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Topic: Phagocyte

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  Phagocyte - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis, in which these cells ingest and kill offending cells by a process analogous to cellular digestion, usually using lysosomes which carry potent enzymes that digests cell components such as other lipids or proteins.
These phagocytes are extremely useful as an initial immune system response to tissue damage.
They are also involved in cell death, usually programmed cell death through apoptosis, in which the phagocytes are responsible for cleaning up the debris and effectively "recycling" the dead cell parts.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phagocyte   (201 words)

 Immune system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
To phagocytose a particle or pathogen, a phagocyte extends portions of its plasma membrane, wrapping the membrane around the particle until the entire particle is enveloped (i.e.
Phagocytes generally patrol the body searching for pathogens, but are also able to react to a group of highly specialized molecular signals, called cytokines, produced by other cells.
Dendritic cells (DC) are phagocytic cells that are present in tissues that are in contact with the external environment, mainly the skin (where they are often called Langerhans cells) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Immune_system   (5202 words)

 Phagocyte NADPH oxidase and NOX
Phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity depends on complex assembly on the plasma membrane level.
Both human neutrophils and Epstein-Barr-virus immortalized B lymphocytes express the constituents of phagocyte oxidase, but the activity of the B cell oxidase is 100 times less than that of neutrophils and the respective profiles of activation suggest differences in regulation.
A structural and proteomic approach is being used to investigate the partners of oxidase assembly and regulation.
www-sante.ujf-grenoble.fr /GREPI/phoxnox/phagocyte.htm   (392 words)

 Patent 6,225,448
The phagocytic activity of the phagocyte is compared with control phagocyte; and increased phagocytic activity indicates that the phagocyte responds to the immunostimulatory cell surface polypeptide.
The phagocytic activity of the phagocyte in the absence of the test compound is compared with the phagocytic activity of the phagocyte in the presence of the test compound.
In one embodiment, the stimulated phagocyte is a macrophage, especially a macrophagic tumor cell.
www.pharmcast.com /Patents/Yr2001/May2001/050101/6225448_IgG050101.htm   (1158 words)

 Phagocyte Function: A Guide for Research and Clinical Evaluation, J. Paul Robinson (Editor), George F. Babcock (Editor) ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Phagocyte Function is the first volume in an important new series that will embrace all cytometric methods.
Phagocyte Function is an indispensable resource for clinical and biomedical researchers in the fields of cytometry, immunology, oncology, cell biology, and microbiology who routinely measure functional abnormalities of phagocytes.
Phagocyte Function is as useful in the classroom as it is in the laboratory or clinic.
www.elx.com.au /item/0471123641   (441 words)

 Transfer Point -5 Major Functions of the Immune System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
One function of these phagocytes is to engulf invaders (or any foreign substance) immediately, without question.
When a phagocyte digests an invader, it notifies the proper authorities (T cells), to let them know there is a foreign substance present.
If the T cell initiates a cell mediated immune response, all phagocytes that have flocked to the site of infection are assisted by other specific white blood cells.
www.transferpoint.com /html/five.html   (682 words)

 [No title]
The phagocyte engulfs its food, which may be another cell - a dead cell in the body, a bacterium, a cancer cell - or particles that it encounters in the body.
The pseudopodia fuse and the particle in surrounded and internalized in a phagosome.
When the invading microorganism does not match the receptor on a phagocyte or does not activate complement, the antibody acts as a flexible adaptor that can attach at one end to the microorganism and at the other to the phagocyte.
www.nau.edu /biology/gloss5.html   (2335 words)

 Immune Response: Encyclopedia of Cancer
Phagocytes (cell eaters), serve as the first line of defense, engulfing dead cells, debris, virus, and bacteria.
Macrophages are an important type of phagocyte, often presenting the antigen—which is usually a foreign protein—to other immune cells and thus are also called "antigen-presenting cells" (APC).
T and B lymphocytes, important immune-system cells, are also capable of recognizing the antigen and become activated.
health.enotes.com /cancer-encyclopedia/immune-response   (916 words)

 Prospects for Gene Therapy of Inherited Phagocyte Disorders - Office of Rare Diseases   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The inherited phagocyte disorders are a group of rare diseases (including Chronic Granulomatous Disease, Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency, Chediak-Higashi Syndrome, and Interferon Gamma Receptor Deficiency) caused by genetic defects in white blood cells called phagocytes which result in a decreased ability to engulf and kill infectious agents.
In Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome both lymphocytes and phagocytes are affected by the genetic defect.
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetic disease in which CGD phagocytes fail to produce the pathogen killing molecules superoxide and hydrogen peroxide due to mutations in the genes for the oxidase components.
rarediseases.info.nih.gov /html/workshops/fy1998/phagocyte980528.html   (1173 words)

 Defective localization of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase to Salmonella-containing phagosomes in tumor necrosis factor p55 ...
proximity of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase to the Salmonella phagosome
The p22 subunit of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase is found remote from bacteria-containing phagosomes within TNFR-deficient macrophages infected with either attenuated sseB mutant (C and D) or virulent 12023 (G and H) S.
phagocyte oxidase to the phagosome as a function of this cytokine.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/98/5/2561   (3062 words)

 Modulating Phagocyte Activation: The Pros and Cons of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors -- Allen 191 (9): 1451 -- ...
of phagocytes (particularly neutrophils) to the gastric mucosa,
I strains are associated with phagocyte infiltration and tissue
phagocytic killing is intimately linked to the ability of Hp to delay their entry into phagocytes and that this altered rate
www.jem.org /cgi/content/full/191/9/1451   (2904 words)

Once a white cell has left the blood vessel and migrated to the enemy, the next job is to EAT the microbe.
This human macrophage, like its cousin the neutrophil, is a professional "phagocyte" or eating cell (phago = "eating", cyte = "cell").
The macrophage is using its internal cytoskeleton to envelop cells of the fungus Candida albicans.
www.cellsalive.com /mac.htm   (134 words)

 Nutritive Phagocyte Incubation Chambers Provide a Structural and Nutritive Microenvironment for Germ Cells of ...
Nutritive phagocytes (NPs) in ovaries (a) and testes (b) at each gametogenic stage with germ cells removed from NP incubation chambers (not to scale).
Nutritive phagocytes (NPs) are obvious as a layer of vesicle-containing cells above the spermatogonia; their tenuous connections with the testicular wall are not obvious.
Phagocytic removal of apoptotic spermatogenic cells by Sertoli cells: mechanisms and consequences.
www.biolbull.org /cgi/content/full/209/1/31   (7119 words)

 Phagocyte receptors for apoptotic cells: recognition, uptake, and consequences -- Fadok et al. 108 (7): 957 Data ...
Phagocyte receptors for apoptotic cells: recognition, uptake, and consequences -- Fadok et al.
Phagocyte receptors for apoptotic cells: recognition, uptake, and consequences
Appearance of phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells requires calcium-mediated nonspecific flip-flop and is enhanced by loss of the aminophospholipid translocase.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/108/7/957/DC1   (2326 words)

 Chronic Granulomatous Disease and Other Disorders of Phagocyte Function -- Dinauer 2005 (1): 89 -- Hematology
or macrophages are exposed to inflammatory or phagocytic stimuli,
A dominant negative mutation of the hematopoietic-specific RhoGTPase, Rac 2, is associated with a human phagocyte immunodeficiency.
Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
www.asheducationbook.org /cgi/content/full/2005/1/89   (3665 words)

Diptheria toxin kills the phagocytes by blocking the movement of ribosomes on mRNA.
Even if a phagocyte is about to be successful, it will find itself with only a mouthful of capsule.
Inhibit chemotaxis, decreasing the number of phagocytes to be dealt with.
www.uicomp.uic.edu /Dept/pathology/infec14.htm   (552 words)

 Activation of the Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase by Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors in Conjunction with ATP and ...
Activation of the Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase by Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors in Conjunction with ATP and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase -- Mizrahi et al.
Activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase is the consequence
Phagocytes are bearers of an enzyme complex capable of responding
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/280/5/3802   (7185 words)

 Creation of a genetic system for analysis of the phagocyte respiratory burst: high-level reconstitution of the NADPH ...
Assembly and activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase.
Ago T, Nunoi H, Ito T, Sumimoto H. Mechanism for phosphorylation-induced activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase protein p47(phox): triple replacement of serines 303, 304, and 328 with aspartates disrupts the SH3 domain-mediated intramolecular interaction in p47(phox), thereby activating the oxidase.
Heyworth P, Curnutte J, Badwey J. Structure and regulation of NADPH oxidase of phagocytic leukocytes: molecular and cellular basis of inflammation.
www.bloodjournal.org /cgi/content/full/99/8/2653   (5989 words)

 mRNA expression profiles for Escherichia coli ingested by normal and phagocyte oxidase-deficient human neutrophils -- ...
Genes described were selected to highlight significant similarities and differences in the stress effects elicited by normal and phagocyte oxidase–deficient neutrophils.
Segal, A.W., Geisow, M., Garcia, R., Harper, A., and Miller, R. The respiratory burst of phagocytic cells is associated with a rise in vacuolar pH.
Vazquez-Torres, A., Fantuzzi, G., Edwards, C.K., Dinarello, C.A., and Fang, F.C. Defective localization of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase to Salmonella-containing phagosomes in tumor necrosis factor p55 receptor-deficient macrophages.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/110/8/1151   (7117 words)

 ISTC - Infection – control over the phagocyte
The others reside within the cells including within the phagocyte, turning it into a niche for its vital activity.
Intracellular pathogens, on the contrary, having adapted to life within the phagocyte, stimulate the deglutitory activity of its owner.
Data on mechanisms of pathogenecity of intracellular pathogens of clostridia and typical intracellular parasites known as legionella, have served to confirm this hypothesis.
www.istc.ru /istc/sc.nsf/news/science-news-infection-control.htm   (272 words)

 Amazon.com: Phagocyte   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
This indicated that pulmonary phagocytes exposed to silica in vivo...
Phagocytes: Biology, Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacotherapeutics (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) by Antonia Notario, Rodolfo Paoletti, and Giovanni Ricevuti (Hardcover - Dec 1997)
Mononuclear phagocytes: In immunity, infection, and pathology (Unknown Binding - 1975)
www.amazon.com /s?ie=UTF8&search-alias=aps&keywords=Phagocyte&page=1   (425 words)

 Interference of Antibacterial Agents with Phagocyte Functions: Immunomodulation or "Immuno-Fairy Tales"? -- Labro 13 ...
Phagocytes, etymologically "devouring cells," are characterized by the process of engulfing relatively large particles (phagocytosis)
"Phagocytes are merely the remnants of the digestive system of primitive beings" (252).
phagocytes present in metazoans (8, 9, 258, 334).
cmr.asm.org /cgi/content/full/13/4/615   (9638 words)

 Nutrition & Health: immune system
The central focus of this research is to understand the interactions of Ahr- and non-Ahr-associated HAH ligands with ER-associated ligands in terms of pro-inflammatory phagocyte activities.
Since the basic aspects of teleost phagocyte biology are similar to that of rodent models, food animals, and humans, the effects of chemical mixtures containing both Ahr- and ER-active (and non-Ahr- and ER-active) structures on phagocyte biology can be elucidated using the model described herein.
Ongoing research in the PI's lab is shedding light on the cellular and molecular pathways by which co-planar PCBs and infectious disease agents impact the immune system using the channel catfish as a model organism.
www.clemson.edu /scg/health/rice.htm   (928 words)

 Identification of agents that protect against inflammatory injury to neurons (US6475745)
The present invention is directed to screening for an agent that inhibits the effect of a neurotoxin from a plaque component activated mononuclear phagocyte on a neuron.
In addition, the present invention is directed to methods of screening for agents that inhibit mononuclear phagocyte-plaque component complex formation, plaque component activation of a mononuclear phagocyte, plaque component induced neurotoxicity of a mononuclear phagocyte.
contacting a monuclear phagocyte with β-amyloid or said fragments of β-amyloid effective to activate said mononuclear phagocyte to produce a neurotoxin, wherein said neurotoxin has a molecular mass of less than 1000 daltons, lacks peptide bonds, and is isolatable in aqueous solution from tissue or tissue culture media in active form;
www.delphion.com /details?pn10=US06475745   (1844 words)

 Human immunodeficiency virus causes mononuclear phagocyte dysfunction.
There is compelling clinical evidence for dysfunction of the mononuclear phagocyte system in patients with AIDS, which is believed due in part to loss of T-cell cooperativity.
The direct consequences of human immunodeficiency virus infection on macrophage function are unknown.
The results suggest that early antiviral therapy may be useful in preventing or mitigating some virus-induced mononuclear phagocyte dysfunction.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1990/aug/M9080269.html   (410 words)

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