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Topic: Phenomenalism

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  Phenomenalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phenomenalism is a radical form of empiricism and, hence, its roots as an ontological view of the nature of existence can be traced back to George Berkeley and his subjective idealism.
Phenomenalism is frequently confused with the bundle theory of perception and vice-versa.
Another common objection to phenomenalism is that in the process of eliminating material objects from language and replacing them with hypothetical propositions about observers and experiences, it seems to commit us to the existence of a new class of ontological object altogether: the sensibilia or sense-data which can exist independently of experience.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phenomenalism   (1290 words)

 Phenomenalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
However, phenomenalism was also adopted by Schopenhauer, who was atheist to the point of producing a proof that God couldn't exist!
Schopenhauer claimed that there was also the flip side of one's perception ["representation" as he called it] which is found through intuitive knowledge.
Despite the inclination to reject solipsism out of hand, its argument is made in such a way that it is that it is not falsifiable and therefore cannot be disproven; at least not by means of modern science, philosophy included.
www.encyclopedia-online.info /Phenomenalist   (748 words)

 Empiricism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
According to an extreme empiricist theory known as Phenomenalism, anticipated by the arguments of both Hume and George Berkeley, a physical object is a kind of construction out of our experiences (Marconi, 2004).
Phenomenalism is the view that physical objects, properties, events (whatever is physical) are reducible to mental objects, properties, events.
According to phenomenalism, to say that a normal observer is present is to make the hypothetical statement that were a doctor to inspect the observer, the observer would appear to the doctor to be normal.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Empiricism   (4539 words)

The various schools of thought that may be grouped under Phenomenalism: plain Empiricism, as taught by Hume; Agnosticism, as advanced by Spencer and Huxley; Positivism, Represented by Comte, Littré, Taine, and Mill; all share in the misunderstanding initiated by Descartes with regard to the nature of substance as put forward by the School.
The Criticism of Kant may well be included with them, as limiting the object of human knowledge to experience, or phenomenal appearance — although some knowledge as to the noumenon is reached by way of the postulates of the practical reason — the three ideas, soul, world, God.
To the objection that induction gives us no knowledge other than of the phenomenal, it answers that we know at least this of the specific substance — that it is the subject of certain observed modifications and the cause of certain observed effects.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/11791b.htm   (2037 words)

 Phenomenalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The philosopher who is most famous for advocating both the bundle theory of objects, and phenomenalism, isthe 18th century Irish philosopher, George Berkeley.
One objection to phenomenalism, uses a reductio adabsurdum.
After all, phenomenalism denies that an external world exists.Just remember what "external world" means according to the phenomenalist: it means the world outside his own mind.
www.therfcc.org /phenomenalism-2172.html   (565 words)

 Voegelin on Economic Phenomenalism and Karl Marx   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The element of phenomenal obsession enters only when the laws developed by a theory of economic action are erected into standards of action, when the theoretical system of economic relations is considered a right order of society that should not be disturbed by interventions.
In substituting the phenomenal order for the substantial, the phenomenalist overlooks the fact that man is not simply an absorbent of goods but a being whose status is determined in relation to the whole of society.
The so-called real equipment of an individual with goods, which actually may rise in accordance with the predictions of economic theory, is indeed phenomenal, while the substantially real poverty or wealth, which is determined by the relation to the poverty or wealth of other members of a society, may not change at all.
www.fritzwagner.com /ev/economic_phenomenalism.html   (391 words)

 Phenomenalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In the philosophy of perception phenomenalism is the view that physical objects events (whatever is physical) are reducible to objects properties events.
Phenomenalism means that for me the physical is all just a construction out of sense-data.
Despite the inclination to reject solipsism out hand its argument is made in such way that it is that it is falsifiable and therefore cannot be disproven; at not by means of modern science philosophy included.
www.freeglossary.com /Phenomenalist   (556 words)

 Epistemological Problems of Perception
What makes this problem extremely difficult is that for phenomenalism to be a viable position, the conditions under which sense-data are experienced or obtainable must themselves be specifiable in terms of other sense-data, not in terms of material objects and structures such as the library or room in question.
A fourth and final objection to phenomenalism, one that is much simpler and more straightforward, concerns what the phenomenalist must apparently say about the knowledge of the mental states of people other than myself (or other than whoever is thinking about the issue).
Thus, once phenomenalism is rejected as hopeless, the only alternatives with regard to knowledge of the external world appear to be skepticism and some version of representationalism, perhaps one that recognizes and incorporates the view that perceptual judgments about the material world are intentionally direct.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/perception-episprob   (6956 words)

 VOEGELIN ON PHENOMENALISM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Phenomenalism is] the complex of sentiments and ideas that cluster around the tendency to interpret the phenomenal relations that are the object of science as a substantial order of things.
Into phenomenal reality, moreover, can be projected hopes and fears, and man can enter into experiential relations with it as if it were substantial reality;.
The complex of phenomenalism has never been isolated as a component factor in the intellectual and spiritual life of modern man, as far as we know,.
www.fritzwagner.com /ev/phenomenalism.html   (126 words)

 A.C. Grayling - Reader in Philosophy at Birkbeck College, Univ. of London
Briefly, classical phenomenalism is the view that physical objects are ("logical") constructions out of actual and possible sense-data.
An essential commitment of phenomenalism, therefore, is that certain counterfactuals are to be taken as barely (that is, non-reductively) true; which says, in material mode, that the world contains irreducible possibilia.
It is a familiar problem for phenomenalism that level 2 cannot be reduced to level 1 without remainder, and that therefore level 1 can only be sufficient for level 2 if suitably supplemented.
www.acgrayling.com /Berkeley/Brklyp2.html   (1260 words)

 Knowledge - Phenomenalism
The most well known form of Phenomenalism is that proposed by the English philosopher A. Ayer and the movement known as Logical Positivism.
Phenomenalism as a theory of truth is a form of reliabilism.
For, it is not an analytic truth (a 'convention of language') and neither is there any possible or actual sense experience that could be said to verify it.
www.philosophyonline.co.uk /tok/knowledge10.htm   (418 words)

Instead, they have embraced some form of phenomenalism, maintaining that our ordinary talk about 'physical objects' may be reduced to descriptions of immediate experience, or sense-data, and to descriptions of recurring patterns within that experience.
It is worth asking, then, whether the traditional empiricist commitment to phenomenalism is in any way connected with opposition to nativism.
Phenomenalism may plausibly be viewed as an attempt to reconcile sceptical arguments with common-sense beliefs.
www.philosophy.umd.edu /Faculty/pcarruthers/HKHN-11.htm   (5337 words)

 Ontological Undecidability
When it comes to proof of undecidability in regard to realism and phenomenalism, the ideal way would be to demonstrate, as with the paradox of the Liar, that stipulating the truth of one side of the dilemma always implies its own falsehood and the truth of the other side.
Indeed, if what phenomenalism means is that the reality of an object is exhausted by its features in the representation of a subject, then it is hard to see how this differs from solipsism or subjective idealism.
Fumerton, in order to disarm himself, in spite of himself, against scepticism, must ignore the phenomenal immanence of physical things and embrace the bizarre notion that common sense is persuaded of the existence of physical objects, in general and in particular, by inferences that cannot stand up to the most half-hearted critique.
www.friesian.com /undecd-1.htm   (7752 words)

Physicalists and phenomenalists both claim epistemological priority for their own basic units, but it has been demonstrated already by theorists with less absolutist pretensions that it is hard to understand what such would mean in the first place.
Those free from metaphysical, ontological or epistemological absolutism have also made clear before, that when choosing between these different systems, it is most of all the way in which they deal with the relationship between qualities and particulars which matters (and not so much the metaphysical priority of either qualities or particulars).
It may be or cause single phenomenal colors, sounds, tactual sensations, and so on, but it may also be a mental or other nonphenomenal (and nonphysical) entity.
www.trinp.org /MNI/BoI/1/2/2.HTM   (1066 words)

 Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil
The philosophy remains unique because he makes phenomenalism more of a moral and political issue than it is usually taken to be, and he is always angrily insistent about the truth of it.
Phenomenalism is a theory of perception and knowledge usually associated with Englishmen such as John Stuart Mill, Bertrand Russell and A.J. Ayers.
There are some English department now, for example, where in the job descriptions, the writings one has to produce for tenure can include confessional autobiography; in effect, to produce an aphoristic self-description, whether that is at all interesting or not, qualifies one as a serious academic scholar and teacher in some places.
www.escapefromwatchtower.com /nietzsche.beyond.good.and.evil.html   (15058 words)

 [No title]
This is fatal to translational phenomenalism, since a physical claim is translatable into a sensory claim only if one claim states necessary and sufficient conditions for the truth of the other.
The necessity here was meant to be physical or nomological, not conceptual as is the case with phenomenalism, but the requirement to reduce one domain of phenomena to another via biconditionals united both translational phenomenalists and materialists.
Given phenomenalism, concluding that a physical object exists requires only horizontal inference because one is inferring from sensory facts having met one's acquaintance to other sensory facts -- facts which have only accidentally failed to meet one's acquaintance.
www.ifs.csic.es /sorites/Issue_09/item3.htm   (5781 words)

 This is the introduction from the book Phenomena, by John Michell and Robert Rickard (1977):   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
  This book is meant as an introduction to an expanded, phenomenal view of reality which, because it is based on life as experienced rather than as conceived, we offer as a more complete, practical and satisfactory way of seeing things than the physical world-view of modern science.
The father of modern phenomenalism was Charles Fort (1874-1932), a world-changer, a cosmological revolutionary.
Many are the misunderstandings, injustices and miseries which could have been avoided at the time by a touch of phenomenalism: visionaries sent to madhouses, UFO contactees put out of work, scientists discredited for unorthodox findings, Joan of Arc and many others burnt for conversing with spirits.
www.maths.ex.ac.uk /~mwatkins/phenomena.htm   (4996 words)

Phenomenalism is best thought of as a secular idealism.
Phenomenalism differs from idealism in that it holds that objects exist insofar either as they are perceived or as it is possible to perceive them.
Phenomenalism is thus a weaker theory than idealism.
www.theoryofknowledge.info /phenomenalism.html   (161 words)

This reveals how certain exigencies in the developmental history of phenomenalism have debarred it from proper consideration as a clear-cut, truly relativistic basis for modern physics.
This kept phenomenalism in a virtual straightjacket of ‘subjective idealism’ or ‘psychologism’ for nigh on two centuries.
In this academic polarisation between Arts and Science, whatever relevance Phenomenalism might originally have promised as a philosophical underpinning for relativistic physics was lost and consigned, thereafter to academic limbo.
www.nrig.org /Phenomenalism.html   (3350 words)

 Empiricist/Insturmentalist Phenomenolism:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Empiricist Phenomenalism holds that our perception of physical objects is derived from our senses, and that we come to believe that physical objects exist because the theory of physical objects is the theory that best fits our empirical evidence.
Although Empiricist Phenomenalism is similar to van Fraassen’s Constructive Empiricism, it is able to avoid these kinds of critiques of Constructive Empiricism by defining empirical adequacy in terms of sense experience instead of observation.
Although one may choose to hold Empiricist Phenomenalism, and use the sense data or Adverbial Theory of Perception to give an account of perceptual experiences as existing apart from the ostensible objects of perception, one should be aware that there are counter arguments to these theories.
www.u.arizona.edu /~hassoun/ep8.htm   (10451 words)

 Definition of phenomenalism
12:...at this claim is a ''definition'' of 'exists'; if phenomenalism ''were'' treated as a definition of 'exists', the...
Materialism and phenomenalism are both varieties of [[monism]], and of monism t...
Inspired by [[logical positivism]] and the [[phenomenalism]] of [[Ernst Mach]], in [[1914]] he declared that...
www.wordiq.com /search/phenomenalism.html   (422 words)

Classical phenomenalism, in short, treats physical objects as theoretical entities - rather than as things that are "directly" or "immediately" observable - and offers a reductionist account of the meaning of statements referring to such theoretical entities.
Phenomenalism, as we have seen, does cash out talk about unperceived physical objects in terms of hypothetical, subjunctive conditional statements about the experiences that perceivers would have if they were differently situated.
David Armstrong's second objection to phenomenalism is one version of a "mindless world" objection, and the thrust of it was that if phenomenalism is true, then a world without minds would also have to be a world without physical objects.
www.austincc.edu /rloverin/Tooley'sEpistemologyNotes5.html   (14337 words)

 Consciousness studies: Geometrical phenomenalism - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks
Geometrical Phenomenalism maintains that consciousness is a complex phenomenon that consists of a geometric form of the output of neural processing.
The empirical part of the theory is fairly straightforward, it proposes that the paradox of consciousness is due to a mind that is brain activity spread out in space and time but also not separated from a point that is at the present instant.
The separation of the observation point from the things in experience is indeterminate which is why we see the stars on the ceiling of a planetarium or on the screens of virtual reality goggles as incredibly distant from us.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/Consciousness_studies:_Geometrical_phenomenalism   (4352 words)

 [No title]
If Mary had an understanding of the intrinsic phenomenal properties and their involvement in awareness of color, she would be in a position to identify colors (Chalmers 266).
It may not be entirely clear how the phenomenal fits together to form the material, but this is reflective of only our ignorance, and it is even less clear how the physical might fit together to form consciousness.
There is a more principled reason to reject that the physical gives rise to the phenomenal than there is a reason to assume the phenomenal cannot give rise to the physical.
www.people.virginia.edu /~jed6h/phenomenalism.doc   (2725 words)

The point of this wider-than-normal usage of the term "phenomenalism, " according to which even some forms of direct realism deserve to be called phenomenalistic, is to call attention to important continuities of thought between theories often thought to be competitors.
Williams's target is not phenomenalism in its classical sense-datum and reductionist form but empiricism generally.
This second edition contains a new afterword in which Williams places his arguments in the context of some current discussions of coherentism versus the Myth of the Given and explains their relation to subsequent developments in his own epistemological views.
www.cokesbury.com /?pid=0691009074   (153 words)

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