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Topic: Perspective (cognitive)

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  A Summit on Early Childhood Cognitive Development (April 30, 2002)-- Pg 3
Through cluster analysis we found four evenly distributed groups of mothers: 1) one that was consistently and highly responsive throughout early childhood, 2) two of whom were responsive in either infancy or preschool period but not both, and 3) one that was consistently low in their responsiveness across this age period.
When we considered this question through 8 years of age and took into consideration mothers' 6 and 8 year parenting, we continued to find that the quality of parenting in early childhood was the strongest predictor and that parenting at these two later ages did not predict additional variance in the children's outcomes.
Most importantly, children's cognitive development can be supported in ways that are responsive to a broad range of other abilities including reasoning skills, social competence, and emotional health.
www.ed.gov /teachers/how/early/cognitivedevsummit02/page_pg3.html   (2550 words)

Cognitive constructivism, as a learning theory, is often considered a "weak" form of constructivism, within the constructivist community, since it embraces only two of the four epistemological tenets (von Glasersfeld, 1984).
Cognitive, social, and radical constructivism all assert that the acquisition of knowledge and understanding is an ongoing process that is heavily influenced by a student's prior knowledge.
That is, cognitive constructivists embrace and advocate (1) the role of prior knowledge in cognition, (2) the benefit of expert-based, domain-specific problem solving strategies, (3) the flexibility of domain-general problem solving strategies, (4) the importance of recognizing the influence of individual differences, and (5) the ultimate goal of an autonomous life-long learner.
scholar.lib.vt.edu /ejournals/JVTE/v16n1/doolittle.html   (8818 words)

 AI Article - Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives of the Relationship Between Anxiety and Performance
In this model, cognitive anxiety (the central tenet of which is concerned with the consequences of failure) has been found to have a negative linear relationship with performance (Burton, 1988).
An internal perspective (as if they are viewing it through their eyes not the eyes of a camera on them performing the skill) is necessary.
Cognitive restructuring is an important component of treatment since it allows individuals to have a different interpretation of the activation states they are experiencing and thus reduce cognitive anxiety.
www.athleticinsight.com /Vol1Iss2/Cognitive_Behavioral_Anxiety.htm   (5413 words)

 AcademicDB - The Cognitive Perspective
Cognitive psychologists are only interested in the brain, believing that human beings are like a computer.
Cognitive psychologists use reliable and objective methods for their research through scientific laboratory experiments.
Cognitive psychologists have become increasingly interested in the fact that once we know how the brain works computers could be built to work and process functions in the same way.
www.academicdb.com /cognitive_perspective_4615   (238 words)

 An Historical Perspective of Cognitive Science
Using these methods in conjunction with those of cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscientists are beginning to map out the function of major areas of the human brain.
Important milestones in the history of this movement were the founding of Society for Cognitive Science in 1979, the funding of a large-scale program by the Sloan Foundation in 1981 and the foundation of the journal Cognitive Science in 1977.
Cognitive Science is now well on its way toward becoming an independent academic discipline.
www.bcs.rochester.edu /cogsci/history.html   (953 words)

 Perspective (cognitive) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another.
To choose a perspective is to choose a value system and, unavoidably, an associated belief system.
When we look at a human perspective, it is a more social value system and its associated beliefs.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Perspective_(cognitive)   (494 words)

 Unit 1 The Cognitive Perspective
The cognitive perspective focuses on studying mental processes and on determining the role that mental processes play in affecting emotions and behavior.
Instead, cognitive psychologists draw inferences about what is going on with mental processes based on the study of observable behaviors.
Clinical cognitive psychologists are interested in how people's mental explanations of events influence how they feel and behave.
www.gpc.edu /~mgriffin/PSYC1101Online/Overview/cogperspect.html   (102 words)

 Volume 7 -- Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy
Half of the vignettes were presented from the perspective of a hypothetical individual and half from the subjects' own personal perspective.
Results showed that subjects instructed to respond from the perspective of the hypothetical other produced less socially appropriate responses when their own perspective was presented first.
Cognitive behavioral (CB) and RE therapists completed a questionnaire representing Mahoney's categorization of rationalist and constructivist philosophies and the preference for disputing irrational beliefs early in therapy.
www.cognitivetherapyassociation.org /journal/v7.aspx   (3508 words)

 Perspectives: Cognitive   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Cognitive psychologists are interested in how a person understands, diagnoses, and solves a problem, concerning themselves with the mental processes that mediate between stimulus and response.
The cognitive perspective studies how people percieve, remember, reason, decide, and solve problems to find the cause of mental illnesses.
Today's study of cognition is based on two assumptions: 1) what organisms are going to do can only be found by studying their mental process, and 2) It is possible to objectively study the mental processes by foucusing on specific behaviors and interpreting the underlying mental processes.
www.purgatory.net /merits/cognitive.htm   (405 words)

 Volume 18 - Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy
Moreover, cognitive vulnerabilities partially mediated the relationship between adult attachment and anxious and depressive symptoms, suggesting that insecure attachments may represent a developmental antecedent to cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety and depression.
Cognitive therapy for the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is in its infancy.
Cognitive Therapy for voices is predicated on the assumption that much of the distress and disability associated with hearing voices is due to the patientâ??s delusional interpretations of voices.
www.cognitivetherapyassociation.org /journal/v_18.aspx   (3682 words)

 DU Psychology Department Cognitive Research
All Cognitive faculty participate in the Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience program and thus offer a cognitive neuroscience perspective in each of the content areas.
Cognitive students can opt to participate in the DCN program or not, depending on the focus of their interests.
Recent graduates have obtained academic positions at both large state schools with an emphasis on research as well as smaller teaching colleges; jobs in industry have tended to be in the area of human factors.
www.du.edu /psychology/research/cognitive.htm   (302 words)

 Essay: Cognitive perspective - Coursework.Info
Cognitive perspective The cognitive perspective can be introduced by saying the mind is actively processing stimuli it receives and rearranging it into new forms and categories.
Cognition refers to the mental processes of perception, memory reasoning and problem solving.
In another sense, cognitive approach developed as a direct challenge to behaviourism.
www.coursework.info /GCSE/Psychology/Cognitive_perspective_L17956.html   (177 words)

The concept of schema was initially introduced in the cognitive-behavior therapy literature several decades ago in Aaron T. Beck's (1967) early work with depressed individuals, as it related to basic negative beliefs that depressed individuals held about the self, the world, and the future.
Beck's work drew from earlier cognitive theories in developmental psychology, such as Piaget's (1950) discussion of accommodation and assimilation in schema formation.
When this cycle involves negative content that affects cognitive, emotional, and behavior responses, the volatility of the family's dynamics tends to escalate, rendering family members vulnerable to a negative spiral of conflict.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3658/is_200501/ai_n9520949   (857 words)

 Antecedents, Consequences and Treatment of Drug Abuse: A Cognitive Science Perspective
Furthermore, cognitive science and drug abuse research have converged over recent years to provide valuable and complimentary perspectives for understanding drug addiction.
This symposium served to inform the audience of the current and potential role of cognitive science in understanding the antecedents and consequences of drug abuse and its role in the development of prevention and treatment interventions.
The goal of this talk is to provide an overview of prefrontal function that reflects current thinking in cognitive neuroscience, and can serve as a context for the talks that follow.
www.nida.nih.gov /MeetSum/cpdd082000.html   (1272 words)

 Perspective - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Perspective (visual), is the way in which objects appear to the eye
Perspective (graphical), means to represent the effects of visual perspective in drawings
Perspective (cognitive), one's "point of view", the choice of a context for opinions, beliefs and experiences
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Perspective   (141 words)

 School Readiness Considered From a Neuro-Cognitive Perspective
But underlying Piaget's formulation of cognitive development was the assumption that distinct stages of cognitive development paralleled the physical development of the human brain.
In general, one sees in the past four decades a revised paradigm of gradual cognitive development characterized by several more or less distinct and qualitatively different stages of intellectual development with increasing capacities for attention, memory, and complex reasoning.
Major investigators in applied and theoretical neuroscience believe that the development of the brain is orchestrated in an exceedingly regular fashion and that bursts of maturation in the brain's physical structure and in its higher cognitive functions are the outcome of closely knit and well-synchronized neurophysiological processes.
readyweb.crc.uiuc.edu /library/1994/peterson.html   (6657 words)

 FOCUS: Enactive Cognitive Science in Context
Enactive cognitive science is the mode or perspective for cognitive studies proposed and propounded by Francisco Varela, Evan Thompson, and Eleanor Rosch in their 1991 book The Embodied Mind.
Enactive cognitive science is presented as a third alternative to the currently-prevalent schools of thought labeled cognitivism and emergence.
The latter is that perspective emphasizing behavioral / configurational emergence in parallel distributed networks, and this formal model inspired by the neural system as a metaphor for a cognitive system.
www.enolagaia.com /ECSTables.html   (414 words)

 Cognitivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The cognitive perspective focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand and think about the world.
Assimilation is the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current state of cognitive development and way of thinking.
As children play and cooperate with others, they learn what is important in their society, and at the same time, advance cognitively in their understanding of the world.
sesd.sk.ca /psychology/cognitive.htm   (224 words)

 Duchan, Bruder, & Hewitt (1995): Deixis in narrative. A cognitive science perspective.
This volume describes the theoretical and empirical results of a seven year collaborative effort of cognitive scientists to develop a computational model for narrative understanding.
The reader often takes a cognitive stance within the world of the narrative and interprets the text from that perspective.
Included is a consideration of deictic terms and their relationship to the use of such terms in fictional narrative as deixis, deictic references, reference frames, distance and direction, repetition as an indication of distance, description of turns, style of presentation, and conventional metaphors.
cogweb.ucla.edu /Abstracts/Deixis_95.html   (1270 words)

 cognitive Therapy Institute
The groups are oriented toward strengthening your competency in cognitive therapy conceptualizations and interventions, and will address integration of CT with other therapy approaches.
To increase sensitivity and skill with use of cognitive therapy approaches in response to transference reactions in the therapeutic relationship.
To establish a firm theoretical understanding of the cognitive therapy model and to develop proficiency in conceptualizing clinical cases from a CT perspective.
www.cognitivetherapysandiego.com /Default.asp?PAGE_ID=3   (787 words)

 h sugimoto's home page
The cognitive perspective sees a human mind as a computer loaded with software to take inputs from the environment then to transform them to produce outputs.
The weakness of the cognitive perspective is a exclusion of factors such as emotion, motivation, and intuition.
Well, my interest in the cognitive perspective or generally in programming is my love of simplicity and beauty of well structured systems.
www.evl.uic.edu /sugimoto/bpsych.html   (691 words)

 Hunt & Agnoli 1991: The Worfian hypothesis: A cognitive psychology perspective   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In order to look at the possible effect of language on thought, the authors first concentrate on representational level thinking, where two sources of information seem particularly important for this area of study; the lexically identified concepts, and the culturally developed schema.
The examples show that languages impose different cognitive burden on speakers, and to support the hypothesis, that languages affect how speakers think about the nonlinguistic world, is the fact that linguistic and nonlinguistic reasoning often occur concurrently and affect each other.
The Whrofian argument that languages affect ones interpretation of the world around us, could be observed in the study of schema in different languages.
www.cc.gatech.edu /~jimmyd/summaries/hunt1991.html   (898 words)

 Chapter 3: History of Cooperative Learning
The social interdependence perspective of cooperative learning presupposes that the way social interdependence is structured determines the way persons interact with each other.
The cognitive developmental perspective is grounded in the work of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.
The behavioral-social perspective presupposes that cooperative efforts are fueled by extrinsic motivation to achieve group rewards (academic and/or nonacademic) (Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec, 1998).
www.intime.uni.edu /coop_learning/ch3/history.htm   (448 words)

 Cognitive Developmental Theory
The word cognitive means of, or relating to mental activity such as thinking, remembering, learning or using language.
As you have guessed, cognitive perspectives examine development in terms of mental processing.
The two major views within this perspective are cognitive developmental theory and information processing theory.
www.mc.maricopa.edu /dept/d46/psy/dev/Fall98/Theories/Cog.html   (171 words)

 SIL Bibliography: Cognitive grammar
"Neurological evidence for a cognitive theory of syntax: Agrammatic aphasia and the spatialization of form hypothesis."
"Dissimilation in mösiehuali̬ (Tetelcingo Nahuatl): a cognitive grammar perspective."
Walter, Stephen L. Application of a cognitive model of linguistic structure to the analysis of selected problems in Tzeltal (Mayan) grammar.
www.ethnologue.com /show_subject.asp?code=CGR   (181 words)

 What is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?
Therefore, if we are experiencing unwanted feelings and behaviors, it is important to identify the thinking that is causing the feelings / behaviors and to learn how to replace this thinking with thoughts that lead to more desirable reactions.
There are several approaches to cognitive-behavioral therapy, including Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Rational Behavior Therapy, Rational Living Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Dialectic Behavior Therapy.
CBT is based on the Cognitive Model of Emotional Response.
www.nacbt.org /whatiscbt.htm   (908 words)

 Perspective in Cognitive Science: Psychology 420
Also read the short news interview with Herb Simon and be ready to discuss his perspective on Cognitive Science and the role of computer simulations as a tool for theory development.
WordNet and CYC are two ambitious projects that embody the "Conceptual" representation approach to Cognitive Science.
Here is what one reviewer had to say about the paper when nominating it for the 3rd most influential paper in cognitive science for the 20th century.
www.lclark.edu /~nilsen/420f05.html   (3387 words)

 Linguist List - Book Information
Cognitive models, perspectives, and the construction of situated meaning have always been core concepts in Cognitive Linguistics.
The papers in this volume present applications of those concepts to the study of discourse phenomena like the use and interpretation of metaphors, modal expressions, focus particles, tag questions, indirect speech acts, and iconographic textual references.
The volume also includes two studies focussing on cognitive processes involved in discourse production.
linguistlist.org /pubs/books/get-book.cfm?BookID=1169   (115 words)

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