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Topic: Philosophical scepticism


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  Scepticism - LoveToKnow 1911
Scepticism, as a distinct school, begins with Pyrrho of Elis, who maintained that knowledge of things is impossible and that we must assume an attitude of reserve (iroXii).
Philosophical truth, as deduced from the teaching of Aristotle, it was said, directly contradicts the teaching of the church, which determines truth in theology; but the contradiction leaves the authority of the latter unimpaired in its own sphere.
Scepticism is deprived of its persistent argument if it is seen that, while our individual experiences are to be judged by their coherence with the context of experience in general, experience as a whole does not admit of being judged by reference to anything beyond itself.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Scepticism   (3988 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Scepticism
Scepticism is then a systematic denial of the capacity of the human intellect to know anything whatsoever with certainty.
Scepticism was the Socratic doctrine of the concept.
Scepticism the neo-Platonists sought refuge in the immediacy of a
www.newadvent.org /cathen/13516b.htm   (2022 words)

  
  SCEPTICISM - LoveToKnow Article on SCEPTICISM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Philosophical truth, as deduced from the teaching of Aristotle, it was said, directly contradicts the teaching of the church, which determines truth in theology; but the contradiction leaves the authority of the latter unimpaired in its own sphere.
For, indeed, scepticism with regard to the senses is considered in the Inquiry to be sufficiently justified by the fact that they lead us to suppose an external universe which depends not on our perception, whereas this universal and primary opinion of all men is soon destroyed by the slightest philosophy.
Scepticism is deprived of its persistent argument if it is seen that, while our nandvidual experiences are to be judged by their coherence with the coiitext of experience in general, experience as a whole does not admit of being judged by reference to anything beyond itself.
66.1911encyclopedia.org /S/SC/SCEPTICISM.htm   (5431 words)

  
 Literary & Historical Context - _The Sceptic_: A Hemans-Byron Dialogue - Electronic Editions - Romantic Circles
This extract focuses on the philosophical context of The Sceptic, exploring the connections implicit in the poem between Hemans and David Hume and the Common Sense philosophers.
Philosophically speaking, the poem must also reference that most infamous of sceptics, David Hume, and his essay which shares the same title as Hemans's poem.
The evidence suggests that she was particularly aware of the ideas of the common sense philosophers Dugald Stewart and Thomas Brown, whose theories constituted an elaboration of Humean thought with the important provision that scepticism be exchanged for common sense and intuition, most importantly an intuition of God.
www.rc.umd.edu /editions/sceptic/context.html   (531 words)

  
 Skepticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose critically to examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge;
Most people who are skeptical of claims of the paranormal and supernatural are not adherents of classical philosophical Skepticism.
Where as a philosophical Skeptic may deny the very existence of knowledge, a religious or scientific skeptic merely seeks proof before accepting extraordinary claims.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Scepticism   (1279 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
He was prepared to entertain scepticism because he knew that he could answer it and if he hadn't al ready at the beginning supposed that he knew how to jump out of scepticism, he wouldn't have indulged it to such an extent.
The trouble about philosophical scepticism as exe mplified precisely by Descartes, who of course in turn had a debt to ancient scepticism, is that the scepticism in question is exceedingly general.
Philosophical doubt is thus already defin ed as non-serious in a way that enables it to escape the accusation of insanity.
www.unesco.org /phiweb/fr/1rpu/resume/textresume/textint/wilish.rtf   (4264 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for scepticism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
scepticism Philosophical attitude that asserts the uncertainty of all knowledge and the impossibility of obtaining absolute knowledge.
Sceptics consequently take the view that the only course of action is to suspend judgment and adopt a mood of mental tranquillity and indifference.
Enlightenment, The The period of European thought which is equated with an emphasis on reason, experience, scepticism of religious and traditional authority, and a gradual emergence of the ideals of secular, liberal, and democratic societies.
www.encyclopedia.com /searchpool.asp?target=scepticism   (791 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for philosophical
Theological and philosophical movement, beginning in the 11th century, that sought to integrate the secular understanding of the ancient world, as exemplified by Aristotle, with the dogma implicit in the revelations of Christianity.
It was developed mainly by a school of British philosophers, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, in reaction to the rationalism of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, who claimed the existence of a priori knowledge (innate...
The philosophical stakes in Arendt's genealogy of totalitarianism.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=philosophical&StartAt=51   (754 words)

  
 A/07
Philosophical scepticism is the critical examination of whether the knowledge and perceptions one has are true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have knowledge.
The sceptics were sufficiently successful against the various dogmatic philosophies, that such philosophies have become quite rare (at least among professional philosophers, if not amongst the general population).
The sceptical challenge is based on one or both of two premises – (a) that everything we experience might not be real (or, equivalently, might be in error); and (b) that knowledge demands certainty.
www3.sympatico.ca /saburns/pg0805a07.htm   (1421 words)

  
 Philosophical skepticism -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is the (additional info and facts about philosophical) philosophical school of thought in which one critically examines whether the (The psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning) knowledge and perceptions one has are true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have true knowledge.
He had originally espoused ((philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno) Stoicism but was troubled by the disputes that could be found against his own philosophy and within all philosophical schools of his day.
Skepticism is related to (The philosophical theory of knowledge) Epistemology, or the question of whether knowledge is possible.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/p/ph/philosophical_skepticism.htm   (3749 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Scientific skepticism
Scientific skepticism or rational skepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) sometimes referred to as skeptical inquiry, is a scientific, or practical, epistemological position (or paradigm) in which one questions the veracity of claims unless they can be scientifically verified.
Philosophical skepticism or nihilistic skepticism [1] (UK spelling, scepticism) is the philosophical school of thought in which one critically examines whether the knowledge and perceptions one has are true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have true knowledge.
The Ancient Greek philosopher Plato believed that to release another person from ignorance despite their initial resistance is a great and noble thing.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Scientific-skepticism   (5887 words)

  
 philosophical skepticism
Philosophical skepticism is a critical attitude which systematically questions the notion that absolute knowledge and certainty are possible, either in general or in particular fields.
Philosophical skepticism is opposed to philosophical dogmatism, which maintains that a certain set of positive statements are authoritative, absolutely certain and true.
Philosophical skepticism should be distinguished from ordinary skepticism, where doubts are raised against certain beliefs or types of beliefs because the evidence for the particular belief or type of belief is weak or lacking.
skepdic.com /skepticism.html   (2482 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
He was prepared to entertain scepticism because he knew that he could answer it and if he hadn't already at the beginning supposed that he knew how to jump out of scepticism, he wouldn't have indulged it to such an extent.
The trouble about philosophical scepticism as exemplified precisely by Descartes, who of course in turn had a debt to ancient scepticism, is that the scepticism in question is exceedingly general.
What he says is that this is a scepticism simply designed to help us discover what we can know, and that no person who is not mad has ever doubted that physical objects existed, etc., etc. \par \par This does not mean that philosophical scepticism is simply frivolous or a waste of time.
www.unesco.org /phiweb/uk/1rpu/resume/textresume/textint/wilish.rtf   (4260 words)

  
 [No title]
Philosophical skepticism is a view, or a family of views, about human knowledge in general.
Foot note 7_3 One of the central features of philosophical skepticism is the generality of its scope: in the limit it is a thesis about knowledge in general, although often it is directed at a more specific target such as knowledge of the external world.
The general strategy of the aletheia philosophical skeptic is the same as the other types of philosophical skepticism: the argument is that knowledge is impossible because one of the necessary conditions for knowledge, viz., truth, is beyond the reach of humans.
www.sorites.org /Issue_14/walker.htm   (10326 words)

  
 Someplace Somewhere - Philosophy of Knowledge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The essay about scepticism and what is right and what is wrong about it has me wondering quiet a bit.
Under general, absolute, scepticism i cannot really see anything right about it as everything will be in doubt and under mitigated scepticism all I can say is that it allows somethings to be true, mainly the doctrines of natural science.
Philosophical scepticism is the beginning of consciousness of life ones entry into different level of being..
www.someplacesomewhere.com /topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=25084   (610 words)

  
 Gordon Kennedy: Essay 1
The strength and scope of philosophical scepticism are connected with the simplicity and intuitiveness of sceptical arguments, which are radical and general because they exploit only 'lowest common denominator' features of knowledge.
Moving to a more specific look at how an individual philosopher assesses philosophical scepticism, A.J. Ayer, in 'The Central Questions of Philosophy', states that the aim of the sceptic is to demonstrate the existence of an unbridgeable gap between the conclusions which we desire to reach and the premisses from which we set out.
One of his main philosophical outlooks was that insight is gained by attempting to neutralise sources of philosophical confusion rather than by attempting to construct quasi-scientific theories of philosophical conundrums.
www.philosophypathways.com /essays/kennedy1.html   (1546 words)

  
 Glossary of Terms: Sc
Scepticism is the philosophical current which over-emphasises doubt and the relativity of human knowledge, while Dogmatism underestimates the relativity of knowledge and lays claim to knowledge of absolute truths.
Kant was himself working towards scepticism in opposition to what he saw as the dogmatism of materialists such as Diderot when he was shocked by reading Hume’s scepticism, which seemed to show that science was impossible.
Scepticism is commonly dominant during periods of social crisis when the old systems of thinking break down; dogmatism on the other hand is frequently associated with the immature stages of development of a movement.
www.marxists.org /glossary/terms/s/c.htm   (1027 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Philosophical scepticism says that the two do not correspond; we never know anything about the world around us, although we say or imply that we do hundreds of times a day.
If the philosopher begins with doubt, it is supposed to become possible to see in which cases good reasons for belief can be given, and that is taken to bear on the question of whether and where we can have knowledge.
But I suspect that other sceptics, as well as I, always believe in substance, and that their denial of it is sheer sophistry and the weaving of verbal arguments in which their own most familiar and massive convictions are ignored.
www.crispinsartwell.com /books/know/SCEPTICI.htm   (15573 words)

  
 Hume's Dialogues
It has been remarked, my Hermippus, that though the ancient philosophers conveyed most of their instruction in the form of dialogue, this method of composition has been little practised in later ages, and has seldom succeeded in the hands of those who have attempted it.
This species of scepticism is fatal to knowledge, not to religion; since we find, that those who make greatest profession of it, give often their assent, not only to the great truths of Theism and natural theology, but even to the most absurd tenets which a traditional superstition has recommended to them.
philosophers, who confess ultimate causes to be totally unknown; and are sensible, that the most refined principles into which they trace the phenomena, are still to them as inexplicable as these phenomena themselves are to the vulgar.
www.anselm.edu /homepage/dbanach/dnr.htm   (19088 words)

  
 Bloomsbury.com - Research centre
Scepticism (from Greek skepsis, 'questioning'), in philosophy, is the doctrine that one cannot attain knowledge.
Global sceptics may allow that one may know a very few things such as: (1) that one currently exists; (2) what one's own current mental states are; (3) that one knows nothing else.
Global scepticism is made plausible by the point that the evidence one has for almost any of one's beliefs is compatible with the falsity of that belief.
www.bloomsburymagazine.com /ARC/detail.asp?entryid=102849&bid=2   (371 words)

  
 Sample Chapter for Williams, B.; Burnyeat, M., ed.: The Sense of the Past: Essays in the History of Philosophy.
The interest that these two philosophers have always commanded in the past has been generated not merely by admiration for their undoubted acuity, insight, and imagination, but, very often, by a belief that they had vast and unitary systematic ambitions, of a kind which we now have rather less reason to ascribe to them.
In sharp contrast is the attitude of Descartes, whose use of the armoury of sceptical devices in his Method of Doubt was designed to be pre-emptive, and to enable him to arrive at certainties which, as he put it, 'the most extravagant hypotheses of the sceptics could not overthrow'.
Scepticism remained an intellectual posture, and for all these thinkers, the Pyrrhonian outlook was both a minority state and (what is not quite the same thing) an achievement.
press.princeton.edu /chapters/s8157.html   (14538 words)

  
 Contemporary Skepticism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Philosophical views are typically classed as skeptical when they involve advancing some degree of doubt regarding claims that are elsewhere taken for granted.
The sceptical philosopher's conception of our position and of his question for an understanding of it [...] is a quest for an objective or detached understanding and explanation of the position we are objectively in.
Philosophical scepticism says the two do not correspond; we never know anything about the world around us, although we say or imply that we do hundreds of times a day.
www.iep.utm.edu /s/skepcont.htm   (15773 words)

  
 WRPL Commentary, pp. ix-14
One move is to ask the sceptic what he takes as evidence of misinterpretation, or, to put it another way, to ask what the sceptic takes as evidence that we meant such and so in the past.
For if the sceptic's hypothesis that we meant quus can be disconfirmed, albeit without facts, then the lack of facts to refute the sceptic cannot be said to lead to the impossibility of meaning.
Another worry about the assumption that the sceptical solution refutes or disconfirms the sceptic's hypothesis that we meant quus is more basic, viz., whether and how it is possible to refute or disconfirm an hypothesis, under the assumption that there are no facts that do so.
krypton.mnsu.edu /~witt/kpassages.html   (5287 words)

  
 Scepticism
Philosophical Explanations, Clarendon 1981, chapter 3, pp.167-178 and 197-211.
Supposed refutations of external-world scepticism are as old as the hills.
And there is a pattern to their failure: each directly begs the question against the sceptical position.
users.ox.ac.uk /~ball0888/oxfordopen/scepticism.htm   (604 words)

  
 Hartman, "Hemans, Hume and Philosophical Scepticism" - _The Sceptic_: A Hemans-Byron Dialogue - Electronic ...
I shall be interested in delineating the exact nature of the debate in which she is involved, suggesting the reasons for her interest in the emergent science of the mind, and its consequences for her aesthetic.
Venturing onto the grounds of philosophical inquiry was a risky move for a woman writer since the incorrect exercise of the female intellect can result in the monstrous, and Hemans is skillful in her ability to remain within the acceptable boundaries of feminine behaviour.
Feminist philosophers have much invested in defining identity as something which is a process and which is relational and fluid, rather than that which is premised upon a priori, transcendental grounds.
www.rc.umd.edu /editions/sceptic/hartmanphd.html   (4250 words)

  
 FELIX CULPA: LUCK IN ETHICS AND EPISTEMOLOGY
For the present purposes of this essay, the most relevant challenges are those that have led philosophers to reflect on the role of luck, and to re-examine the relationship between ethical and epistemic evaluation.
Scepticism has always gained a foothold in the “gaps” between subjective justification and truth through which luck can flow (Axtell 2001); but by committing ourselves on principle to discounting luck and then failing to deliver, we—all of us, externalists and internalists alike—invite the sceptic in through a broader breach.
These philosophical differences are interesting, but Pritchard’s manner of defining the internalism/externalism distinction is suspect if it leads one to disregard the strong consensus about the advantages of mixed externalism that underlies these differences.
www.scsr.nevada.edu /~axtell/AxtellApril03.htm   (7192 words)

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