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Topic: Persian literature

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  JewishEncyclopedia.com - JUDÆO-PERSIAN LITERATURE:
At the present stage of research it is not possible to arrange the literature of the Jews written in Persian but in Hebrew characters either in chronological or even in geographical order, because the origin of the manuscripts does not always show the origin of the works they contain.
A dream-book in Persian, a translation by Simeon Ḥakam of Nathan Amram's "Sefer ha-Aḥlama." (a compilation from the "Pitron Ḥalomot" and from the "Mefashsher Ḥelmin" of Solomon Almoli), was published in Jerusalem in 1901.
The literature of this kind contained in the manuscripts is still too little known for it to be possible to give an enumeration of the religious poetry of the Persian Jews that does not rest on a Hebrew basis.
www.jewishencyclopedia.com /view.jsp?artid=590&letter=J   (5905 words)

 A Brief History of Persian Literature
The Old Persian of the Achaemenian Empire, preserved in a number of cuneiform inscriptions, was an Indo-European tongue with close affinities with Sanskrit and Avestan (the language of the Zoroastrian sacred texts).
In India, Persian language and poetry became the vogue with the ruling classes, and at the court of the Moghul emperor Akbar Persian was adopted as the official language; spreading thence and fusing later with Hindi, it gave rise to the Urdu tongue.
Though existing fragments of Persian verse are believed to date from as early as the eighth century CE, the history of Persian literature proper begins with the lesser dynasties of the ninth and tenth centuries that emerged with the decline of the Caliphate.
www.iranchamber.com /literature/articles/history_literature.php   (2568 words)

 Persian Language & Literature
Language of the Armies (Urdu: A Derivative of Persian and Avestan)
The greatest Persian poet, author of the Shahnameh (The Epic of Kings).
One of the masters of contemporary Persian poetry.
www.iranchamber.com /literature/literature.php   (383 words)

  Persian literature
Persian poets such as Sa'di, Hafiz, Omar Khayyam and Rumi are well known in the world and have influenced the literature of many countries.
Persian was the language of the nobility, literary circles, and the royal Mughal courts for hundreds of years.
It is a pioneering work in the practice of Persian literary historiography and the emergence and development of Persian literature as a distinct institution in the early part of the twentieth century.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/p/pe/persian_literature.html   (7147 words)

 Persian Language - ninemsn Encarta
Persian Language, also known by the contemporary name of Farsi (after the Parsa, or Fars, area of Persia), is the most widely spoken member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European languages.
Old Persian is recorded in the south-west in cuneiform inscriptions of the Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty (c.
Middle Persian has a simpler grammar than Old Persian and was usually written in an ambiguous script with multivalent letters, adopted from Aramaic; it declined after the Arab conquest in the 7th century.
au.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761558004/Persian_Language.html   (553 words)

 Persian Literature, an English article
Thus the poems of Rudaki, the first Persian poet of note, who died in the year 940 A.D., are perfectly intelligible to the modem reader.
Though existing fragments of Persian verse are believed to date from as early as the eighth century A.D., the history of Persian literature proper begins with the lesser dynasties of the ninth and tenth centuries that emerged with the decline of the Caliphate.
There was for long considerable skepticism as to whether he was in fact the author of all or any of the quatrains attributed to him, but the discovery recently of manuscripts more ancient than any of those previously known has removed these doubts.
www.iranonline.com /literature/Articles/Persian-literature/index.html   (2563 words)

 Iransaga - General Features of Persian Literature
From their Persian renditions, it is clear that the Middle Persian historical novels based on the lives of Mazdak and Bahram Chobin were dramatic and well-constructed.
Persian and Middle Persian possess a rich store of wisdom literature, consisting mainly of detached or loosely connected moral maxims and ethical observations from which one can hardly deduce a coherent system of ethical philosophy.
In early Persian poetry, ornament is minimal, partly as a result of the poetry's youth and partly because it was modeled on Sassanian poetry.
homepages.force9.net /artarena/genlit.htm   (1546 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Persian
Pre-Islamic and Early Islamic Literature Pre-Islamic Persian literature consists of religious texts, the most notable of which is the Avesta, a collection of liturgic fragments,...
Persian has borrowed from Arabic and is written in the...
Persian nationalism and the campaign for language purification.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Persian   (946 words)

 Farsi (Persian)
Persian is a member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Persian is an inflected language, i.e., it adds prefixes and suffixes to roots to express grammatical categories and to form words.
Persian, Dari and Tajik are Category II languages in terms of difficulty for speakers of English.
www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/february/farsi.html   (1120 words)

 Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures - Persian Courses
Courses in Persian language and literature may be used in designing a degree in Asian and Middle Eastern Studies or Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures.
Persian grammar is introduced through sentence patterns in the form of dialogues and monologues.
Persian Literature in Translation Reading from the works of major figures in classical Persian literature, especially Rudaki, Ferdowsi, Khayyam, Attar, Mowlavi, Sa'adi, and Hafez, as well as the most important minor writers of each period.
www.virginia.edu /~amelc/persian.html   (834 words)

 Persian language at AllExperts
Persian is a member of the Indo-European family of languages, within that family to the satem-languages family, and within that family it belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch.
The Academy of Persian Language and Literature has argued in an official pronouncement [2] that the name "Persian" is more appropriate, as it has the longer tradition in the western languages and better expresses the role of the language as a mark of cultural and national continuity.
Modern Persian is normally written using a modified variant of the Arabic alphabet with different pronunciation of the letters.
en.allexperts.com /e/p/pe/persian_language.htm   (2020 words)

 Welcome to the Faculty of Oriental Studies at Oxford University
Persian is one of the major languages of the contemporary Middle East.
Persian has been studied and taught at Oxford since the seventeenth century, but fortunately it is no longer taught by seventeenth century methods.
The teaching of medieval Persian literature in particular is based on modern principles of literary scholarship and criticism and is broadly comparative in its approach.
www.orinst.ox.ac.uk /nme/persian_info.shtml   (1235 words)

 glbtq >> literature >> Middle Eastern Literature: Persian
Iran, or Persia, possesses a religious literature reaching back to the second millennium B.C.E. The Avesta, or the holy book of the Zoroastrians, is written in an old Iranian language related to Farsi, or modern Persian.
The theme of homosexuality is relatively common in Persian literature of the Islamic period.
In Sa'di's poetry, as in most Persian poetry, the love of a beautiful boy, the shahid or "witness [of beauty]," is the means by which the poet focuses on the Divine Beloved.
www.glbtq.com /literature/mid_e_lit_persian.html   (787 words)

 Persian History | ema_04_package.xml
Persian, called Farsi in Iran, is the native language of over half of the present-day population of 70 million, as well as the medium for instruction, education, mass media, business, and administration among the different ethnic and linguistic communities throughout the country.
Middle Persian, called also Pahlavi, is the language spoken in southwestern Iran from the collapse of the Achaemenid empire to the ninth century CE, during the Islamic period.
Middle Persian and Modern Persian overlapped, the emergence of Modern Persian coinciding with the Arab conquest of Iran and the conversion of the Iranians to Islam in the seventh century.
www.bookrags.com /history/persian-ema-04   (856 words)

 Iranian & Persian Studies
Students pursuing a graduate degree in Iranian and Persian Studies are required to meet the general graduate requirements for all students pursuing graduate degrees in the Department of Near Eastern Language and Civilizations.
Persian Studies concentrates upon the literature of New Persian, which includes the poetry and prose produced in Persian in Iran, Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and the Ottoman Empire from the tenth century to the present day.
For the general examination in Persian Language and Literature students are expected, in addition to having a general overview of Persian literature, to read extensively in the corpus of one author and to know the literature of one period in depth.
www.fas.harvard.edu /~nelc/iranian_persian.html   (798 words)

 SalamIran, Culture & Religion, Literature
The oldest extant Persian writing is found in Persian inscriptions, but it is only of historical interest.
Persian re-emerged as the literary language in the 9
This literature is undoubtedly the most brilliant expression of the Iranian genius.
www.salamiran.org /Religion/literature.html   (992 words)

Of course the influence of Persian language and literature is not limited to the Indian subcontinent.
One important reason for the influence and spread of Persian language in the Indian Subcontinent is existence of many manuscripts of Persian speaking poets in various libraries in the subcontinent.
Obviously the influence of Persian language and literature is not limited to poetry or prose and has far bigger dimensions which is out of scope of this article.
www.cais-soas.com /CAIS/Litrature/persian_india.htm   (2210 words)

 Persian literature. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Pre-Islamic Persian literature consists of religious texts, the most notable of which is the Avesta, a collection of liturgic fragments, and the later Pahlavi writing of the Sassanian period.
At the heart of the Golden Age of Persian literature were the mystic and didactic works of Sadi and Jalal ad-Din Rumi.
Persian also began to be used as a scholarly and court language in India, which subsequently attracted many immigrant Persian poets.
www.bartelby.com /65/pe/Perslit.html   (870 words)

 Persian literature — Infoplease.com
Persian literature: The Silver Age and Later Works - The Silver Age and Later Works The 15th cent.
Persian literature: Pre-Islamic and Early Islamic Literature - Pre-Islamic and Early Islamic Literature Pre-Islamic Persian literature consists of religious...
Persian literature: Literary Flowering and the Golden Age - Literary Flowering and the Golden Age The first group of major Persian poets gathered in the court...
www.infoplease.com /ce6/ent/A0838513.html   (231 words)

 Persian Literature - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Persian Literature, literature in the Modern Persian language of the Islamic era, written in Arabic script (Persian Language).
Omar Khayyam was a 12th-century Persian astronomer, mathematician, and teacher.
He wrote many four-line epigrammatic verses, known in Persian as...
encarta.msn.com /Persian_Literature.html   (167 words)

 General Catalog - Persian Courses
Readings in both prose and poetry, drawn chiefly from classical Persian literature, designed to increase reading skills and vocabulary and to provide a transition to the study of more challenging texts.
Systematic study of representative selections from all periods of classical Persian literature, with attention to the historical and intellectual context.
Advanced topics in Persian literature from various periods of Persian culture and literary history.
sis.berkeley.edu /catalog/gcc_list_crse_req?p_dept_name=Persian&p_dept_cd=PERSIAN&p_path=l   (494 words)

 Welcome to Persian Literature online!
Lately, I received several messages from different people who are learning Persian at the age of 60 – 75.
So, we are learning Persian to enjoy the Persian literature (mainly, poems of Rumi) to relieve our mind and to get peace."
To respect such ideas, I have just made a Persian literature page for you.
www.easypersian.com /houshang_ebtehaj/literature.htm   (404 words)

 Persian Literature
MLA International Bibliography: Index to articles in literature, languages, linguistics, and folklore from several thousand journals and series published worldwide.
Persian Poema: A collection of Persian poets: works and biographical information.
Persian Poets, Poetry and Poetic Art: 1000+ years of Persian Poetry.
wally.rit.edu /depts/ref/research/sandandfog/persianlit.htm   (483 words)

 Persian Art and Literature   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This is a clear and user-friendly guide to Persian grammar, both of the written and spoken languages, especially useful for those in the early stages of studying the Persian language.
The grammar is explained in lay terms with copious examples, all shown both in Persian script and in Roman transliteration.
The maps of the Persian Gulf as well as the maps of the eastern hemisphere were essentially divided into four categories as follows:
persian.free-dict.de /shop/Music   (829 words)

 Persian literature. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
literary writings in the Persian language, nearly all of it written in the area traditionally known as Persia, now Iran.
Pre-Islamic Persian literature consists of religious texts, the most notable of which is the Avesta, a collection of liturgic fragments, and the later Pahlavi writing of the Sassanian period.
The first extant Islamic Persian poetry dates to the Samanid state (874–999); the first famous representative of this literature was the poet Rudaki (d.
www.bartleby.com /65/pe/Perslit.html   (870 words)

 Persian Gulf Online
Whether you agree with the policies of the Islamic Republic or not, the truth is that its leadership, in trying to accommodate our Persian Gulf neighbors, and as a gesture of reconciliation or as part of their dream of leading the Muslim world (call it whatever), initially suggested using alternative names for the Persian Gulf.
Those who say that using Persian is supremacist or that Persian is a racial term are also showing their lack of understanding of history or have other motives.
When in the middle of the 20th century our forefathers asked westerners to change the name of our country from Persian to Iran, they were so eager to escape the colonial powers' influence and establish the Iranians' rights over their own affairs that they did not think about the consequences.
www.persiangulfonline.org /articles/farsi.htm   (1864 words)

 Persian Literature Translator - Dick Davis
Dick Davis was born to English and Italian parents in 1945 and educated at King's College, Cambridge (B.A. and M.A. in English Literature).
Since then, he has emerged as the foremost translator of Persian as well as having published numerous volumes of his own poetry to critical acclaim, including: Touchwood.
He is currently professor of Persian at Ohio State University and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.
www.mage.com /authors/davis_biography.html   (219 words)

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