Urdu language academy, was established and has played an important role in changing the status of the language in both India and Pakistan.
crl.nmsu.edu /crl/Resources/lang_res/urdu.html   (443 words)

 Persian   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The flourishing of Persian in the region during this period is evident from a lyric the mystic poet, Hafiz Shirazi, wrote in response to Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah.
The Department of Persian and urdu formed one of the departments of the newly opened university of dhaka in 1921.
Though Persian is not offered in general schools today, it continues to be taught at the University, as a classical language in the Department of Persian and Urdu and as a contemporary language at the Institute of Modern Languages.
search.com.bd /banglapedia/Content/HT/P_0148.HTM   (5630 words)

 `The so-called Hindi spoken by [Hindiwallas] is actually Urdu and not the Akashvani Hindi'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Urdu was not the language of the Muslims alone as was considered by the people, but a national language.
Eminent poet and Rajya Sabha member C Narayana Reddy called upon the Urdu speaking people to continue their struggle for the cause of the language.Speaking on the occasion, Jaleel Pasha said that the Prime Minister would be invited to inaugurate the university in July.
Likewise, this is the cause for Hindi arising during the later Muslim period as a substratum to the Persian and Urdu of the Mughal-Muslim courts.
www.dalitstan.org /journal/hindia/hin000/hind0013.html   (779 words)

 The origin of Urdu language
The origin of Urdu language with mention of some reputed poets and prose writers, and the present treatment of the language by the youth.
However, over the years the language has established itself never to be overlooked, and still it is read in form of those novels that make the exemplary literature, in theatre and schools and last but never the least in the aesthetic poetry.
His fame came from his Persian- and Urdu-language poetry, which was written in the classical style for public recitation.
ms.essortment.com /urdulanguage_rguo.htm   (542 words)

 The Telegraph - Calcutta : Opinion
Although both his Persian verses and Urdu ones were equally dear to him, it is the latterwhich has stood the test of time.
The bard’s Urdu ghazals have been much-translated, but it is his Persian poetry that is the real gain from this work.
Even if some of the Urdu renderings are not of the best calibre, they manage to convey the flavour of some of the best poetry written in Urdu.
www.telegraphindia.com /1040130/asp/opinion/story_2836012.asp   (813 words)

 CRL Language Resources: Persian
Persian, also known as Farsi, is the official language of Iran.
This is especially true in Tajikestan since it was isolated from the other Persian speaking countries during the Soviet era.
Persian is derived from Indo-Iranian, one of the branches of the Indo-European languages.
crl.nmsu.edu /crl/Resources/lang_res/persian.html   (380 words)

 Verbix -- Misc languages: Indo-Aryan: conjugate Urdu verbs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Urdu is a New Indo-Aryan language, spoken by 50 million people in Pakistan and India.
Phonologically and morphologically Urdu and Hindi are one and the same language.
The most apparent difference is the script: Urdu uses Arabic-Persian script with some for Urdu only letters, Hindi uses Devanagari.
www.verbix.com /languages/urdu.shtml   (81 words)

 MusicalNirvana - Wali Mohammed Wali   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Also called Wali Aurangabadi or Wali Daccani, is the first established poet to have composed Ghazals in Urdu language and compiled a divan(a collection of ghazals where the entire alphabet is used at least once as the last letter to define the rhyme pattern).
It is said that his visit to Delhi along with his divan of Urdu ghazals created a ripple in the literary circles of the north, inspiring them to produce stalwarts like Zauq, Sauda and Mir.
Wali Daccani was born in 1667 in Aurangabad, Maharashtra.
www.musicalnirvana.com /ghazal/wali_mohammed_wali.html   (346 words)

 Procrastination: Urdu Blogging and Web
Unicode is the standard character set for such things nowadays and the Arabic script part of it contains characters for Arabic, Persian, Urdu, etc. Some other fonts provide the Arabic characters which are a subset of Urdu ones, but not all Urdu characters.
However, if you have a really old version of Tahoma which does not contain all Urdu characters, then my newer version of the font is unfortunately not downloaded (I am actually not sure about this.) I am using Microsoft WEFT 3 to embed the fonts.
This maps Urdu characters on your keyboard such that phonetically similar Urdu and English characters are mapped to the same key.
www.zackvision.com /weblog/archives/entry/000684.html   (2811 words)

 India: Urdu and Persian (from arts, Islamic) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Persian literature in the Indian subcontinent did not have such importance as in earlier centuries, for English replaced Persian as the official language in 1835.
Numbering some 48,980,000 speakers in the late 20th century, Urdu is the primary language of the Muslims of both Pakistan and northern India.
If the Persians had succeeded, they would have set up local tyrants, called satraps, to rule Greece and would have crushed the first stirrings of democracy in Europe.
www.britannica.com /eb/article?tocId=13774   (1083 words)

 [No title]
Although his claim as one of the greatest (if not the greatest) Urdu poet of this century is undisputed, his Persian poetry has also been placed "on the backburner", so to say.
Different pronunciation of the letter’qaaf’ in Persian and Urdu > > In modern Persian the letter ’qaaf’ is pronounced as ’ghaaf’ making it > identical in sound to the letter ’ghain’, whereas Urdu has retained the > original Arabic sound of the letter.
Either the sound change in Persian is > so recent that it took place after it had ceased to be a living and > spoken language in India, or it is the manifestation of a well-known > phenomenon in languages transported to new geographical locations.
www.urdustan.com /alup/zabaan01-02.txt   (1036 words)

 Iranica.com - EˆQÈ ¿AZ®ÈMAÚBAÚDÈ   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
He has left a tadòkera of Urdu poets in Persian which was probably completed in 1215/1800 (Sprenger, p.
Fathápu@r^, Urdu æo¿ara@÷ ke@ tadòkere@ awr tadòkera-nega@r^, Lahore, 1972, pp.
Sprenger, A Catalogue of the Arabic, Persian and Hindustani Manuscripts of the Libraries of the King of Oudh, Calcutta, 1854, pp.
www.iranica.com /articles/v8f6/v8f681.html   (248 words)

 Urdu - Language Directory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
In India, Urdu is spoken as mother tongue by many inhabitants of the northern and central states.
A large number of people use Urdu as their mother tongue in cities with large South Asian diasporas throughout the world particularly New York City, London, Dubai, Jeddah and Kuwait City.
Urdu is written in a derivative of the
www.geocities.com /language_directory/languages/urdu.htm   (381 words)

 Urdu in the UK
Urdu in the UK Hadith: "A strong man is not the good wrestler but one who controls himself when he is angry." (Bukhari)
Urdu is one of the most modern languages created by Indian Muslims about 600 years ago.
This means that the common language of Bengal in the 17th century was Urdu and Persian.
www.albalagh.net /letters/urdu_uk.shtml   (552 words)

 urdu, islam, mirza ghalib, urdu poeatry, muslim culture, islam religion.
Ghalib wrote in both Persian and Urdu but is famous for his self-selected collection of 2,000 Urdu couplets.
Even though Ghalib held his Persian poetry in great regard, it was his Urdu poetry which left an indelible mark on the hearts of people.
For instance, the Urdu Board instituted only a paltry sum of ten thousand rupees for one of the schemes and much to the chagrin of the founders, asked them to pay half the amount.
www.indiaprofile.com /religion-culture/ghalibacademy.htm   (1322 words)

 Records for Arabic, Arwi, and Persian in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu : a study of the contributions of Sri Lanka and Tamil ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Records for Arabic, Arwi, and Persian in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu : a study of the contributions of Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu to Arabic, Arwi, Persian, and Urdu languages, literature, and education.
Arabic, Arwi, and Persian in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu : a study of the contributions of Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu to Arabic, Arwi, Persian, and Urdu languages, literature, and education.
Arabic, Arwi, and Persian in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu : a study of the contributions of Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu to Arabic, Arwi, Persian, and Urdu languages, literature, and education / Tayka Shu`ayb `Alim.
js-catalog.cpl.org /MARION/%2BARABIC/b3cb20003100/0   (139 words)

 Oxford University Press   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The most widely circulating Urdu journal in the world, Fung, gave him the title Baba-e-Urdu--the Grand Old Man of Urdu.' -- Khushwant Singh Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib (1797-1869), nobel, poet, and wit of nineteenth-century Delhi, is the most famous and popular of the Urdu poets that the Indian subcontinent has produced.
Ralph Russell's 'Ghalib: A Self-Portrait' gives a picture of his personality as it emerges in passages from his Persian and Urdu letters and prose, including his diary, and other materials, which are arranged to tell the story of his life.
New translations from Ghalib's Urdu and Persian ghazals form a significant part of the volume and are being published for the first time.
www.oup.com /isbn/0-19-566037-4?view=in   (433 words)

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