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# Topic: Philosophical logic

 Logic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The ambiguity is that "formal logic" is very often used with the alternate meaning of symbolic logic as we have defined it, with informal logic meaning any logical investigation that does not involve symbolic abstraction; it is this sense of 'formal' that is parallel to the received usages coming from "formal languages" or "formal theory". The boldest attempt to apply logic to mathematics was undoubtedly the logicism pioneered by philosopher-logicians such as Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell: the idea was that mathematical theories were logical tautologies, and the programme was to show this by means to a reduction of mathematics to logic. Again, relevance logic and dialetheism are the most important approaches here, though the concerns are different: the key issue that classical logic and some of its rivals, such as intuitionistic logic have is that they respect the principle of explosion, which means that the logic collapses if it is capable of deriving a contradiction. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logic   (3434 words)

 Logic - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Formal logic (sometimes called "symbolic logic") attempts to capture the nature of logical truth and inference in formal systems, which consist of a formal language, a set of rules of derivation (often called "rules of inference"), and sometimes a set of axioms. For instance, propositional logic and predicate logic are a kind of formal logic, as well as temporal logic, modal logic, Hoare logic, the calculus of constructions, etc. Higher order logics are logical systems based on a hierarchy of types. Informal logic is also more difficult because the semantics of natural language assertions is much more complicated than the semantics of formal logical systems, due to the presence of such phenomena as defeasibility. open-encyclopedia.com /Logic   (2307 words)

 Philosophical logic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Philosophical logic is the study of the more specifically philosophical aspects of logic: the term contrasts with " Mathematical Logic ". Journal of Philosophical Logic Journal devoted to philosophical applications of logic, and the philosophical underpinnings of logic. The Logic Hegel's 1830 Logic, volume I of his Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences, as translated by William Wallace. www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Philosophical_logic.html   (535 words)

 Encyclopedia: Philosophical logic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Mathematical logic is a discipline within mathematics, studying formal systems in relation to the way they encode intuitive concepts of proof and computation as part of the foundations of mathematics. In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. Philosophy of mind is the philosophical study of the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, and consciousness. www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Philosophical-logic   (593 words)

 Philosophical logic -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Philosophical logic is the study of the more specifically philosophical aspects of logic. It is concerned with characterising notions like inference, rational thought, truth, and contents of thoughts, in the most fundamental ways possible, and trying to model them using modern formal logic. Philosophical logic is not concerned with the psychological processes connected with thought, or with emotions, images and the like. www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/p/ph/philosophical_logic.htm   (151 words)

 Philosophical logic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The term contrasts with mathematical logic, and since the development of mathematical logic in the late nineteenth century, it has come to include most of those topics traditionally treated by logic in general. To this extent, though, it does intersect with philosophy of mind and philosophy of language. Gottlob Frege is regarded by many as the founder of modern philosophical logic. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Philosophical_logic   (186 words)

 Logic and Artificial Intelligence In fact, the distinction between mathematical and philosophical logic may well be incidental in relation to the overall goals of the subject, since technical rigor and the use of mathematical methods seem to be essential in all areas of logical research. Because the core theoretical topics (modal, conditional and temporal logic, belief revision, and the logic of context) are so similar, and because the ultimate goal (the formalization of nonmathematical reasoning) is the same, I think of logic in AI as a continuous extension of the philosophical logic tradition. The idea of a logic of tense in the modern sense has been familiar since at least the work of Jan Łukasiewicz (see, for instance, Łukasiewicz 1970), but the shape of what is commonly known as tense logic was standardized by Arthur Prior's work in the 1950s and 1960s: see Prior 1956, 1967, 1968. plato.stanford.edu /entries/logic-ai   (16987 words)

 Logical Consequence, Philosophical Considerations [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] The concept of logical consequence is one of those whose introduction into a field of strict formal investigation was not a matter of arbitrary decision on the part of this or that investigator; in defining this concept efforts were made to adhere to the common usage of the language of everyday life. Such constants are called logical constants, and we say that the logical form of a sentence is a function of the logical constants that occur in the sentence and the pattern of the remaining expressions. The status of the deductive-theoretic approach to logic is not clear for, as Tarski argues in his (1936), deductive-theoretic accounts are unable to reflect the fact that, according to the common concept, logical consequence is not compact. www.iep.utm.edu /l/logcon.htm   (6498 words)

 Philosophical logic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Philosophical logic is the study of the more specifically philosophical aspects of logic: the term contrastswith " Mathematical Logic ". Philosophical logic is not concerned with the psychological processes connected with thought, or with emotions,images and the like. Gottlob Frege is regarded by many as the founder ofmodern philosophical logic. www.therfcc.org /philosophical-logic-13184.html   (145 words)

 Logic, philosophy of : Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online Philosophy of logic can be roughly characterized as those philosophical topics which have emerged either from the technical development of symbolic (mathematical) logic, or from the motivations that logicians have offered for their technical pursuits. In the broad area of mathematical logic, the biggest philosophical punch is packed by modal logic, including tense logic (see Modal logic; Modal logic, philosophical issues in; Tense and temporal logic). Philosophical views may then divide over whether the formal semantics has been shown to be wanting as an account of the semantics of the fragment, or whether instead the aspects of meaning not captured have been shown not to belong to literal content (see Presupposition). www.rep.routledge.com /article/X046#X046P2.25   (1245 words)

 Philosophical Logic Handbook of Philosophical Logic, Volume 1 (Second Edition) by Dov M. Gabbay, F. Guenthner (Kluwer Academic) The first edition of the Handbook of Philosophical Logic (four volumes) was published in the period 1983--1989 and has proven to be an invaluable reference work to both students and researchers in formal philosophy, language, and logic. We felt at the time (1979) that non‑monotonic logic was not, ready for a chapter yet and that combinatory logic and a‑calculus was too far re­moved.' Non‑monotonic logic is now a very major area of philosophi­cal logic, alongside default logics, labelled deductive systems, fibring log­ics, multi‑dimensional, multimodal and substructural logics. Perhaps the most impressive achievement of philosophical logic as arising in the past decade has been the effective negotiation of research partnerships with fallacy theory, informal logic and argumentation theory, attested to by the Amsterdam Conference in Logic and Argumentation in 1995, and the two Bonn Conferences in Practical Reasoning in 1996 and 1997. www.wordtrade.com /philosophy/philosophicallogic.htm   (1288 words)

 Prometheus Unbound: The Philosophical Roots of Un-Philosophical Logic- Christopher R. Altieri- The Examined Life ... As I am a philosopher, the subject of my discourse could not be a more personal one, and, try as one might, when one discusses that which is most personally intimate, the tone adopted in his discourse cannot but reflect the intimacy of the matter before him. It is the distance of the philosopher from his beloved, Wisdom, that occasions his intimacy, and his intimacy with her in thought that makes him aware of the distance between himself and his beloved. Logic, then, can help to clarify the things about which we are talking, and the ways in which we are using words to talk about those things, and can even tell us, to a point, how we may or may not use those words. examinedlifejournal.com /archives/vol3ed9/prometheus.shtml   (2594 words)

 Logic Logic, however, is the study of reasoning and so (as we’ll see) doesn’t really say anything in and of itself. We rarely have to travel far in philosophical territory to hear talk of the “laws of logic”, often accompanied by a suggestion that rejecting them is tantamount to insanity. The value of logic in philosophy (or philosophical logic, to be more accurate) is thus quite plain: we can use it to take arguments apart and study their structure in more detail than a cursory glance would otherwise allow. www.galilean-library.org /int4.html   (2739 words)

 Paraconsistent Logic A logic is said to be paraconsistent iff its relation of logical consequence is not explosive. If an underlying paraconsistent logic is used to formalise the arithmetic, and the theory therefore allowed to be inconsistent, the Gödel sentence may well be provable in the theory (essentially by the above reasoning). Perhaps the simplest way of generating a paraconsistent logic, first proposed by Asenjo, is to use a many-valued logic, that is, a logic with more than two truth values. plato.stanford.edu /entries/logic-paraconsistent   (2629 words)

 Computational Constraints in Philosophical Logic Insofar as philosophical logic relies upon formal methods to characterize rational thought and its contents, it is subject to computational constraints: computability and tractability. Philosophical logic may be characterized as “the philosophical elucidation of those notions that are indispensable for the proper characterization of rational thought and its contents” (Lowe 2001). It is important to note that philosophical logic is not really concerned with thought insofar as thought is a psychological process (which is the subject-matter of empirical psychology and the philosophy of mind), rather it concerns thoughts insofar as they have contents which are evaluable as true or false. www.crumpled.com /cp/personal/ccip.html   (2717 words)

 [No title] If you wish that person to gain an early appreciation of philosophical logic, then this book is a perfect gift – or assignment, or purchase. Logical Consequence: Patricia A. Blanchette (University of Notre Dame). Free Logics: Karel Lambert (University of California at Irvine and the University of Salzburg). www.blackwellpublishing.com /~cgilib/bookxml.asp?isbn=0631206930   (443 words)

 Journal of Symbolic Logic The Journal of Symbolic Logic was founded in 1936 and it has become the leading research journal in the field. The Journal is distributed with The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic. The Journal and The Bulletin are the official organs of the Association for Symbolic Logic, an international organization for supporting research in symbolic logic and furthering the exchange of ideas among mathematicians, philosophers, computer scientists, linguists, and others interested in this field. www.aslonline.org /journals-journal.html   (225 words)

 PHL 418 syllabus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) This course is an introduction to modal logic, i.e., the logic of possibility and necessity. Our main goal in the first part is the presentation of some of the main systems of propositional modal logic, motivating a traditional semantics in terms of possible worlds as well as an alternative semantics in terms of so-called minimal models. Finally, in the third part we take up quantified modal logic and explore some of the technical and philosophical issues connected with it, especially in the light of questions of reference and modality and the so-called "Barcan formula". www.msu.edu /~aantonel/syl430.html   (175 words)

 Journal of Philosophical Logic The Association for Symbolic Logic has editorial responsibility for the Journal of Philosophical Logic, which is published by Kluwer Academic Publishers under a contract with the ASL. Contributions are also invited that explore applications of logic to the various different fields of scientific and formal inquiry, including (but not limited to) the foundations and philosophy of mathematics; the foundations and philosophy of the special sciences; the theoreticcal foundations of computer science, artificial intelligence, and defeasible reasoning; sematic theory and linquistics. The Journal of Philosophical Logic strongly encourages electronic submissions of papers: articles for publication and peer review in electronic form (preferably PDF) should be sent to the coordinating editor, at the address jphillog@uci.edu. www.aslonline.org /journals-philosophy.html   (369 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Logic: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The point of the book is not to replace a full course in logic, any more than other books in the Very Short Introductions series are meant to replace full treatments of their respective subject matters, yet it seems that these reviewers measured this book against just such an impossible standard. In addition, he tells you when things are not so tidy as they seem, when a logic seems to be making a claim about the world which may or may not be true, thus indicating logic's "in progress" character as opposed to logic as an immutable a priori intuition. For example, much of the chapter on predicate logic is devoted to showing the fallacy inherent in the cosmological argument for the existence of god. www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0192893203?v=glance   (1989 words)

 Papers in Philosophical Logic:0521587883:David Lewis:eCampus.com This is the first of a three-volume collection of David Lewis' most recent papers in all the areas to which he has made significant contributions. This first volume is devoted to Lewis' work on philosophical logic from the past twenty-five years. The topics covered include: deploying the methods of formal semantics from artificial formalized languages to natural languages, model-theoretic investigations of intensional logic, contradiction, relevance, the differences between analog and digital representation, and questions arising from the construction of ambitious formalized philosophical systems. www.ecampus.com /bk_detail.asp?isbn=0521587883   (83 words)

 Philosophical logic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) and higher-order logic as taken to be motivated... An appeal to constructive logic does not commit one to this strong epistemological... Kant on the distinction between philosophical and mathematical method. hallencyclopedia.com /Philosophical_logic   (286 words)

 Philosophical Incidence of Logic Programming - Pereira (ResearchIndex) Abstract: We address the import of AI for philosophical logic and examine the requirements posed by knowledge representation and reasoning issues which AI has addressed, most especially through its Logic Programming field (LP), to more dynamic forms of logic, in order to deal with knowledge in flux. Our aim is to entice the philosophically inclined reader, but also the LP veteran, to the emerging territories recently demarcated... In, the philosophical foundations and the general line of approach to the definition of rational agents, based on and building upon the... citeseer.ist.psu.edu /386240.html   (727 words)

 Philosophical and logic languages - Introduction to glossopoiesis Today's knights of exactness are logicians: their meaning of exactness is clarity and unambiguity, and their weapon is predicate logic. The first person to suggest the possibility to create a unambiguous language based upon predicate logic was James Cooke Brown, father of Loglan. Following a fracture in the Loglan community, some of the developers, under the guidance of Robert LeChevalier, founded the Logical Language Group and created Lojban, a reform of the language sporting a new lexicon, based upon a new algorithm and a partially different mix of source languages, and a revised syntax. www.glossopoiesis.net /Articles/Glossopoiesis/loglangs.html   (421 words)

 Logic or the Art of Thinking - Philosophical Logic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) "Antoine Arnauld and Pierre Nicole were philosophers and theologians associated with Port-Royal Abbey, a centre of the Catholic Jansenist movement in seventeenth-century France. Their enormously influential Logic or the Art of Thinking, which went through five editions in their lifetimes, treats topics in logic, language, theory of knowledge and metaphysics, and also articulates the response of 'heretical' Jansenist Catholicism to orthodox Catholic and Protestant views on grace, free will and the sacraments. In attempting to combine the categorical theory of the proposition with a Cartesian account of knowledge, their Logic represents the classical view of judgment which inspired the modern transformation in logic and semantic theory by Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein and recent philosophers. logic.wikicities.com /wiki/Logic_or_the_Art_of_Thinking   (241 words)

 FORMAL LOGIC by Paul Hoyningen-Huene   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Many texts on logic are written with a mathematical emphasis, and focus primarily on the development of a formal apparatus and associated techniques. In other, more philosophical texts, the topic is often presented as an indulgent collection of musings on issues for which technical solutions have long since been devised. Paul Hoyningen-Huene's Formal Logic seeks to find a balance between the necessity of formal considerations and the importance of full reflection and explanation about the seemingly arbitrary steps that occasionally confound even the most serious student of logic. www.pitt.edu /~press/books/formallogic.html   (283 words)

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