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Topic: Pheochromocytoma


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  Pheochromocytoma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A pheochromocytoma (also phaeochromocytoma, English spelling) is a tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands originating in the chromaffin cells, which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Extra-adrenal paragangliomas (often described as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas) are closely related, though less common, tumors that originate in the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are named based upon the primary anatomical site of origin.
One diagnostic test used in the past for a pheochromocytoma is to administer clonidine (Catapres®), a centrally-acting alpha-2 agonist used to treat high blood pressure.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pheochromocytoma   (441 words)

  
 Biochemical Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma
Pheochromocytomas, differ from the adrenal medulla in that the tumors mainly secrete norepinephrine, whereas the predominant catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla is epinephrine.
In patients with pheochromocytoma, over 94% of the elevated plasma concentrations of normetanephrine or metanephrine are derived from metabolism of catecholamines by the catechol-O-methyltransferase within pheochromocytoma tumor cells and not by actions of extra-adrenal catechol-O-methyltransferase on catecholamines released by tumors into the circulation (41).
1995 Plasma metanephrines in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
www.angelfire.com /hi/Pheochromocytoma/biodiag.html   (5491 words)

  
 Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: Pheochromocytoma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the core of the adrenal glands that secretes excessive amounts of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, resulting in high blood pressure.
Pheochromocytoma is a rare disease in which a tumor causes the adrenal medulla to overproduce epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones.
Pheochromocytoma can be diagnosed based on a number of factors, including a physical examination; blood and urine lab tests, which measure urinary catecholamines and epinephrine and norepinephrine in blood and urine; and imaging, including computed tomography scan (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_g2601/is_0010/ai_2601001053   (683 words)

  
 THE MERCK MANUAL, Sec. 2, Ch. 9, Adrenal Disorders
In addition to the adrenals, tumors may be found in the paraganglia of the sympathetic chain, retroperitoneally along the course of the aorta, in the carotid body, in the organ of Zuckerkandl (at the aortic bifurcation), in the GU system, in the brain, in the pericardial sac, and in dermoid cysts.
Pheochromocytomas are part of the syndrome of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia, type IIA (Sipple's syndrome) and may be associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenomas (see Ch.
Pheochromocytoma is present if there is a fall in BP >= 35/25 mm Hg, a fall in glucose > 18 mg/dL (> 1 mmol/L), or a rise in insulin > 13 µU/mL (> 90 pmol/L).
www.merck.com /pubs/mmanual/section2/chapter9/9d.htm   (1672 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma: Adrenal Gland Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition
A pheochromocytoma is a tumor that usually originates from the adrenal glands' chromaffin cells, causing overproduction of catecholamines, powerful hormones that induce high blood pressure and other symptoms.
Pheochromocytomas may grow within the adrenal glands or in chromaffin cells outside the adrenal glands.
Pheochromocytomas may occur in men or women at any age, but they are most common in people between the ages of 30 and 60.
www.merck.com /mmhe/sec13/ch164/ch164f.html   (572 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma
Pheochromocytoma develops later during the evolution of the disease, and necessitates regular clinical and biological monitoring throughout follow-up.
However, it was strongly expressed in ganglionic cells and pheochromocytoma cells of the composite pheochromocytomas and also in mucosal ganglioneuromas, a gangliocytic paraganglioma, and in pheochromocytomas from the patients with NF1.
Pheochromocytomas, which are adrenal medullary neoplasms, typically manifest with hypertension, headaches, palpitations, tachycardia, sweating, and anxiety symptoms; however, 10% to 17% of patients with pheochromocytomas are asymptomatic.
www.thedoctorsdoctor.com /diseases/pheochromocytoma.htm   (4786 words)

  
 Adrenal Tumors - Causes, Symtoms, Diagnosis and Treatments - Endocrinology Health Guide
A pheochromocytoma is a benign adrenal gland tumor that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones.
Pheochromocytomas occur most frequently in young to middle-aged adults between the ages of 30 and 60.
The most common symptom of pheochromocytoma is high blood pressure, which is sometimes extreme.
www.umm.edu /endocrin/adretum.htm   (262 words)

  
 Cancer Information, Research, and Treatment for all Types of Cancer | OncoLink
The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is established by the demonstration of elevated 24-hour urinary excretion of free catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) or catecholamine metabolites (vanillylmandelic acid and total metanephrines).
Data suggest that for patients with resectable, benign pheochromocytoma, the overall survival is equal to that of the age-matched normal population.
Pheochromocytoma with regional lymphatic metastasis or local extension should be treated by aggressive surgical resection with an attempt to remove all gross evidence of disease.
www.oncolink.upenn.edu /types/article.cfm?c=4&s=6&ss=48&id=9229   (3562 words)

  
 UrologyHealth.org - Adult Conditions - Adrenal & Kidney Diseases - Pheochromocytoma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal medulla that produces excess adrenaline.
Pheochromocytoma accounts for less than 1 percent of all hypertensive cases.  There is no male to female sex preference and it can occur at any age, but is most common in people between the ages of 40 and 60.
If pheochromocytoma is suspected, there are some standard tests that are initially performed, including the 24-hour blood and urine tests to measure the levels of catecholamines or their degradation products.
www.urologyhealth.org /adult/index.cfm?cat=02&topic=114   (1754 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Pheochromocytoma
A pheochromocytoma (also phaeochromocytoma, English spelling) is a tumor in the medulla of the adrenal glands (or, rarely, the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system) which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually epinephrine and norepinephrine.
The signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those of sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity: elevated heart rate and blood pressure and anxiety often resembling that of a panic attack.
One diagnostic test for a pheochromocytoma is to administer clonidine (Catapres®), a centrally-acting alpha-2 agonist used to treat high blood pressure.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Pheochromocytoma   (250 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma
Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of special cells (called chromaffin cells), most often found in the middle of the adrenal gland.
Once a person has been diagnosed with a pheochromocytoma, he or she will undergo tests to identify exactly where in the body the tumor is located.
Localized benign pheochromocytoma means that the tumor is found only in one area, is not cancer, and cannot spread to other tissues of the body.
www.lifesteps.com /gm/Atoz/ency/pheochromocytoma.jsp   (1805 words)

  
 eMedicine - Pheochromocytoma : Article by Anant Krishnan, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Incidentally, pheochromocytomas are called the 10% tumor because they are associated with a 10% risk of malignancy, 10% of the tumors are bilateral, 10% are extra-adrenal.
The diagnosis of a benign versus a malignant pheochromocytoma cannot be accurately determined by the histologic appearance; it depends on the presence or absence of metastasis.
In children with pheochromocytoma, the risk of sustained hypertension is higher than in adults, which appears in 88-92% of cases on average; however, the incidence of intermittent hypertension is lower.
www.emedicine.com /radio/topic552.htm   (4014 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma
Pheochromocytoma, a rare cancer, is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in special cells in the body called chromaffin cells.
Pheochromocytoma may also start in other parts of the body, such as the area around the heart or bladder.
Pheochromocytoma is sometimes part of a condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN).
www.cchs.net /health/health-info/docs/1400/1433.asp?index=6180   (823 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma
A pheochromocytoma begins in special cells called chromaffin cells, which are found in the core of the adrenal gland.
Pheochromocytomas can occur in a small percentage of people with NF1, a syndrome that includes multiple tumors in the skin (neurofibromas), pigmented skin spots, tumors of the optic nerve of the eye, and bone lesions.
If a pheochromocytoma is cancerous (malignant), treatment may go beyond medication and surgery to include radiation, chemotherapy or destroying the function (ablation) of arteries that supply blood to the tumor.
www.cnn.com /HEALTH/library/DS/00569.html   (1666 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma: high blood pressure, headaches, and anxiety.
Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal gland which produce excess adrenaline.
Pheochromocytomas arise from the central portion of the adrenal gland which is called the adrenal medulla.
Pheochromocytomas are often called the Ten Percent Tumor since they do many things about ten percent of the time...
www.endocrineweb.com /pheo.html   (477 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma, Bilateral - MedPix™ Medical Image Database and Teaching Files   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Pheochromocytoma is a paraganglioma, a functional adrenergic tumor.
Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that causes symptoms including hypertension, headache, tremors, palpitations, sweating, flushing and anxiety.
For pheochromocytoma, the posterior view of the midabdomen with the region of the adrenals is key.
rad.usuhs.mil /medpix/medpix.html?mode=single&recnum=5764   (637 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma
On MRI, pheochromocytomas typically have a "light bulb" appearance with high signal on T2-weighted images (although this is not universal).
In cases where clinical evidence strongly suggests the presence of the pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma but none can be visualized on CT or MRI, MIBG or adrenal vein sampling may be used to localize occult masses.
But the questions of whether iodinated contrast is safe for use in patients with pheochromocytoma and whether a alpha-adrenergic blockade should be given prior to contrast administration are unanswered; formal data are scarce.
brighamrad.harvard.edu /Cases/bwh/hcache/346/full.html   (913 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma | Webpathology.cfm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Remarks: Pheochromocytoma is a neoplasm of neural crest origin arising in the adrenal medulla.
Remarks: The tumor cells in pheochromocytoma may be arranged in alveolar (nesting), trabecular, solid/diffuse, or mixed patterns.
The term composite pheochromocytoma has been used for pheochromocytomas with a component of neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.
www.webpathology.com /case.cfm?case=83   (285 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma
In a series of 82 unselected patients with pheochromocytoma, 23% were found to be carriers of associated familial disorders.[2] Therefore, all patients with pheochromocytomas should be screened for MEN-2 and von Hippel- Lindau disease to avert further morbidity and mortality in the patients and their families.
The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is established by the demonstration of elevated 24-hour urinary excretion of free catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) or catecholamine metabolites (VMA and total metanephrines).
Data suggest that for patients with resectable, benign pheochromocytoma, the overall survival is equal to that of the age-matched normal population.[1,2]
cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk /cancernet/102494.html   (3188 words)

  
 eMedicine - Pheochromocytoma : Article by Ann T Sweeney, MD
Mortality/Morbidity: Although pheochromocytomas are rare, making the diagnosis is critical because the malignancy rate is 10%, they may be associated with a familial syndrome, they may precipitate life-threatening hypertension, and the patient may be cured completely with their removal.
Pheochromocytoma, cerebellar hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, renal and pancreatic cysts, and epididymal cystadenomas are associated with VHL disease.
Pheochromocytoma occurring during pregnancy carries a grave prognosis, with maternal and fetal mortality rates of 48% and 55%, respectively.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic1816.htm   (4961 words)

  
 National Cancer Institute - Pheochromocytoma Treatment
In a series of 82 unselected patients with pheochromocytoma, 23% were found to be carriers of associated familial disorders.[2] Therefore, all patients with pheochromocytomas should be screened for MEN2 and von Hippel-Lindau disease to avert further morbidity and mortality in the patients and their families.
When 52 patients with pheochromocytoma were studied, every patient was found to have elevated plasma levels of metanephrines, but 8 of the patients had normal levels of plasma catecholamines.[11] Pharmacologic testing with agents such as glucagon or clonidine is rarely required to make the diagnosis.[12,13]
Once the diagnosis is confirmed by biochemical determinations, the localization and extent of disease should be determined.[9] Ninety-seven percent of the tumors are found in the abdomen, 2% to 3% are found in the thorax, and 1% are found in the neck.
www.cancer.gov /cancerinfo/pdq/treatment/pheochromocytoma/healthprofessional   (967 words)

  
 Pheochromocytoma symptoms, diagnosis and treatment on MedicineNet.com
Pheochromocytoma is a very long word, even for someone who speaks “medical language.” If you happen to be a fan of TV dramas involving young confused doctors, you may have heard the word a few times.
If you are one of the few people who have had a personal experience or know someone who has been suspected of having or has actually had a pheochromocytoma, I hope that this article helps explain what this big word actually means to patients and their families.
Pheochromocytomas are, fortunately, quite rare and the vast majority of them are entirely benign.
www.medicinenet.com /pheochromocytoma/article.htm   (526 words)

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