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Topic: Philosophical Investigations


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  Amazon.com: Philosophical Investigations (3rd Edition): Books: Ludwig Wittgenstein   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
Philosophical Investigations is at times a strange and often wonderful book that reveals the thought processes of one of history's finest minds.
Philosophical Investigations is a classical work in the history of philosophy.
In Philosophical Investigations, a book which became the bible for a whole new way of philosophical thinking (but which he never published in his lifetime), Wittgenstein scrapped all that for the view that language ultimately WAS the world because it contained it.
www.amazon.com /Philosophical-Investigations-3rd-Ludwig-Wittgenstein/dp/0024288101   (2412 words)

  
  Ludwig Wittgenstein [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Philosophical theories, he suggests, are attempts to answer questions that are not really questions at all (they are nonsense), or to solve problems that are not really problems.
Philosophical questions about consciousness, for example, then, should be responded to by looking at the various uses we make of the word "consciousness." Scientific investigations into the brain are not directly relevant to this inquiry (although they might be indirectly relevant if scientific discoveries led us to change our use of such words).
His philosophical education was unconventional (going from engineering to working first-hand with one of the greatest philosophers of his day in Bertrand Russell) and he seems never to have felt the need to go back and make a thorough study of the history of philosophy.
www.iep.utm.edu /w/wittgens.htm   (6909 words)

  
  Philosophical Investigations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is, along with the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one of the two major works by 20th-century philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Rather than presenting a philosophical problem and its solution, Wittgenstein engages in a dialogue, where he provides a thought experiment (a hypothetical example or situation), describes how one might be inclined to think about it, and then shows why that inclination suffers from conceptual confusion.
In remark #23 of Philosophical Investigations he points out that the practice of human language is more complex than the simplified views of language that have been held by those who seek to explain or simulate human language by means of a formal system.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Philosophical_Investigations   (3422 words)

  
 Commentary on Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations
The source of the text of the Philosophical Investigations is http://hermes.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Philosophy/Wittgenstein/pi/.
One of the most difficult or misleading aspects of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations is the way in which he uses multiple voices to converse with himself.
The Philosophical Investigations is written in aphorisms, short numbered passages that are loosely tied together in terms of theme.
users.rcn.com /rathbone/lwtocc.htm   (769 words)

  
 SparkNotes: Ludwig Wittgenstein: Philosophical Investigations
Wittgenstein conducts what he calls a “grammatical investigation,” looking closely at the way these words are used to show that the criteria we use for judging whether someone has, for example, understood how to play chess have nothing to do with that person’s mental state and everything to do with that person’s behavior.
This suggestion diminishes the thrust of “other minds skepticism,” the philosophical claim that we have only imperfect knowledge of other minds, which is based on the premise that the subject is the only one with privileged knowledge of his or her own mind.
(Philosophers may use specialized or unfamiliar words, but the things they talk about, such as knowledge and certainty, are things with which we are all familiar.) A skeptical argument, such as that in Descartes’ first Meditation, draws its strength from beginning with ordinary observations that no one could deny and then reaching startling conclusions.
www.sparknotes.com /philosophy/wittgenstein/section3.rhtml   (1447 words)

  
 Ludwig Wittgenstein (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The move from the realm of logic to that of ordinary language as the center of the philosopher's attention; from an emphasis on definition and analysis to ‘family resemblance’ and ‘language-games’; and from systematic philosophical writing to an aphoristic style -- all have to do with this transition towards anti-dogmatism in its extreme.
Instead of these symptoms of the philosopher's "craving for generality", he points to ‘family resemblance’ as the more suitable analogy for the means of connecting particular uses of the same word.
Although the Tractatus precludes philosophical theories, it does construct a systematic edifice which results in the general form of the proposition, all the while relying on strict formal logic; the Investigations points out the therapeutic non-dogmatic nature of philosophy, verily instructing philosophers in the ways of therapy.
www.seop.leeds.ac.uk /entries/wittgenstein   (7571 words)

  
 20th WCP: Philosophical and Pedagogical Beginnings: Philosophical Investigations
An investigation of the philosophical and pedagogical questions raised in the opening remark of the Investigations will demonstrate that we have not yet begun to use Wittgenstein's method and his writings to their full potential.
Another important philosophical and pedagogical aspect of this example is that there is nothing inner or hidden in Wittgenstein's description of this use of language.
What is impressive about this pedagogical technique is that it challenges the philosophical idea that we think in our heads (and that the essence of language is something inner, hidden or mental) by teaching us how to use our eyes, ears and bodies when engaged in philosophical investigation.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Cont/ContSavi.htm   (4200 words)

  
 Ludwig Wittgenstein (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The move from the realm of logic to that of ordinary language as the center of the philosopher's attention; from an emphasis on definition and analysis to ‘family resemblance’ and ‘language-games’; and from systematic philosophical writing to an aphoristic style — all have to do with this transition towards anti-dogmatism in its extreme.
Instead of these symptoms of the philosopher's "craving for generality", he points to ‘family resemblance’ as the more suitable analogy for the means of connecting particular uses of the same word.
Although the Tractatus precludes philosophical theories, it does construct a systematic edifice which results in the general form of the proposition, all the while relying on strict formal logic; the Investigations points out the therapeutic non-dogmatic nature of philosophy, verily instructing philosophers in the ways of therapy.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/wittgenstein   (7640 words)

  
 Syllabus - Philosophy 810 - Spring 1999
Papers will be assessed on the author's ability to identify and explain an interesting, difficult, and important philosophical problem or issue as well as on his or her efforts to resolve it.
The paper will be assessed, in part, on the philosophical depth and understanding reflected in the author's selection of the main topic.
The term paper should: (1) identify and explain an unresolved philosophical problem or issue; (2) indicate why this problem or issue is interesting, difficult, and important; (3) propose and defend a solution to the problem or issue; and (4) anticipate and respond to the strongest possible objections to your major claim(s) and argument(s).
www.msu.edu /course/phl/810/phl810/spring99/benjamin_1/spring99.htm   (1324 words)

  
 Stephen Mulhall - Wittgenstein's Private Language: Grammar, Nonsense, and Imagination in Philosophical Investigations, ...
Mulhall's primary concern is to examine ##243-315 of Philosophical Investigations, which center around the possibility of a private language, in the light of a distinction between the substantial and the resolute readings of the Tractatus.
If the proponent of a philosophical idea really believes that the words setting out the proposal "articulate an insight, then simply to oppose them or dismiss them (by directly invoking a grammatical articulation that they appear to violate)" would fail to acknowledge that the proposer will "necessarily respond from within her conviction".
Seeing philosophical problems and their treatment as grammatical rather than psychological makes it less appropriate, in comparing the philosopher's question to psychological states treated by the psychoanalyst, to suggest that it may be relevant to consider "the individual, spiritual costs of struggling to fit into a routinized everyday realm;.
ndpr.nd.edu /review.cfm?id=9603   (2193 words)

  
 CHAPTER TWO
However all the philosophers who engage in linguistic analysis have come under the influence of Wittgenstein in one way or another: the Vienna Circle and Neopositivism in general were inspired by the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.
In contrast with the philosophical position of the Tractatus, the Philosophical Investigations abandons the idea of certain ‘ultimate elements’ of language that would be intrinsically simple, i.e., not susceptible of further analysis and to which all linguistic expressions could be reduced by means of the appropriate analysis.
Considered positively, the method of the Philosophical Investigations is analytic; in his reflection on the multiform reality of speech he deliberately avoids generalized considerations.
www.crvp.org /book/Series01/I-28/chapter_two.htm   (5399 words)

  
 [No title]
The Philosophical Investigations is available only in the Anscombe translation, or in a parallel text incorporating that translation: I recommend the parallel text (which uses a slightly revised version of the German).
M. McGinn, Wittgenstein and the Philosophical Investigations is an accessible introduction to the Philosophical Investigations.
D. Stern, Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations: An Introduction is a useful new introductory text on the Philosophical Investigations.
www.sussex.ac.uk /philosophy/documents/wittgenstein_0607.doc   (2487 words)

  
 McGinn: Philosophical Investigations
The Investigations can be seen as a large collection of particular grammatical investigations, each one of which examines the detailed workings of an area of our language that has become a focal point for philosophical myth and confusion.
This diversity in how we use language is regarded by the philosopher as something incidental to its essence; there is no acknowledgement that the structure and function of language are inextricably linked with the structure and function of the complex activities in which its use is embedded.
The philosophical singnificance of W.'s remarks does not lie in these 'conclusions', which are on their own thin and obscure, and which are clearly not intended to serve as the basis for the construction of a more elaborate theoretical machinery.
ha2.seikyou.ne.jp /home/yanase/SumMcGinn.html   (11028 words)

  
 Private language argument - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The private language argument is a philosophical argument said to be found in Ludwig Wittgenstein's later work, especially in Philosophical Investigations.
The argument was central to philosophical discussion at the end of the last century, and continues to arouse interest.
For instance, if one cannot have a private language, it might not make any sense to talk of private sensations such as qualia; nor might it make sense to talk of a word as referring to a concept, where a concept is understood to be a private mental representation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Private_language_argument   (2333 words)

  
 Moore--PHI 5311 (Wittgenstein)
Wittgenstein's thought has played formative roles in two of the most significant philosophical movements of the twentieth century: analytic linguistic philosophy and postmodern philosophy.
Perhaps most importantly, as we seek to understand and interpret Wittgenstein and his text (an important distinction), we will be attempting our own philosophical investigations.
Because of the shortened summer term (and your critical paper/ independent research responsibilities), there is not sufficient time to produce a major philosophical essay of substantial quality.
www3.baylor.edu /~Scott_Moore/Courses/Wittgenstein_Syllabus.html   (937 words)

  
 “Philosophical Investigations §122: Neglected Aspects” (hereafter PINA) was first published in 1991
The philosophical therapist enters into dialogue with her interlocutor and seeks to persuade her, through the use of examples, that there are other ways to see things (say ‘meaning’).
Then, and only then, has the philosophical therapist provided a presentation which is perspicuous, and it is so, potentially, on this occasion only.
Rather, one’s inclination to accept that they do have a primitive language is itself a topic of philosophical investigation and a moment for therapy, rather than being a resource for philosophical clarification or knowledge.
www.uea.ac.uk /~j339/anchoringtherapy.htm   (2557 words)

  
 Translated by WordPort from Nota Bene document L1.BAK
Philosophical Investigations §§ 1-189 was completed in 1937 or 1938; the final TS version was complete by 1946 or 1947, but the published version includes modifications that were made right up to 1950.
Philosophical Investigations is in large part a reaction against the preconceptions that informed Wittgenstein's earlier philosophy.
Philosophical Investigations is again distinctive, and quite different from that of the
philosophy.hku.hk /courses/old/laurencegoldstein/phil2060l1.html   (1721 words)

  
 Philosophical Investigations
When philosophers stop using words in this way, when they stop considering their activity as somehow purer than other practices that compose the mosaic of ordinary life, then philosophical activity will be dispersed across this varied terrain.
Another picture was been dissembled by Wittgenstein through his Investigations: the picture of binary oppositions from mind/body, subject/ object, inner/outer to word/object, signifier/signified.
In 113, Wittgenstein appears to say that when the ordinary and the ideal diverge we philosophers are left blaming ourselves.
phili.blogspot.com   (1542 words)

  
 Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations: Section 43: Meaning is use?
Many philosophers, explicitly or implicitly, are concerned with finding ways of setting misunderstandings right when human communication appears to go wrong, or perhaps it can be said that they try to find ways to prevent communications from ever going wrong.
Particularly, he investigates Wittgenstein's claim that meaning is not a mere mental accompaniment of an utterance.
Often philosophers (of language) or children just learning about language will ask what meaning is. PI 43 suggests that for such cases there's a simple answer.
www.thebluesmokeband.com /philosophy/prop.php   (6538 words)

  
 Philosophical Investigations - Journal Information
While the recent issue of Philosophical Investigations (29:4) was being prepared for publication, the Editorial Board of the journal learnt that D.Z. Phillips had suddenly died in Swansea, on July 25.
The latest issue of Philosophical Investigations (30:3) is a special issue in memory of the work of D.Z. Philips -
Philosophical Investigations to be included in this digitisation project.
www.blackwellpublishing.com /phin   (236 words)

  
 Amazon.co.uk: Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Wittgenstein and the Philosophical Investigations (Routledge Philosophy ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
In the Philosophical Investigations, his most important work, he introduces the famous 'private language argument' which changed the whole philosophical view of language.
Wittgenstein and the Philosophical Investigations introduces and assesses: * Wittgenstein's life, and its connection with his thought * the text of the Philosophical Investigations * the importance of Wittgenstein's work to contemporary philosophy.
Each guidebook considers a major philosopher and a key area of their philosophy by focusing on an important text - situating the philosopher and the work in a historical context, considering the text in question and assessing the philosopher's contribution to contemporary thought.
www.amazon.co.uk /Philosophy-Wittgenstein-Philosophical-Investigations-Guidebooks/dp/0415111919   (998 words)

  
 PES Yearbook: 1998: Stacy J. Stoyanoff, Language Learning Theory
Since he focused primarily on the conceptualization of signs in Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein himself believed that he had made a grave mistake (see the preface to the PI).
Philosophical Investigations does not exclude the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, but instead it enhances the propositions outlined therein.
He told me he decided to begin his Investigations with a quotation from the latter's Confessions, not because he could not find the conception expressed in that quotation stated as well by other philosophers, but because the conception must be important if so great a mind held it.
www.ed.uiuc.edu /EPS/PES-Yearbook/1998/stoyanoff.html   (4169 words)

  
 Instructor's Lecture Notes: Philosophical Investigations
Bertrand Russell, the most famous philosopher of the first part of this century, had held that names pick out individuals which an only be called "this" and "that." Wittgenstein himself had a similar view.
Philosophers have looked to simples because they want to say what makes up composites.
There are different ways of talking about words, in terms of meaning and in terms of use, just as we can talk about a chess-piece in terms of the rules of chess and its physical properties.
hume.ucdavis.edu /mattey/phi001/pinote.htm   (2673 words)

  
 Philosophical Investigations 1-10
This e-text version of the first 100 aphorisms of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations is provided freely for the use of all, in support of the collective reading underway at The Academy.
The Meta-Encyclopedia of Philosophy is comprised of seven different dictionaries that may be used to compare definitions of important terms and hence appreciate the subtleties of philosophical concepts, while the has many free essays, in addition to the wealth of material available if you are prepared to register.
Philosophy Pages is a site providing several useful resources, including a dictionary of philosophical terms, an history and timeline of philosophical development and key thinkers, and a study guide.
www.galilean-library.org /pi1.html   (2011 words)

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