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Topic: Phage

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In the News (Mon 22 Apr 19)

  Science Netlinks: Science Updates
Phages could even be genetically engineered to attack a wider range of bacteria.
Another problem with phage is that you have to grow them in cultures of the same harmful bacteria that they're meant to fight.
Instead, phage were cultivated as the treatment of choice for decades after they fell from Western favor.
www.sciencenetlinks.com /sci_update.cfm?DocID=190   (848 words)

 Phage Biotech Ltd.
Phage therapy is practiced routinely in the former Soviet Union as an alternative, combinatory, and complimentary form of treatment in conjunction with, or in lieu of, antibiotics.
Phages generally display a low chemotherapeutic index, particularly upon primary administration systemically or upon topical administration, and they are vastly more diverse in their potential to overcome bacterial resistance than known antibiotics also displaying comparatively low chemotherapeutic indices.
Phage therapy, as a clinical method, was rejected altogether in the West upon the discovery, immediate popularization, and wide-scale dissemination of penicillin in the early 1940s.
www.phage-biotech.com /links.html   (1597 words)

 Information about Bacteriophages
Typical phages have hollow heads (where the phage DNA or RNA is stored) and tunnel tails, the tips of which have the ability to bind to specific molecules on the surface of their target bacteria.
Phages were previously never given a fair and scientifically well-thought-through evaluation; quite often, the conclusions made about the phage therapy or even the nature of phages were unbelievably naïve as assessed from what we know about phages today.
Since phage is targeted to receptors on bacterial membrane or capsule, which are important virulence determinants, development of phage-resistance usually means changes in those structures and may, therefore, lead to attenuation of the strains in virulence.
www.phages.org /PhageInfo.html   (1289 words)

 Infection, replication and properties of lactococcal bacteriophages
The infection of a growing bacterial culture with phage is initiated by the adsorption of the phage to the host cell.
Because phages without DNA can easily be observed attached to cell walls and that it is obvious that this DNA must have passed from the head through the channel in the phage tail, many authors call this process DNA injection.
Hunter and Whitehead (1940) reported that phage could be destroyed by the addition of 2.5% v/v lactic acid to a preparation of phage in milk, at ambient temperature in 5 min.
www.dairyscience.info /phage_properties.htm   (1452 words)

 Intralytix, Inc. - Phage Technology
Phages are “Nature’s way” of controlling bacteria on this planet, and they have played and continue to play a critical role in maintaining (via a well-balanced predator-prey relationship) microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria are present.
Phages are metabolically inert in their extracellular state and they reproduce by insinuating themselves into the metabolism of their host bacteria.
This leads to membrane-disruption later in the phage’s lytic cycle, which enables large numbers of newly-assembled phage particles to be released from the bacterium, and the host cell’s death.
www.intralytix.com /Intral_tech.htm   (692 words)

 APSnet Feature - Bacteriophage Ecology and Plants
Phage ecology (e.g., 3) is the study of the interaction of phage with their biotic and abiotic environments.
Despite these complications, the phage impact, either negative or positive on plants, tends to be limited (i) to phage-induced bacterial lysis, (ii) to selection for phage-resistance within bacterial communities, or (iii) to phage-associated modification of bacterial phenotypes (phage conversion).
Phage have been proposed as plant-pathogen control agents in a process known as phage therapy: the application of specific phages to specific ecosystems in order to reduce the population size of specific bacteria.
www.apsnet.org /online/feature/phages   (6364 words)

 Sauer:P1vir phage transduction - OpenWetWare   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Phage transduction is used to move selectable genetic markers from one "donor" strain to another "recipient" strain.
Today, phage P1 is commonly used as a transducing agent because it is a generalized tranducer (it can package random sections of the host chromosome instead of its own genome) giving rise to "transducing particles".
Once a phage population has been generated from a donor host, the phage are used to infect a recipient host.
openwetware.org /wiki/Sauer:P1vir_phage_transduction   (1410 words)

 [ p h a g e ] v i r u s
[phage] creates a feminist map of the machine through its non-hierarchical organization and its divorce of creative control (and reproductive control) from the user.
[phage] allows the user to experience his or her computer memory as a palimpsest of his or her own life experiences rather than know the computer as simply a tool for daily use.
The title of [phage] plays upon the coded word "virus"-- referring to a bacteriophage, a constructive human virus that preys on harmful bacteria.
www.maryflanagan.com /virus.htm   (544 words)

In these phages, the secondary structure of the single-stranded RNA phage genome regulates both the quantities of different phage proteins which are translated, but in addition, also operates temporal control of a switch in the ratios between the different proteins produced in infected cells.
Ff phage particles are held together by the hydrophobic interactions between the coat protein subunits and this is demonstrated by the fact that the particles fall apart in the presence of chloroform, even though they do not contain any lipid component.
Since the phage DNA is packaged inside the core of the helical particle, the length of the particle is dependent on the length of the genome.
www.tulane.edu /~dmsander/WWW/224/Phages.html   (2755 words)

 Division M HomePhage
Initial research on phage was concerned with defining the nature of the bacteriophage—the two leading theories being that it was a filterable virus, like the Tobacco Mosaic Virus that had been discovered some 20 years earlier, or a self-perpetuating enzyme whose expression caused destruction of the bacterial cell.
Phages soon became central players in the foundation of the discipline that later came to be known as molecular biology (the Journal of Molecular Biology started publication in 1959).
Through the 1950’s and 1960’s, phage research had a dominant role in elucidating the most fundamental facts about what genes are and how the information in genes is read out to determine the properties of an organism.
www.asm.org /division/m/M.html   (1871 words)

 CSHL - History: The Phage Group
The phage group was an informal group of scientists at different universities who worked together and separately on bacterial viruses, or phage.
Each type of phage has a characteristic and highly regular time course; nearly to the minute, it will cause the bacteria to burst, or lyse, at a fixed time after infection.
This experiment, which came to be known as the "fluctuation test," was the basis of many of the experiments performed and taught by phage workers throughout the 1940s and profoundly influenced the current and subsequent generations of phage biologists.
www.cshl.edu /History/phagegroup.html   (689 words)

The "head and tail" morphology of some is unique to phages and not found among other groups of viruses and is related to their mode of cell penetration.
Since phage are so prevalent in the environment, bacteria have specific mechanisms to protect themselves against infection with phage - "restriction/ modification" systems which depend on the recognition and destruction of foreign (unmodified - methylated or glucosylated) DNA.
The indefinite persistence of phage genomes within bacterial cells in the absence of a productive infection but with the potential to produce progeny phage under certain circumstances was first recognised in the 1920's.
www.biosci.ohio-state.edu /~mgonzalez/Micro521/Lambda/phage_intro.html   (649 words)

 Bacteriophage Lecture Notes
Although phage typing is not used in the routine clinical laboratory, it is used in reference laboratories for epidemiological purposes.
In most cases the phage DNA actually integrates into the host chromosome and is replicated along with the host chromosome and passed on to the daughter cells.
Lysogenic phages have been shown to carry genes that can modify the Salmonella O antigen, which is one of the major antigens to which the immune response is directed.
pathmicro.med.sc.edu /mayer/phage.htm   (1991 words)

When phages infect their host cell, the order of business is to replicate their nuclic acid and to produce the protective protein coat.
In the latter case, phage T4 packages a bit of lysozyme in the base of its tail from a previous infection and then uses the lysozyme to degrade a portion of the bacterial cell wall for insertion of the tail core.
The phage gene that is expressed is an important one because it codes for the synthesis of a repressor molecule that prevents the synthesis of enzymes and proteins required for the lytic cycle.
www.bact.wisc.edu /themicrobialworld/Phage.html   (2345 words)

 Lwoff's Pathways - Viral Replication   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Although the phage didn't seem to interfere with the host bacteria, such cultures had the ability to cause the lysis or rupture of other bacteria.
When a phage did become active in a bacterium in the lysogenic culture, it forced the host to manufacture more phage, eventually killing the host, and releasing new phage when the cell burst open.
Later, Lwoff found that it was possible to artificially induce all the cells in a lysogenic culture to enter the lytic pathway simultaneously by exposing the cultures to UV light, or X-rays.
web.mit.edu /esgbio/www/cb/virus/phagereplication.html   (827 words)

 F-Secure Computer Virus Information Pages: Phage
Phage can spread from one Palm to another if infected files are shared via beaming or installed via a docking station.
Phage has not been found in the wild and can not be considered a serious threat at this time.
When activated Phage infects and destroys all application files in the device but does not harm database files.
www.f-secure.com /v-descs/phage.shtml   (254 words)

 Ph.D.-12 Phage Display Peptide Library Kit, Phage Display Libraries, New England Biolabs
The randomized segment of the Ph.D.-C7C library is flanked by a pair of cysteine residues, which are oxidized during phage assembly to a disulfide linkage, resulting in the displayed peptides being presented to the target as loops.
Phage display describes a selection technique in which a library of variants of a peptide or protein is expressed on the outside of a phage virion, while the genetic material encoding each variant resides on the inside (1-3).
When performing an experiment using Ph.D.™ Phage Display, the ELISA indicates that background binding to the plate is as high as binding to the target.
www.neb.com /nebecomm/products/productE8110.asp   (1196 words)

 Phage International, Inc. - Legal Notice and Use
Phage International assumes no responsibility regarding the accuracy of the information that is provided and use of such information is at the recipient's own risk.
By sending Phage International any information or material, you grant Phage International an unrestricted, irrevocable license to use, reproduce, display, perform, modify, transmit and distribute those materials or information, and you also agree that Phage International is free to use any ideas, concepts, know-how or techniques that you send us for any purpose.
Phage International shall be free to use, copy or distribute such comments, feedback, information or materials on an unrestricted basis without accounting to you.
www.phageinternational.com /disclaimer.htm   (989 words)

 Phage Lambda Video
What we learn in phage l helps us to understand not only the behavior of other viruses but of the host cells they infectandemdash;in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans.
The phage particle attaches to the outer surface of the bacterial cell wall.
The ends of the phage DNA join to form a circle, and begins replicating virus DNA using the ATP energy of the host cell.
home.earthlink.net /~dayvdanls/lambdavideo.htm   (1510 words)

 Phage plaques   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Usually phage infection is studied in a layer of soft agar (or "top agar") which allows the phage to diffuse rapidly.
The size of the plaque is proportional to the efficiency of adsorption, the length of the latent period, and the burst size of the phage.
Instead, when temperate phage infects a population of exponentially growing cells, each phage produces a plaque with a "bulls-eye" plaque morphology, a turbid center surrounded by a ring of clearing.
www.sci.sdsu.edu /~smaloy/MicrobialGenetics/topics/phage/plaques.html   (484 words)

 lambda phage
The choice of whether a phage should enter the lytic cycle or form a lysogen upon infecting a host cell depends upon the conditions of infection and the genotypes of phage and bacterium.
With temperate phages, however, the clearing of the culture is only transient and is rapidly overtaken by the reappearance of turbidity, in this case due to the presence of cells in which lysogeny was established; because of their immunity to subsequent lytic infection, the lysogenic bacteria reproduce and thus restore the turbidity.
Phage particles are mixed with an excess of bacteria in suspension (that is, at a very low multiplicity of infection), so that each phage particle infects a single bacterium (this bacterium is surrounded by numerous uninfected ones).
www.icampus.ucl.ac.be /SBIM2520/document/genemol/lambda.html   (835 words)

 NFCR Center for Therapeutic Antibody Engineering
The phage display process involves the following steps: (1) genetically engineering phage display libraries to "display" human sFv antibodies on the surface of the recombinant phage, (2) selecting antibodies with high affinity and specificity to any given target by screening the antibody phage display libraries, and (3) producing and characterizing the selected antibodies.
One antibody gene is inserted into each phage genome thus each phage expresses a single antibody with specificity to a particular antigen.
The selected antigen specific phage, which both express a unique antibody on its surface and carry the antibody gene in its genome are used to infect bacteria, one single phage per bacterium.
research.dfci.harvard.edu /nfcr-ctae/research/tech_phageDisplay.php   (582 words)

 Antibody phage display   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Phage display of protein and peptide molecular libraries have rapidly become a vital tool in studies aimed at identifying molecules that bind to a specific target and improving particular features of preexisting molecules with respect to e.g.
The tendency of many antibodies originally developed by phage display technology to accept many different types of light chains may be a consequence of this particular technology.
Consequently, phage display may select against clones which are restricted with respect to light chain usage.
www.immun.lth.se /TEXTER/MO/phage_display.html   (827 words)

 Phage Display
Phage display is a powerful tool that extends the range of modern combinatorial screening techniques, allowing the discovery and characterisation of proteins that interact with a desired target.
Phage display is a system in which a protein is displayed on the surface of a phage as a fusion with one of the coat proteins of the virus.
Currently we are exploiting the use of phage display libraries to target the microvasculature of the blood-brain barrier and the lung epithelium using a range of primary and immortalised cell lines to discover novel targeting agents.
www.cf.ac.uk /phrmy/PCB/PagePhageDisplay.htm   (375 words)

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