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Topic: Persian grammar

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  Persian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Persian is a member of the Indo-European family of languages, and within that family it belongs to the Indo-Iranian (Aryan) branch.
Old Persian, the main language of the Achaemenid inscriptions, should not be confused with the non-Indo-European Elamite language (see Behistun inscription).
Despite their shared alphabet, however, Persian and Arabic are entirely different languages, from different linguistic families and with different phonology and grammar.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Persian_language   (1293 words)

 THE IRANIAN: Features: Language, Persian or Farsi
Persian, the term used for centuries in the West, originated in a region of southern Iran formerly known as Persis.
Old Persian was spoken until approximately the 3rd century BC and Middle Persian, or Pahlavi, was spoken from the 3rd century BC to the 9th century AD.
Persian became the lingua franca of the region during the Islamic period.
www.iranian.com /Features/Dec97/Persian   (1032 words)

 UCLA Language Materials Project Language Profiles Page
Persian is a subgroup of West Iranian languages that include the closely related Persian languages of Dari and Tajik; the less closely related languages of Luri, Bakhtiari, and Kumzari; and the non-Persian dialects of Fars Province.
Persian scholars were prominent in both Turkish and Indian courts during the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries in composing dictionaries and grammatical works.
Persian is the first language of about 50 percent of the population in Iran, and is the country's official language.
www.lmp.ucla.edu /Profile.aspx?LangID=63   (1527 words)

 Persian language
Middle Persian was a contemporary of Parthian, and during the Arsacid period, Persian was strongly influenced by Parthian.
Middle Persian was, just like Old Persian, spoken in southwestern Iran, Parthian was spoken in the north, while a group of languages (Khwarezmian, Sogdian and Saka) were spoken in southeast.
Modern Persian, the language of Iran today, was developed as early as in the 9th century.
i-cias.com /e.o/persian_l.htm   (387 words)

 An Introduction to Persian
At present Persian is the official language of Iran, and although there are large areas of Iran where Persian is not the mother tongue (Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, Luristan, e.g.), it is spoken by almost everyone.
Persian is remarkably simple in terms of formal grammar: no gender, no noun inflection, no adjectival agreement, and no irregularities in verbal conjugation.
The importance of understanding the proper relationships among the various members of a Persian sentence cannot be overstated (especially in view of the fact that the most important indicator of syntactic relationships is not usually indicated in the writing system), for even the simplest expression is liable to misunderstanding if the syntax is disregarded.
www.multilingualbooks.com /intropersian.html   (1146 words)

 MEALAC | Persian
Persian language is taught at Columbia University on three levels, namely Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced.
They will be able to sit through and comprehend a short Persian film that is not overloaded with slang expressions and then engage themselves in a simple discussion of its content and write a brief critical appraisal of it.
At the end of this level students are expected to have gained a good grasp of Persian grammar, to be able to narrate, explain, and describe events in past, present and future tenses.
www.columbia.edu /cu/mealac/languages/persian   (1773 words)

 Farsi, the most widely spoken Persian Language, a Farsi Dictionary, Farsi English Dictionary, The spoken language in ...
Persian Language, also known as Farsi, is the most widely spoken member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European languages.
Old Persian is recorded in the southwest in cuneiform inscriptions of the Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty (circa 550-330 BC), notably Darius I and Xerxes I. Old Persian and Avestan have close affinity with Sanskrit, and, like Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, are highly inflected languages.
Middle Persian has a simpler grammar than Old Persian and was usually written in an ambiguous script with multivalent letters, adopted from Aramaic; it declined after the Arab conquest in the 7th century.
www.farsinet.com /farsi   (1092 words)

 Persian Grammar
Persian is an SOV language, meaning that the general structure of sentences is Subject-Object-Verb.
The main distinctions among Persian verbs are past and present stems, and perfective and imperfective aspects.
Approximately 50% of the Persian lexicon is comprised of Arabic loan words, though only 25% of the words in general use are of Arabic origin.
www.lerc.educ.ubc.ca /LERC/courses/489/worldlang/persian/description/grammar.htm   (851 words)

 Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies
Persian or Farsi is an Indo-European language with roots going back to the old Iranian languages but written in the Arabic script.
Persian is perhaps most famous for its poetry which is one of the great canons of world literature.
Persian is also the second language of Islam with many important works of history, literature, philosophy and Sufism (Islamic mysticism).
www.oriental.cam.ac.uk /islam1b.html   (337 words)

 Persian Grammar Top 10 Bestselling Books: Ann K. S. Lambton Persian Grammar
But the book is teaching literary Persian, and if plurals in '-gan' aren't in, you're going to be very confused when you come to any pre-modern or very formal writing.
For those who know Arabic, this work is comparable to Wright's grammar with little excercises and unbearably long vocabulary lists at the end of every section, followed by a collection of largely unannotated prose passages at the end of the book.
The second half covers Arabic grammar as it is used in literary Persian, and there is a companion volume of vocabulary for the exercises.
www.indology.net /cgi-bin/store.cgi?Operation=ItemLookup&ItemId=0521091241   (1622 words)

 Persian language Grammar. - Indo-Iranian Languages and Literatures - What's Been Published   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Spoken Persian [by] Serge Obolensky, Kambiz Yazdan Panah [and] Fereidoun Khaje Nouri.
A grammar of contemporary Persian / by Gilbert Lazard ; translated by Shirley A. Lyon.
Persian grammar : history and state of its study / Gernot L. Windfuhr.
www.pitbossannie.com /rps-pk-persian-language-grammar.html   (80 words)

 Form and Meaning in Persian Vocabulary
Persian in turn has transmitted the bulk of these loan words-together with its own modifications and rules for their incorporation-throughout the Islamic cultural area, playing midwife at the emergence of several Turkic and Indian literary languages.
Some 1500 substantives ending in the Arabic feminine marker -a have assumed one of two forms in Persian-pronounced either with final t or with a vowel, and written respectively with "long t" and "silent h" (e.g., hekmat `wisdom; adage' and jomleh `total; sentence').
Though concerned with fundamentals of Persian lexicology and language history, this is also a unique case study of relevance to general theories of semantics and the lexicon.
www.mazdapub.com /Form-Meaning.htm   (270 words)

 Elementary Persian Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Because it is attempting to equip the reader to deal with classical as well as modern texts, much of the grammatical information and vocabulary is not necessary for active use, although this is not made clear and many modern usesages are overlooked or mentioned only in passing.
Elwell-Sutton's work was a standard for many years, but it suffers the ills of most Persian grammars in English: too little of everything.
The nine accompanying tape cassettes (available from a book dealer or from the publisher) reproduce all Persian that appears in the book and gives pauses for repetition--except for the twenty-five pages of Persian readings, which are read aloud at normal speed.
www.halldictionary.com /store/books_052109206X_Elementary-Persian-Grammar.html   (259 words)

 Grammar of Contemporary Persian
Persian as it occurs today in an abundant literature is not identical with the classical language.
Colloquial language diverges from it appreciably more; it merits all the more attention since not only is it the common language of the day-to-day relations of all classes of society, but also because the recent literary rebirth has caused it to penetrate ever further into the literature.
It is hoped that this grammar may be useful to those who teach or who study Persian, as well as to linguists wishing to get detailed information on the language of contemporary Iran.
www.mazdapub.com /Grammar-Contemporary.htm   (245 words)

 smc web page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Persian I introduces basic vocabulary and the fundamentals of modern Persian grammar, structure, and pronunciation, as well as reading, writing, and speaking.
Students attending Persian I are not required to have had any prior knowledge of Persian language.
Persian II is a continuation of Persian I. In addition to grammar and structure, course material includes simple selections from different literary genres.
homepage.smc.edu /papan-matin_firoozeh   (106 words)

 Expert Claims Persian Cuneiform Predates Darius
It is widely believed that the invention of Persian cuneiform took place during the rign of Darius the great while now an Iranian professor insists on the hypothesis that Persian cuneiform predates Darius.
Persian cuneiform consists of 36 signs for three vowels and syllables which are consisted of a single consonant and a vowel, 8 ideograms for 4 concepts regarding king, land, country, and Ahoora Mazda (the great god of ancient Persians), 1 divider (a diagonal wedged-shape sign to separate words), and 22 figures for numbers.
She also indicated, “On the other hand, the ancient Persian cuneiform led to decoding other cuneiforms namely Elamite and Assyrian ones, therefore is especially important.
www.payvand.com /news/05/jul/1060.html   (369 words)

 Old Persian   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Old Persian is an alphabetic writing system with some syllabic aspects.
While the shapes of some Old Persian may look similar to signs in Sumero-Akkadian it is clear that only one of LA was borrowed from Sumero-Akkadian Cuneiform LA and that because LA is foreign sign used to represent a sound used in the Old Persian language.
The Emergence of Yehud in the Persian Period: A Social and Demographic Study (Journal for the Study of the Old Testame Series, 294)
www.freeglossary.com /Old_Persian   (314 words)

 Persian Grammar: For Reference and Revision by John Mace - 0700716947 : PDXBooks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Persian Grammar: For Reference and Revision by John Mace - 0700716947 : PDXBooks
This is a clear and user-friendly guide to Persian grammar, both of the written and spoken languages, especially useful for those in the early stages of studying the Persian language.
The grammar is explained in lay terms with copious examples, all shown both in Persian script and in Roman transliteration.
pdxbooks.com /compare/0700716947   (680 words)

 Amazon.co.jp: 洋書: Elementary Persian Grammar
Words are fully vocalized in the early lessons, but vowels are progressively discarded; they are, however, shown in the vocabulary.
The letter-forms of printed Persian are used cursive scripts.
Although the structure of the language is Mr Elwell-Sutton's immediate concern, he has given close attention to the need for acquiring a workable vocabulary.
www.amazon.co.jp /exec/obidos/ASIN/052109206X/streetangelsa-22   (234 words)

 How to Speak, Read, & Write Persian: Self-Teaching Method, Accompanied by 3 Twin-Track Cassettes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
This is a spectacular beginner to intermediate book to use in conjunction with a course-based text.
This book cannot actually teach you persian all on its own, but as a reference it is indespensible.
I really did like it.My two points of contention is that the written, atleast in the beginning and with the vocabulary does NOT include the vowel marks, i felt it would be more useful if al...
www.freeglossary.com /p:0936347058   (249 words)

 Persian   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
This course introduces basic vocabulary and the fundamentals of modern Persian grammar, structure, and pronunciation as well as reading, writing, and speaking.
Using natural and audio-lingual approaches, the course prepares students to hold simple conversations in Persian and write short descriptive compositions.
Aspects of Persian culture and history are covered as well.
www.smc.edu /schedules/2004/summer/076_042_schedule.htm   (81 words)

 Persian Grammar : For Reference and Revision: 紀伊國屋書店BookWeb
Persian Grammar : For Reference and Revision: 紀伊國屋書店BookWeb
This text is aimed at those in the early stages of studying the Persian language.
The grammar is shown in both Persian script and Roman transliteration.
bookweb.kinokuniya.co.jp /htmy/0700716955.html   (95 words)

 IL&S: Persian for Travelers: Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
These online Persian language education pages for travelers are based on an innovative book published in Iran several years ago.
The topics begin with an elementary introduction to the Persian grammar.
The Persian text is written in a phonetic script based on this alphabet.
www.iranianlanguages.com /education/parstravel/pages/0.htm   (420 words)

 Easy Persian Lesson 9   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
He had some good suggestions one of which was to present the Persian samples page bilingually.
In the meantime, I want to make it clear right now that most of the Persian texts you see in Persian samples page are really the masterpieces of our modern literature.
What the Persian grammar, or I'd better say the Arab-based grammar, is asking us to do is this: " Whenever one letter is written twice and the first one is paused, we should simply delete the first one and pronounce the second one with an emphasis." Is the explanation clear?
www.easypersian.com /W9/Week_9.htm   (969 words)

 A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
This is the first comprehensive reference grammar of Tajik, the Persian of Central Asia, to appear in English.
Essential for the Iranologist and comparative linguist, for the the student or teacher of Tajik Persian, and a valuable supplement for those who work with Persian of Iran or Afghanistan.
(1970) in Oriental Languages, is Professor of Persian Language and Civilization at the University of Chicago.
www.brill.nl /product.asp?article_ID=1158&ID=23560   (208 words)

 Iran Online Book Store: Persian Art
Persian Grammar : History and State of Its Study (Trends in Linguistics State of the Art Reports, No 12)
Persian Miniature Painting and Its Influence on the Art of Turkey and India
Islam in the Balkans : Persian art and culture of the 18th and 19th centuries : papers arising from a symposium held to celebrate the World of Islam Festival at the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, 28th-30th July 1976
www.iranonline.com /BookStore/AMAZON/Persian_Art.html   (878 words)

 Persian ( Farsi ) Language Lessons - Quiz and Explanations
I present these more of a way to help people get used to the Persian characters and to learn some interesting slang expressions.
I am in no way attempting to present a formal class in Persian grammar.
The Persian New Year starts on March 20th - Celebrations continue until Siezdeh Bedar (the thirteenth day after the New Year -Visit Arizona Persian Greetings to send a free animated Persian New Year's card to friends via e-mail.
www.arizonapersian.com /persian/quiz.htm   (666 words)

 An Introduction to Persian, Third Edition (book + 9 tapes) [0-936347-71-6] - $98.00 : Ibex Publishers, English & ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The voice on the cassettes is that of former Iran radio announcer Parviz Bahador.
WHEELER M. THACKSTON is Professor of Persian and other Near East Languages at Harvard University.
The book is available by itself, with cassettes, or you may purchase the cassettes seperately.
www.ibexpub.com /index.php?main_page=pubs_product_book_info&cPath=4&products_id=13&zenid=473e2dd9f7e3c62170d5df3031f73007   (499 words)

 Persian/Farsi books from Grant & Cutler
Words are in the Persian alphabet and transliterated for the English speaker.
Approximately 25,000 headwords are arranged in more than 70 themes sections, with an index at the back.
Persian words are written in both the Arabic and the Roman scripts.
www.grantandcutler.com /catalogues/mideast/me126.htm   (180 words)

 Persian Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
A Comprehensive Persian - English Dictionary: Including the Arabic Words and Phrases to be Met within Persian Literature
Persian Grammar Review: Take it from a fluent speaker (who wanted to work on reading/writing), Lambton's book is probably NOT what you should be looking for if you want to start learning the language.
Persian Grammar Review: For a scholarly detailed and obscure grammar look no further.
www.textkit.com /0_0521091241.html   (1326 words)

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