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Topic: Persian vocabulary

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In the News (Wed 24 Apr 19)

 Persian Grammar Top 10 Bestselling Books: Ann K. S. Lambton Persian Grammar
The second half covers Arabic grammar as it is used in literary Persian, and there is a companion volume of vocabulary for the exercises.
For those who know Arabic, this work is comparable to Wright's grammar with little excercises and unbearably long vocabulary lists at the end of every section, followed by a collection of largely unannotated prose passages at the end of the book.
But the book is teaching literary Persian, and if plurals in '-gan' aren't in, you're going to be very confused when you come to any pre-modern or very formal writing. /cgi-bin/store.cgi?Operation=ItemLookup&ItemId=0521091241

 Linguistics Language Program - LING 19
Persian, is a member of the Indo-European family of languages, although extensive contact with Arabic has led to a large influx of Arab vocabulary.
Dari Persian, until recently, deferred to the Tehran standard as its model, and although there are clear phonological and morphological contrasts, due partly to the influence of neighboring Turkic languages, Farsi and Dari Persian remain quite similar.
Persian in both Iran and Afghanistan is written in a variety of the Arabic script called Perso-Arabic, which has some innovations to account for Persian phonological differences. /courses/ling19/ling19langdis/persian.htm

 Form and Meaning in Persian Vocabulary
Persian in turn has transmitted the bulk of these loan words-together with its own modifications and rules for their incorporation-throughout the Islamic cultural area, playing midwife at the emergence of several Turkic and Indian literary languages.
Though concerned with fundamentals of Persian lexicology and language history, this is also a unique case study of relevance to general theories of semantics and the lexicon.
Some 1500 substantives ending in the Arabic feminine marker -a have assumed one of two forms in Persian-pronounced either with final t or with a vowel, and written respectively with "long t" and "silent h" (e.g., hekmat `wisdom; adage' and jomleh `total; sentence'). /Form-Meaning.htm - Persian language (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
A number of Arabic words were added to the vocabulary as the result of the conquest of the Persians by the Muslim Arabs in the 7th cent.
Old Persian is known chiefly from cuneiform inscriptions dating from the time of the Achaemenid kings of ancient Persia (6th–4th cent.
B.C. Old Persian was highly inflected, as was Avestan, which is regarded by some as a form of Old Persian and by others as a separate tongue. /encyclopedia/P/Perslang.html   (420 words)

 Autonomedia Bookstore
The English word "paradise" comes from an old Persian word for garden (firdaus), and from time out of memory the Persians have been known as the masters of the hortus conclusus, the closed garden of the arid ecocultures of the middle east and central Asia.
The esoteric but erotic sparseness of Persia's garden vocabulary re-appears in Japan as a deliberate cultivation of emptiness.
The other European model of the period was France with its Cartesian clockwork gardens and rented chairs; Olmstead rejected it in favor of the rus in urbe (bring the country into the city) and democratic openness of the British model. /avantgardening/sample.html   (1767 words)

 smc web page
Persian I introduces basic vocabulary and the fundamentals of modern Persian grammar, structure, and pronunciation, as well as reading, writing, and speaking.
Persian II is a continuation of Persian I. In addition to grammar and structure, course material includes simple selections from different literary genres.
Students attending Persian I are not required to have had any prior knowledge of Persian language. /papan-matin_firoozeh   (1767 words)

A number of Arabic words were added to the vocabulary as the result of the conquest of the Persians by the Muslim Arabs in the 7th cent.
Middle Persian was, just like Old Persian, spoken in southwestern Iran, Parthian was spoken in the north, while a group of languages (Khwarezmian, Sogdian and Saka) were spoken in southeast.
Middle Persian was a contemporary of Parthian, and during the Arsacid period, Persian was strongly influenced by Parthian. /id6.html   (1767 words)

 Iranian Refugees in America: A Cross-Cultural Perspective
Persian culture puts great weight in degrees, and people who have Ph.D.'s are usually highly respected and looked to for advice, oftentimes regardless of their field of specialization.
Persian is one of the richest literary languages in the world, especially where poetry is concerned.
Persian children are expected to be respectful to and mindful of their parents. /articles/lewis.refugees.html   (5079 words) - GOL O BOLBOL
The origins of this theme may be traced to the beginnings of Persian manuscript illustration in the 14th century, where the rose fi;rst appears as a discrete motif and a landscape element utilized in the illustration of epic and lyrical texts during the reign of the Il-khanids (1256-1353).
Persian painters drew upon literary images of the rose as a metaphor for love and beauty to create symbolic compositions in the margins accompanying narrative scenes or lyrical landscapes evoking visions of springtime and young love (Cowen, pp.
The theme of the rose in Persian mystical poetry has been the subject of detailed investigation since the beginnings of Orientalist studies in Europe in the late 18th century, and poets such as Goethe (q.v.) and Rilke have been inspired by their Persian counterparts. /articles/v11f1/v11f1034.html   (5079 words)

Builds a vocabulary of standard Persian in preparation for advanced reading and comprehension of literary texts.
Enables students with a degree of proficiency in spoken Persian to read and write, to translate rudimentary texts, and to conceptualize the use of the formal style of composition.
For students with a degree of proficiency in spoken Persian. /students/crscat/persian.html   (590 words)

 MEIS Courses [NYU]
Persian grammar and syntax and vocabulary building are two other emphases of this course.
Course materials, come from the Persian Fiction Reader (1998) and a packet of proficiency-based lesson modules with authentic texts of lyric verse and essays along with classroom and self-study workbook activities.
Courses on Middle East-related topics offered by the Departments of Anthropology, Classics, Comparative Literature, Economics, History, Politics, and Sociology and by the Institute of Fine Arts are open to students with permission of the instructor and may be credited toward a degree in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies in accordance with departmental rules and requirements. /gsas/dept/mideast/courses.html   (4434 words)

 LACMA Ancient & Islamic Art
It too had antecedents in the Persian tradition but drew from decorative idioms, which during the fifteenth century emphasized Chinese motifs that had earlier entered the Persian artistic vocabulary through contact and trade; hence the ubiquitous dragon in saz-style drawings.
Particular strengths of the collection are glazed pottery and tiles from Iran and Turkey; glass, especially from the late seventh to the mid-thirteenth century; and Persian and Turkish arts of the book.
is proud to present eleven masterpieces from the Ancient and Islamic Art department (these works are not necessarily currently on view in the museum's galleries): Visit our Islamic Art web site, as well as Egyptian Art and Islamic Art Collections Online. /art/perm_col/ancient/ancient.htm   (4434 words)

 Persian Courses
In Persian 103, Intermediate Persian I, students begin consolidating skills in conversational and social Farsi, master the last third of the required text of 101 and 102, acquire an active vocabulary of 2,200 words, begin to read shorter, annotated literary texts, and write simple expository prose of about a page in length.
By the end of the course, students ought to have sufficient familiarity with the requirements and parameters of literary analysis; the specific character of Persian literature and its audience; and the challenges to interpretation posed by the peculiarities of Persian culture and tradition.
In addition, they are expected to advance significantly in their ability to deal competently with complex Persian cultural issues and to gain greater familiarity with the various sources where aid in dealing with these issues may be sought. /courses/Persian.htm   (4434 words)

 Language and Culture in Persian
Language and Culture in Persian lies at the intersection of what we ordinarily associate with language learning, standard vocabulary, idiom, grammar, etc. and a set of shared assumptions about the world that we call “culture.” The book is about what readers of Persian know but rarely express.
Not a text of Farsi or Dari or Tojiki, Language and Culture in Persian avoids linguistic partisanship, drawing a picture of the language that retains its clarity and color wherever it is used.
It begins sensibly with one of Persian’s most durable opening lines, the first in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh [be name-e khodavand-e jan-o kherad…], and ends with Rushdie-species and other breeds of “blasphemy” that continue to absorb almost all users of the language. /Language-Culture.htm   (4434 words)

This course introduces basic vocabulary and the fundamentals of modern Persian grammar, structure, and pronunciation as well as reading, writing, and speaking.
Aspects of Persian culture and history are covered as well.
Using natural and audio-lingual approaches, the course prepares students to hold simple conversations in Persian and write short descriptive compositions. /schedules/2004/summer/076_042_schedule.htm   (4434 words)

The history of the Persian language falls, therefore, into three well-defined periods, as follows: The Achæmenian Period (550-331 B.C.), represented by the edicts and proclamations contained in the Persian cuneiform inscriptions, which, though of considerable extent, are similar in character and style and yield a vocabulary of about 400 words.
Persian literature is not very rich in historical and theological works, and even the comparatively small number of these is generally based on Arabic Mohammedan historical and theological productions.
Persian, also, in its turn, especially during the last four or five centuries, has very perceptibly affected the Turkish language. /cathen/11712a.htm   (4434 words)

The absorption was indeed so great that only one word of their language remains in the Persian vocabulary today sag, the Medes' word for dog.
The Persian Army—the army of emancipation—was a savage army of occupation.
Tudeh party, the Persian Communist party that always meticulously avoided using the Communist label, was formed in 1942. /1000/1097.htm   (4286 words) Persian Tutor (Jewel Case): Software
This program teaches the beginner: * general information about the Persian culture * how to write the Persian alphabet * basic grammatical concepts of the Persian language * extensive dialogue and vocabulary The intermediate to advanced student will be challenged as well and will enjoy conversing in Persian in the "Dialogue" section of the program.
Designed by University of Washington Persian professor Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak, this program teaches Persian culture, how to write the Persian alphabet, basic grammatical concepts of the Persian language, and speaking and listening skills.
The engaging features include the ability to take a virtual trip to an Iranian city and interact with its inhabitants. /exec/obidos/ASIN/B00005ASHC   (739 words)

 Chapter 9
The assumption that they refer to four kings (an assumption which is not the obvious nor the most natural interpretation), and the further assumption that the leopard refers to the Persian empire, cannot be used to support the assumption that the author of Daniel “attributes to the Persian empire a total of only four kings.”
But as to the Aramaic translations of the proclamations of the Babylonian kings, whenever such translations may have been made, it was absolutely necessary to employ foreign words to express governmental ideas, inasmuch as the pure Aramaic did not possess a native vocabulary sufficient for expressing them.
So that writing in Persian we would say that Gobryas the satrap of the dahyaush of Babylon under Cyrus appointed under himself other satraps of the dahyava, or sub-divisions of his satrapy. /~ironmen/wilson/studies_chap09.htm   (6082 words)

 John R. Perry
He concentrates currently on the history of the Persian language, and in particular the mechanisms of the incorporation of Arabic vocabulary into Persian and its dissemination into other languages of the region.
John Perry was born in Britain and educated at Cambridge University (Pembroke College), where in 1970 he was awarded a Ph.D in Oriental Studies (Arabic and Persian).
During summer vacations he hitchhiked to Egypt and to Iran, and in 1964-65 spent a year studying Persian at Tehran University. /depts/nelc/facultypages/perry   (6082 words)

 A Grammar of the Persian Language. To Which is Added,a Selection of Easy Extracts for Reading; Together with A Vocabulary and Translations. - FORBES, DUNCAN (1798-1868)
FORBES, DUNCAN (1798-1868) A Grammar of the Persian Language.
To Which is Added,a Selection of Easy Extracts for Reading; Together with A Vocabulary and Translations. /boox/hur/000648.shtml   (6082 words)

 Learn Persian at SOAS in London
The course aims to provide a thorough introduction to basic Persian with the accent on practical spoken Persian; familiarity with Persian pronunciation and script; coverage of basic grammar and essential vocabulary; ability to communicate within a limited range of situations.
The course is taught in English and Persian and includes coverage of the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing and a balance between communicative activities, structure practice and grammar.
Class size is limited to twelve to allow close involvement. /languagecentre/other/persian.html   (6082 words)

 CRL Language Resources: Urdu
In fact, the major differences between the two languages are that Urdu uses a Perso-Arabic script (as opposed to Devanagari) and it has borrowed a good deal of vocabulary from Persian and Arabic.
CRL's Morphological Analyzer generates analyses for texts in Arabic, Persian and Urdu.
Urdu is an Indo-Iranian (subfamily of Indo-European) language and is mutually intelligible with Hindi. /crl/Resources/lang_res/urdu.html   (6082 words)

 Urdu alphabet, pronunciation and language
It is the national language of Pakistan and is closely related to Hindi, though a lot of Urdu vocabulary comes from Persian and Arabic, which is not the case for Hindi.
Urdu has been written with a version of the Perso-Arabic script since the 12th century and is normally written in Nastaliq style.
Urdu is also spoken in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Fiji, Germany, Guyana, India, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, the UAE, the UK and Zambia. /writing/urdu.htm   (6082 words) - HINZ, (A.) WALTHER
These 2,000 Elamite texts contain much vocabulary and nomenclature that was not attested before and was not known from Old Persian sources either, forcing the historian to carry out in-depth linguistic and onomastic research (i.e., to extract the original Old Persian from their Elamite renderings).
Hinz's edition of a 14th-century Persian treatise on public accountancy, known only from a single manuscript in Istanbul (Aya Sofya 2756), is also worth mentioning, for this work (1952) distinguished him for the first time as a successful decipherer, by his breaking the code of the cryptography (sia@q) used by the scribes of that text.
Hinz took the study of the languages of Persia seriously, and even published lexicographical articles despite the fact that he was an historian, for he was committed to making accessible the original source materials themselves for historical analysis. /articles/v12f3/v12f3032.html   (1574 words)

 MusicalNirvana - Wali Mohammed Wali
He thus became the architect of the modern poetic language, which is a skilful blend of Persian and Urdu vocabulary.
However, Wali was not immune or ignorant of the vigour and verve of Persian diction and imagery, and combined both into the body of his verse.
Before Vali, Indian Ghazal was being composed in Persian - almost being replicated in thought and style from the original Persian masters like Sa'di, Jami and Khaqani. /ghazal/wali_mohammed_wali.html   (1574 words)

Urdu and Persian have different verb inflections at all levels in all tenses.
Hindi and Urdu have the same syntax, the main differences are in their vocabulary.
Persian Urdu No gender Two genders No case Three cases Adjectives follow the Adjectives preceded the noun they qualify nouns they qualify pre-position based post-position based /~milind/posts/urdu-persian.html   (1574 words)

 Ethnologue 14 report for language code:URD
Intelligible with Hindi, but has formal vocabulary borrowed from Arabic and Persian.
Dakhini is freer of Persian and Arabic loans than Urdu.
Rekhta is a form of Urdu used in poetry. /show_language.asp?code=URD   (1574 words) - GEORGIA v.
These belonged to various spheres of vocabulary and were borrowed at different periods and from different dialects: from Eastern Iranian Scytho-Alan-Ossetic, and from Western Iranian Median, Parthian and, to an even greater extent, from the Middle Persian of the Sasanian period (3rd-7th cent.) and New Persian.
Weights and measures: griv-i, a dry measure equal to 22 ksests (Arm.
kapi±); charek-i, a quarter of a measure of weight or capacity, a liquid capacity measure equal approximately to one liter (from NPers. /articles/v10f5/v10f504e.html   (1574 words)

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