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Topic: Phenotype

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  Phenotype - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size, eye color, or behavior that varies between individuals.
Phenotype is determined to some extent by genotype, or by the identity of the alleles that an individual carries at one or more positions on the chromosomes.
A phenotype is any detectable characteristic of an organism (i.e., structural, biochemical, physiological and behavioral) determined by an interaction between its genotype and environment (see genotype-phenotype distinction and phenotypic plasticity for a further elaboration of this distinction).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phenotype   (305 words)

 Phenotype   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Her review suggested that the phenotypic finding of excessive arches is probably related to genes in the distal half of the 18 long arm.
Besides the issue of a critical region for the trisomy 18 phenotype, these papers also bring up the ongoing discussion in the literature about whether or not aneuploidy syndromes are due primarily to developmental instability or whether the syndromes represent a composite of the genes in the region, ie.
Wilson and colleagues suggest that in fact, their patient plus their review of the literature would argue that the contribution of the triplicated loci to the phenotype is "neither additive or invariant." The argument would be closer to the developmental instability hypothesis as opposed to the notion of a combination of specific genes.
www.trisomy.org /info/html/phenotype.htm   (969 words)

 The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction
The phenotype of an organism is the class to which that organism belongs as determined by the description of the physical and behavioral characteristics of the organism, for example its size and shape, its metabolic activities and its pattern of movement.
The phenotype is the descriptor of the phenome, the manifest physical properties of the organism, its physiology, morphology and behavior.
The distinction that is made between genotype and phenotype is made necessary by the separation of causal pathways that lead on the one hand to the passage of information about organisms between successive generations, and, on the other, to the growth and development of an organism within a generation from conception to death.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/genotype-phenotype   (5061 words)

 Genetics Glossary P   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A mammalian phenotype in which patches of skin are unpigmented because of lack of melanocytes; generally inherited as an autosomal dominant.
The occurrence in a population (or among populations) of several phenotypic forms associated with alleles of one gene or homologs of one chromosome.
Used to describe a situation in which the phenotype expressed by a gene is altered by changes in the position of the gene within the genome.
helios.bto.ed.ac.uk /bto/glossary/p.htm#p   (2512 words)

 Genotype-phenotype distinction Info - Encyclopedia WikiWhat.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The concept of phenotypic plasticity describes the degree to which an organism's phenotype is determined by its genotype.
A phenotype is said to be canalized if mutations (changes in the genome) do not noticeably affect the physical properties of the organism.
This means that a canalized phenotype may form from a large variety of different genotypes, in which case it is not possible to exactly predict the genotype from knowledge of the phenotype.
wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/g/ge/genotype_phenotype_distinction.html   (502 words)

 The Extended Phenotype - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the main portion of the book, arguing that the only thing which genes control directly is the synthesis of proteins, Dawkins points to the arbitrariness of restricting the idea of the phenotype to apply only to the phenotypic expression of an organism's genes in its own body.
An animal's behaviour tends to maximise the survival of the genes 'for' that behaviour, whether or not those genes happen to be in the body of the particular animal performing it.
Dawkins considers the concept of the Extended Phenotype to be his principle contribution to evolutionary theory.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/The_Extended_Phenotype   (371 words)

 The Extended Phenotype
The conventional phenotype is a special case in which the effects are regarded as being confined to the individual body in which the gene sits.
In practice it is convenient to limit 'extended phenotype' to cases where the effects influence the survival chances of the gene, positively or negatively.
The extended phenotype may not constitute a testable hypothesis in itself, but it so far changes the way we see animals and plants that it may cause us to think of testable hypotheses that we would otherwise never have dreamed of.
www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk /dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Dawkins/Work/Books/extend.shtml   (1480 words)

 The Virtual Phenotype   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The main strength of this approach is that it reduces complex genotypic data to simple phenotypic categories based on a rational, data-driven analysis of similar genotypes.
It is important to remember, however, that the virtual phenotype only provides an estimate of the probable phenotype of the patient's virus-the actual phenotype could be more or less sensitive than the average value obtained from the database.
Correlation between actual and virtual phenotype will be weaker for newer drugs or in cases where there are fewer matches due to unusual genotypes.
www.hivandhepatitis.com /hiv_and_aids/test/lab1g.html   (319 words)

 Phenotype, genotype and environment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Generally it is a fact that the phenotype of an animal is determined by its genotype and its environment.
Often it is assumed that the phenotype is the sum of the genotype and the environment.The phenotype can also be seen as the interaction between genetics and environmental factors, some genotypes are better in one environment and others are better in another environment.
Therefore it is more appropriate to describe the phenotype as a function of the genotype and the environment.
www.kursus.kvl.dk /shares/vetgen/_Popgen/genetics/1/1/sld009.htm   (183 words)

 Genotype and Phenotype   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A single phenotype may be produced by various different genotypes, depending on the environment.
Because these are random events, their effect on the phenotype is independent of the organism's genotype or environment.
Heritability is the proportion of the variance of a population's phenotype which is due to genetic variance within the population.
salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk /year3/psyc364evolutionary_psychobiology/psy364_genotype_phenotype/psy364_genotype_phenotype.htm   (2608 words)

 Phenotype Photos.
Every ascospore produced by morel mushrooms is phenotypically different (except that they are produced in pairs of two identical spores).
A phenotype is a group of morels that grow out from a mycelial mass that originated from one ascospore.
The available cell mass is determined by the condition of the mycelium, because the cell material is preconstructed in the mycelium and then transferred to the mushroom in an endotrophic manner.
nov55.com /mr/ph.html   (569 words)

 AEGiS-03CROI: Reversion of SI phenotype to NSI in patients with HIV-1 infection.
The appearance of syncytium inducing (SI) phenotype maybe an indication of the progression of an aggressive HIV infection that is usually accompanied with a decline in the CD4 positive cell number.
Reversion of the SI phenotype to the non-syncytium inducing (NSI) phenotype appears to be an unusual phenomenon and has been reported in 3 out of 10 HIV-1 positive patients undergoing didanosine treatment.
This reversion of phenotype from SI to NSI was only transient and was not observed in patients receiving zidovudine or no antiretroviral therapy.
www.aegis.com /conferences/CROI/1996/498.html   (362 words)

 Microarrays as phenotype
"Microarray data are good phenotypes to determine the order of genes and are a good surrogate measure of cell status," said Dr. Gad Shaulsky, associate professor of molecular and human genetics at BCM.
Phenotype is the outward manifestation of the genotype.
Shaulsky and his co-authors performed their work in Dictyostelium (Dictyostelium discoideum), a form of soil amoeba used in the laboratory because many of its 10,000 genes are homologues or equivalents of genes found in humans.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-04/bcom-map040805.php   (434 words)

 What are Blood Types?
phenotype can be easily understood in the case of blood type.
Phenotype refers to the characteristics of that trait an individual displays.
Individuals who are phenotypically type O or type AB have only one possible genotype, OO and AB, respectively.
gslc.genetics.utah.edu /units/basics/blood/types.cfm   (645 words)

 Introduction to Quantitative Genetics
Furthermore, the number of phenotypes that result from a specific genotype will be reduced further if epistatic interactions between several loci affects the phenotype.
Therefore, the phenotype is a sum of the environmental and the genetic effects.
And one of the goals of quantitative genetics is to measure the contribution of genetic and environmental factors on a specific phenotype.
www.ndsu.nodak.edu /instruct/mcclean/plsc431/quantgen/qgen2.htm   (601 words)

 Genotype & Phenotype
Definitions: phenotype is the constellation of observable traits; genotype is the genetic endowment of the individual.
In a narrow "genetic" sense, the genotype defines the phenotype.
If the phenotype affecting reproduction or survivorship is genetically based, then selection can winnow out genotypes indirectly by winnowing out phenotypes.
biomed.brown.edu /Courses/BIO48/5.Geno.Pheno.HTML   (1087 words)

 Mutant library – wrinkly. Wisconsin rapid cycling Brassica oleracea mutagenesis
This suggests that the wrinkly phenotype is recessive.
M2 Phenotype: The original mutant was pulled out of the first field screen as a possible late-flowering mutant.
The phenotype is much more extreme than the other two wrinkled plants found in lot 17.
www.biochem.wisc.edu /brassicaclassroomgenetics/Wrinkly   (538 words)

 Mendelian Genetics Practice Problem Solutions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
From this data, we cannot determine which allele has the dominant phenotype.
This is an unusual map distance, it is too small to be measured with this number of progeny.
Another way to look at it: in order to be diseased and B, recombination must have occurred and since the chance of recombination is 11%, the chance of being B and diseased is 11%.
web.mit.edu /esgbio/www/mg/solutions.html   (1296 words)

 Phenotype-based cloning
Complementation of a mutant phenotype in an easily transformable organism can be used to obtain, from a different organism, a gene equivalent to the mutant gene.
Further genetic manipulation may be needed after the initial tagging event to assure that the tag is indeed associated with the mutant phenotype.
When a transposable element transposes, it often integrates itself in genes, causing mutations that can be recognized by phenotype.
opbs.okstate.edu /~melcher/MG/MGW4/MG414.html   (407 words)

 Phenotype Resistance Testing News Articles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
PHENOTYPIC ASSAY: A procedure whereby sample DNA of a patient's HIV is tested against various antiretroviral drugs to see if the virus is susceptible or resistant to these drugs.
Sensitivity of Phenotypic Analyses for Detection of K65R or M184V in Mixtures with Wild-type HIV
Genotypic and Phenotypic Predictors of the Magnitude of Response to Tenofovir in Treatment-experienced HIV Patients
www.hivandhepatitis.com /recent/test/phenotype/1.html   (574 words)

 Linking Phenotype to Genotype
Phenotypes are generally difficult to recognize and validate, especially at the cellular level.
One limitation of the phenotypic approach is that a compound may act on a disease-relevant cellular process, yet be silent when used in isolation.
Linking Phenotype to Genotype and Proteins to Profits concurrent conferences will provide an excellent venue for companies wishing to network with scientists from the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries involved in the correlation of phenotype to genotype and/or scientists involved in the technical developments or applications in the fields of Protein and Peptide Arrays and Proteomics.
www.healthtech.com /2003/ptg/index.asp   (3526 words)

 Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective - Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Understanding the process of adaptive evolution of phenotypes is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology.
In the last decade, there has been an explosion of research on phenotypic plasticity (the environmentally induced production of different phenotypes by a single genotype) as well as on the molecular details of development, reflecting the increased recognition of their importance in shaping phenotypic evolution.
Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective can serve as a text for graduate-level courses and seminars on phenotypic evolution or evolutionary developmental biology, and as a supplemental text for evolutionary biology.
www.sinauer.com /detail.php?id=7994   (354 words)

 Information about Bison Markers, Bison Phenotype & Fertility   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In addition, I will set down my thoughts on where Beefalo should be headed in order to get the support and cooperation of the State Schools in solving the fertility problems, in promoting Beefalo, and at the same time, allowing Beefalo to grow into the major breed that I think it should be.
The use of Bison phenotype to select a breed of 3/8 Bison would produce fertility problems and would not be acceptable to the beef industry.
The developer must also select bulls based on phenotype and parentage that contain a significant number of Bison chromosomes in addition to those that are detectable through Bison marker tests.
www.beefalobeef.com /markers.htm   (3108 words)

 Cafe Hayek: Markets: An Extended Phenotype   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
According to dictionary.com, a phenotype is "The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences." Or, as Dawkins puts it in his just-released The Ancestor’s Tale, "A ‘phenotype’ is that which is influenced by genes."
Through natural selection, genes ‘fashion’ organisms' phenotypes to maximize their (the genes’) prospects for survival and for being passed on to future generations of organisms that carry the genes creating particular phenotypes.
So, yes, as I understand the concept of phenotypes, the market-driven extensive global division of labor is an extended human phenotype.
cafehayek.typepad.com /hayek/2005/02/markets_an_exte.html   (594 words)

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